References

Bloch, Erich. 1986. Annual Report on the Foundation's Use of Peer Review. NSB-86-45. February 25.


England, J. Merton. 1982. A Patron for Pure Science: The National Science Foundation's Formative years, 1945–57. NSF 82-24. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation.


General Accounting Office. 1982. NSF's Award of Two Research Vessels Met Requirements. GAO/PAD-82-14. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

1987. National Science Foundation: Problems Found in Decision Process for Awarding Earthquake Center. GAO/RCED-87-146. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Massey, Walter E. 1991. Annual Report on the NSF Proposal Review System. NSB-9-68. April 24.

1992. FY 1991 Report on the NSF Merit Review System. NSB-92-42. March.


NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 1983. Strengthening Engineering in the National Science Foundation: A View from the President of the National Academy of Engineering. Washington D.C.: National Academy of Engineering.

1984. Guidelines for Engineering Research Centers: A Report for the National Science Foundation by the National Academy of Engineering . Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Engineering.

1985. New Directions for Engineering in the National Science Foundation: A Report to the National Science Foundation from



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Major Award Decisionmaking at the National Science Foundation References Bloch, Erich. 1986. Annual Report on the Foundation's Use of Peer Review. NSB-86-45. February 25. England, J. Merton. 1982. A Patron for Pure Science: The National Science Foundation's Formative years, 1945–57. NSF 82-24. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. General Accounting Office. 1982. NSF's Award of Two Research Vessels Met Requirements. GAO/PAD-82-14. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1987. National Science Foundation: Problems Found in Decision Process for Awarding Earthquake Center. GAO/RCED-87-146. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Massey, Walter E. 1991. Annual Report on the NSF Proposal Review System. NSB-9-68. April 24. 1992. FY 1991 Report on the NSF Merit Review System. NSB-92-42. March. NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 1983. Strengthening Engineering in the National Science Foundation: A View from the President of the National Academy of Engineering. Washington D.C.: National Academy of Engineering. 1984. Guidelines for Engineering Research Centers: A Report for the National Science Foundation by the National Academy of Engineering . Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Engineering. 1985. New Directions for Engineering in the National Science Foundation: A Report to the National Science Foundation from

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Major Award Decisionmaking at the National Science Foundation National Academy of Engineering. Washington D.C.: National Academy of Engineering. NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 1987. Science and Technology Centers: Principles and Guidelines. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Federal Science and Technology Budget Priorities: New Perspectives and Procedures. Ch. V in National Issues in Science and Technology . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1993. Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, National Academies of Science and Engineering and Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1991. The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NSB (National Science Board). 1967. Criteria for the Support of Research by the National Science Foundation. NSB-67-133. Approved by the National Science Board at its 112th Meeting, May 18–19. 1974. Criteria for the Selection of Research Projects by the National Science Foundation. NSB-74-300. As approved by the National Science Board at its 167th Meeting, October 17–18. 1979. "Big Science" Policies and Procedures Statement. NSB-79-65. Adopted by the National Science Board at its 203rd Meeting, January 18–19 . 1983a. The Engineering Mission of NSF over the Next Decade. Vol. 1, Issues and Analysis; Vol. II, Background Material. NSB-83-127. June. 1983b. Statement on the Engineering Mission of the NSF over the Next Decade. NSB-83-250. Adopted by the National Science Board at its 246th Meeting, August 18–19. 1983c. Agenda Item 7, Minutes of the 247th Meeting of the National Science Board, September. 1986. Report of the National Science Board Committee on Leveraging National Science Foundation Funds. NSB-86-95. May 27. 1988a. Report of the National Science Board Committee on Centers and Individual Investigator Awards. NSB-88-35. February.

