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restricted items of the American delegation (the Department of Commerce list) will be examined by the Russian Academy of Sciences and will be submitted with our comments for further consideration to appropriate Russian governmental authorities.

The American delegation asked many questions on subjects that are within the competence of the government of the Russian Federation. We must inform you that in order to receive answers to these questions, you should address them to established channels in the Russian Embassy in Washington, D.C., and we are certain that answers will be given at the corresponding level. The Russian Academy of Sciences will provide to our governmental organizations scientific consultations related to specific subjects of fundamental and applied research.

Mutual trust between the scientists and scientific organizations of our Academies is the basis of collaboration on the problem of fundamental and applied research in the area of dual-use technologies. We know very well that Americans are pragmatists and require not only words, but also practical confirmation or, as you say, guaranties and a system of sanctions for violators.

Let us recall the trust that used to exist between our countries during the Second World War (the speech on extending lend-lease to our country that President Roosevelt gave to the American Congress and Russia's collaboration with the Bell Company—its scientific laboratories, engineers, and specialists—in eliminating defects of the aircraft ''Aircobra"); they did not believe our words, they required proof. In the case of our work with Bell Company, our test pilots and military representatives proved in practice the presence of defects (e.g., the aircraft developed a "flat spin" under certain conditions) when an airplane piloted by a Russian crashed before the eyes of company representatives. Company specialists and scientists then redesigned the aircraft and eliminated the defect, thus preventing the deaths of other pilots. That was a period of mutual trust and friendship.

Today, we should renew this trust and mutually protect dual-use applications from the possible unsanctioned use for creation of weapons, especially of weapons of mass destruction. In that respect, both of our export control systems should work effectively without restraining scientific progress, without impeding economic development of our countries, providing mutual support for scientists to eliminate "brain drain", which both delegations have discussed.

Concerning a system of sanctions for violations of the established export control regime, you do not have to worry about us. We know that the American legislation stipulates ten years of imprisonment for violations, and Russian legislation stipulates 15 years of imprisonment.

All other guaranties will be stipulated in agreements on grants and scientific collaboration, and any changes will be coordinated between both sides. Meanwhile, as



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