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schemes for these products, then we are not likely to be able to work out schemes for many dual-use technologies of great consequence.

Controls to Third Countries

The "high walls" characteristics of large computer systems should make such products ideal for a pilot case study of how the two sides can work together on the export or re-export of dual-use technologies to third countries. We can start with a review of how both sides have controlled high end computers in the past, with special attention to how specific exports have been tracked abroad. Specific forms of cooperation for the future would be considered. It is worth noting that while most of the former Soviet HPC sector is located in Russia, some significant portions are in Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, and Ukraine, adding an important element to this aspect of our prospective case study.

These possibilities are by no means exhaustive. For example, the tremendous applicability of HPC to a broad spectrum of scientific and military problems could argue for a good case study of the problems of the separation of research for civilian and military purposes. In conclusion, the point to underscore is the prospective viability and manageability of HPC as a suitable case study for almost any purpose of interest to our joint undertaking with regard to dual-use technologies and conversion. In this vein, we also have the option for a flexible and extensible case study that might be started in a modest and limited way, and expanded as experience and funding are acquired.


1. Protocol of the Third U.S. National Academy of Sciences-Russian Academy of Sciences Joint Meeting on Dual-Use Technologies. Edited version of the 10-point protocol signed in Moscow, December 20, 1992. [see p. 228].

2. Goodman, S. E., "Technology Transfer and the Development of the Soviet Computer Industry," in Trade, Technology, and Soviet-American Relations, B. Parrott, ed. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985), pp. 117-140.

3. National Research Council, Global Trends in Computer Technology and Their Impact on Export Control (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988).

4. National Research Council, Finding Common Ground: Export Controls in a Changed Global Environment (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1991).

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