PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM THE LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE

Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council

Symposium Held in Conjunction with the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute

Geotechnical Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

Board on Natural Disasters Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems and

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1994



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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM THE LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council Symposium Held in Conjunction with the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Geotechnical Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Board on Natural Disasters Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems and Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for this report were chosen for their special expertise and with regard for appropriate balance between government, industry, and academia. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. SPONSORS: The U.S. Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey, under Agreement No. 1434-92-A-1091, provided support to the National Research Council for this project. The National Science Foundation, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and National Institute of Standards and Technology provided support for the symposium through the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-66357 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05030-8 B-275 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council COMMITTEE FOR THE SYMPOSIUM ON PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM THE LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE MEMBERS LLOYD S. CLUFF, Chair, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Francisco, California CLARENCE R. ALLEN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena THOMAS R. BECKHAM, South Carolina Emergency Preparedness Division, Columbia IAN G. BUCKLE, State University of New York, Buffalo WILFRED D. IWAN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena SHIRLEY MATTINGLY, City of Los Angeles, California ROBIN K. MCGUIRE, Risk Engineering, Inc., Golden, Colorado CHRIS D. POLAND, H.J. Degenkolb Associates, San Francisco, California DENNIS E. WENGER, Texas A&M University, College Station T. LESLIE YOUD, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah LIAISON REPRESENTATIVES Geotechnical Board JAMES K. MITCHELL, Chair, University of California, Berkeley Earthquake Engineering Research Institute PAUL SOMERVILLE, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, California SUPPORTING AGENCIES WILLIAM ANDERSON, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM BAKUN, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California GARY JOHNSON, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. RANDALL G. UPDIKE, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia ROBERT WESSON, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia RICHARD WRIGHT, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council GEOTECHNICAL BOARD MEMBERS JAMES K. MITCHELL, Chair, University of California, Berkeley CLARENCE R. ALLEN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena JOAN Z. BERNSTEIN, Waste Management, Inc., Oak Brook, Illinois DAVID E. DANIEL, University of Texas, Austin WILLIAM S. GARDNER, W.S. Gardner and Associates, Blue Bell, Pennsylvania JAMES P. GOULD, Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, New York, New York FRANÇOIS E. HEUZE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California CHARLES C. LADD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES D. MURFF, Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas SHLOMO P. NEUMAN, The University of Arizona, Tucson THOMAS D. O'ROURKE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York REUBEN SAMUELS, Parsons Brinckerhoff, New York, New York ROBERT L. SCHUSTER, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado DON W. STEEPLES, The University of Kansas, Lawrence STAFF MAHADEVAN MANI, Director, Division on Infrastructure, Energy and Environmental Engineering PETER H. SMEALLIE, Director, Geotechnical Board (1990 through 1993) JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant AMELIA B. MATHIS, Senior Secretary/Project Assistant BROOK WILLIAMS, Assistant to Project (through January 1993)

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council BOARD ON NATURAL DISASTERS MEMBERS WALTER LYNN, Chair, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York MARY B. ANDERSON, Collaborative for Development Action, Cambridge, Massachusetts ALAN G. DAVENPORT, University of Western Ontario, London RICHARD FISKE, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. ROBERT D. HANSON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor WILFRED D. IWAN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena LUCILE M. JONES, U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, California LESTER B. LAVE, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SHIRLEY MATTINGLY, City of Los Angeles, California ROBERT L. ODMAN, State Farm Fire and Casualty Company, Bloomington, Illinois E.L. QUARANTELLI, University of Delaware, Newark LACY E. SUITER, Tennessee Emergency Management Association, Nashville STAFF CAROLINE CLARKE GUARNIZO, Director ROBIN L. ALLEN, Senior Project Assistant

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council Preface The Loma Prieta earthquake struck the San Francisco area on October 17, 1989, causing the loss of 63 lives and $10 billion of damage. As the results of the research, conducted in response to the earthquake, became known over the following three years, the U.S. Geological Survey, the sponsor of much of the research, approached the National Research Council (NRC) about how the results of the Loma Prieta earthquake research could be applied to other earthquake-prone areas of the country. The NRC's Geotechnical Board and Board on Natural Disasters formed a committee, under the auspices of the NRC, to plan a major symposium on lessons learned from research and related activities conducted on the Loma Prieta earthquake. The Committee on Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake, chaired by Lloyd Cluff, accepted the responsibility to develop the symposium agenda, invite the speakers, review the keynote papers, and coordinate activities with the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, which was responsible for managing the symposium and inviting symposium participants. The Symposium on Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake took place in San Francisco on March 22-23, 1993, and was attended by over 400 individuals. The committee also agreed to develop these proceedings, which consist of six keynote papers solicited by the committee for the major sessions of the symposium: Geotechnical; Buildings; Emergency Preparedness and Response; Lifelines; Highway Bridges; and Recovery, Mitigation, and Planning. Selected remarks by panels of discussants on the applicability to other areas of the country of each keynoter's lessons are included following each keynote paper. The