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Major Award Decisionmaking at the National Science Foundation 1988b. Minutes of the Executive Committee of the National Science Board. NSB/EC-88-9. August 18. 1989. Leveraging NSF Funds: Update of the 1986 NSB Committee Report . NSB-89-167. September 29. 1991a. Background Material for Long-Range Planning: 1993–1997. NSB-91-105. June 20. 1991b. Minutes of the 298th Meeting of the National Science Board, Open Session. NSB-91-25. February 14. 1992. Management and Operations of the Ocean Drilling Program, Memorandum to the Members of the National Science Board. NSB-92-131. August 3 . NSF (National Science Foundation). 1967. Annual Report of the National Science Foundation for Fiscal Year 1967. 1973. MRL Program Policy Statement. February. 1975. Peer Review and Proposal Evaluation Staff Study. June. 1977. Processing Recommendations Requiring National Science Board Approval. NSF Circular No. 107, Revision No. 2. April 21. 1982. Report of the NSF Panel on Large Scale Computing in Science and Engineering, chaired by Peter D. Lax. December 26. 1983. A National Computing Environment for Academic Research, prepared by the NSF Working Group on Computers for Research. July. 1984a. Program Announcement: Engineering Research Centers (Centers for Cross-Disciplinary Research in Engineering), Fiscal Year 1985. 1984b. Report of the Task Force on Bureaucracy and Control. December. 1986a. Final Report of the NSF Advisory Committee on Merit Review, chaired by Norman Hackerman. NSF-86-93. September 25. 1986b. NSF Director's Statement on the Report of the Advisory Committee on Merit Review. NSF-86-93. December 17. 1987. Program Announcement: Engineering Research Centers (Centers for Cross-Disciplinary Research in Engineering), Fiscal Year 1988. 1988a. Report of the NSF Panel on Large Magnetic Fields, chaired by Frederick Seitz and Robert C. Richardson. July. 1988b. Program Announcement: Engineering Research Centers (Centers for Cross-Disciplinary Research in Engineering). 1989. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Proposal Solicitation. 1990a. Planning and Priority-Setting in the National Science Foundation: A Report to the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives . February 28. Pp. 350–369 in

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Major Award Decisionmaking at the National Science Foundation U.S. Congress, Fiscal Year 1992 and 1993 National Science Foundation Authorization. Hearings before the Science Subcommittee of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives. 102d Congress, 1st session. February 20, March 12–13, 1991. 1990b. Facilities Planning at the National Science Foundation: A Report to the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives. December 31. Pp. 341–349 in U.S. Congress, Fiscal Year 1992 and 1993 National Science Foundation Authorization. Hearings before the Science Subcommittee of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives. 102d Congress, 1st session. February 20, March 12–13, 1991. 1990c. Report of the Merit Review Task Force. NSF-90-113. August 23. 1990d. Changes to NSF's Proposal Review System. Notice No. 109. July 17. 1991. Justification of Estimates of Appropriations to the Congress, Fiscal Year 1993. 1992a. Proposal and Award Manual. NSF Manual No. 10. March. 1992b. Materials Research Groups: Program Guideline. NSF 92-43. April 27. 1992c. Engineering Research Center: Program Solicitation. Never released. 1992d. Grants for Research and Education in Science and Engineering: An Application Guide. NSF-92-89. 1993a. Design, Review, and Management Protocol. NSF Staff Memorandum O/D 93-02 . January 5. 1993b. Guidelines for Preparation of Items for NSB Review Action Items, Information Items, and Requests for Waivers. February. 1993c. Proposals and Award Manual. NSF Manual No. 10. February. Schwartz, Lyle H. 1987. Materials research laboratories: Reviewing the first twenty-five years. Pp. 35–48 in Peter A. Psaras and H. Dale Langford, eds., Advancing Materials Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Sproull, Robert L. 1987. Materials research laboratories: The early years. Pp. 25–34 in Peter A. Psaras and H. Dale Langford, eds., Advancing Materials Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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Major Award Decisionmaking at the National Science Foundation U.S. Congress. 1992. Hearings on Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations for 1993. Part 2. Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies, House Committee on Appropriations. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Windus, Margaret L. 1984. National Science Board Policy Activity over the Past 10 Years. October. NSB-84-300. Washington, D.C.: National Science Board.