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new physical principles and on achievements of genetic engineering and biochemistry, and that meteorological and other types of weapons can be developed.

In this context, it is hardly possible to define the list of specialties of Russian and U.S. scientists and, accordingly, of research directions that could lead to results which would be dangerous to world stability. A more effective means to exclude such possibilities is to create a system of measures conducive to a greater openness and transparency of the research conducted by scientific communities and individual scientists in both the United States and Russia.

Reorienting (converting) a relevant part of the country's scientific potential to civilian applications thus calls for arranging a number of conditions that render this process most attractive to Russian scientists. These conditions include a number of possibilities for scientists:

  • quickly implementing the scientists proposals and development projects in civilian industrial sectors and thereby improving their financial position,

  • publication of papers and books in prestigious journals and by prestigious publishing companies to allow Russian scientists to gain international recognition;

  • use of modem experimental research equipment;

  • receiving a higher salary compared to that which scientists had when working for the military-industrial complex.

These opportunities should be realized in two stages:

  • the first stage, a tactical one, calls for immediate solutions and comparatively limited material and financial resources;

  • the second stage, a strategic one, is associated with large investments.

In either case, definite efforts are needed on the part of the legislative, governmental, and scientific structures of Russia and the United States.

Of fundamental importance here is to create mutual trust in governmental, industrial, commercial, and scientific structures and to overcome the stereotypes and styles that prevailed in the relations of our countries for many decades.

This applies primarily to dual-use technologies. To start with, it is imperative to define and to register legally the list of dual-use technologies that can be the subject of commercial operations between the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the United States. In the countries of the CIS, such a list is also needed



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