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council report also contains the opening keynote presentation by L. Thomas Tobin, the Executive Director of the California Seismic Safety Commission. Drawing on the keynote papers and discussions at the symposium, an overview chapter has been written by the committee to present its summary of the principal lessons learned from the Loma Prieta earthquake. The overview contains, in addition, recommendations the committee believes are appropriate to improve seismic safety and earthquake awareness in areas of the country vulnerable to earthquakes but not as well-prepared as California. The Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters wish to thank the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute for its cooperation in planning and conducting the symposium. The boards also acknowledge the generous contributions of time and thought donated by all the speakers, discussants, and participants at the symposium.

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council Contents     OVERVIEW: LESSONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE COMMITTEE FOR THE SYMPOSIUM ON PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM THE LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE   1     General Observations   4     Earth Sciences   5     Geotechnical and Structural Engineering   6     Planning and Emergency Response   12     Note on Supporting Sources   17 1.   LEGACY OF THE LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE: CHALLENGES TO OTHER COMMUNITIES L. Thomas Tobin   19     Introduction   19     The Need to Reach Out   20     The Need for Sustained Advocacy   20     Irreversible Change   23     Rome Wasn't Built in a Day   24     If You Can't Do It Right, Don't Do It   25     The Ability to Predict Damage   26     Conclusion   27 2.   THE GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS G. Wayne Clough, James R. Martin, II, and Jean Lou Chameau   29     Introduction   29     Overview   30     Liquefaction   32     Site Amplification and Response Spectra   41     Slopes, Fills, and Embankments   44

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council     Waterfront Containment Structures, Piers, and Lateral Retaining Structures   51     Foundations   52     Tunnels and Underground Structures   54     Lessons Learned from the Geotechnical Aspects of the Loma Prieta Earthquake   57     Acknowledgements   60     References   60     Discussants' Comments: Geotechnical Issues William Cotton, Maurice S. Power, Thomas Hanks, C. Thomas Statton   64 3.   BUILDINGS Paul F. Fratessa   69     Introduction   70     Methodology   72     The Role of Research in the Practical Lessons Process   73     The Role of Observations in the Practical Lessons Process   75     Principal Findings   76     Conclusions   94     Closure   97     Cited References   98     General References   99     Documents   99     Discussants' Comments: Buildings Session James Beavers, Stephen Mahin, Gerald Jones, William Holmes   100 4.   EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE Kathleen J. Tierney   105     Introduction   105     Overview of Preparedness and Response Studies   105     How the Public Responded in Loma Prieta: Individual and Household Responses   107     Response of Groups, Organizations, and Interorganizational Networks   113     Concluding Comments   124     Acknowledgements   125     References   125     Discussants' Comments: Emergency Preparedness and Response Henry Renteria, Richard D. Ross, Richard Andrews, Lacy Suiter   129

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council 5.   LIFELINE PERSPECTIVE Ronald T. Eguchi and Hope A. Seligson   135     Abstract   135     Introduction   135     Lifeline System Performance during the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake   137     Research Activities Initiated after the Earthquake   143     Transferability of Results   154     Future Research Directions   156     References   158     Discussants' Comments: Lifelines Thomas D. O'Rourke, Donald Ballantyne, Charles R. Roberts, Steve Phillips   160 6.   HIGHWAY BRIDGES James E. Roberts   165     Introduction   165     Performance of Prior Research Results   167     Problems with Existing Criteria, Details, and Practice   169     Research in Seismic Response of Bridges   173     Practical Lessons Applicable to Other Areas and States   197     Cited References   201     General References   206     Commissioned Research Projects   209     Discussants' Comments: Bridges James D. Cooper, Gregoy Orsolini, Nicholas F. Forell, John Clark   213 7.   RECOVERY, MITIGATION, AND PLANNING George G. Mader   219     Funding   220     Recovery Plans and Regulations   222     Mitigation   225     Importance of State Legislation   226     Demolition   228     Housing   229     Business Recovery   230     Conclusions   232     References   233     Discussants' Comments: Recovery, Mitigation, and Planning Kenneth C. Topping, Patricia A. Bolton, Jerold H. Barnes   234

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council     APPENDIXES         A. Symposium Presenters   241     B. Symposium Agenda   245     C. Attendees at the Symposium   249     D. Biographical Sketches of the Members of the Committee on Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake   271

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Practical Lessons from the Loma Prieta Earthquake: Report from a Symposium Sponsored by the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Natural Disasters of the National Research Council PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM THE LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE

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