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Index

A

Abstract instruction, 11, 26, 33, 34, 36-39, 56

Accountability, 16, 141, 144, 156-157, 165, 166, 168

ACT (Adoptive Control of Thought) model, 28-29

Affective processes. See Mental and emotional states; Socially induced affect

Age regression, 226-227

Algorithmic transfer, 30-31, 37

Altered states of consciousness, 8, 17-19, 207-208, 246

see also Hypnosis; Restricted environmental stimulation; Sleep learning; Transcendental meditation

Amnesia, 74-75

posthypnotic, 209, 212

Analogical transfer, 29, 32, 43

based on irrelevant or ambiguous detail, 61-62

Anchored instruction, 39

Anesthesia, hypnotic, 18, 210-214, 247

Animal magnetism, 209, 210

Anxiety

and self-confidence, 17, 201-203

and socially induced affect, 275

and thought suppression and confrontation, 20, 278, 290, 293

and transcendental meditation, 18, 234-235

Apprenticeship, 33, 35, 39

Attention, and socially induced affect, 267-268

Attributional processes, 7, 68

and self-confidence, 17, 179, 182, 191

and team confidence, 185-186

Automatic processing, 48-49

Auxiliary thought suppression, 277, 293n

B

Bargaining. See Negotiation and bargaining

Basic skills and training, 35

Behavioral patterns

modeling of in team training, 152

and self-confidence, 180-181

Bodily expressions. See Facial expressions; Nonverbal expressions



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Page 387 Index A Abstract instruction, 11, 26, 33, 34, 36-39, 56 Accountability, 16, 141, 144, 156-157, 165, 166, 168 ACT (Adoptive Control of Thought) model, 28-29 Affective processes. See Mental and emotional states; Socially induced affect Age regression, 226-227 Algorithmic transfer, 30-31, 37 Altered states of consciousness, 8, 17-19, 207-208, 246 see also Hypnosis; Restricted environmental stimulation; Sleep learning; Transcendental meditation Amnesia, 74-75 posthypnotic, 209, 212 Analogical transfer, 29, 32, 43 based on irrelevant or ambiguous detail, 61-62 Anchored instruction, 39 Anesthesia, hypnotic, 18, 210-214, 247 Animal magnetism, 209, 210 Anxiety and self-confidence, 17, 201-203 and socially induced affect, 275 and thought suppression and confrontation, 20, 278, 290, 293 and transcendental meditation, 18, 234-235 Apprenticeship, 33, 35, 39 Attention, and socially induced affect, 267-268 Attributional processes, 7, 68 and self-confidence, 17, 179, 182, 191 and team confidence, 185-186 Automatic processing, 48-49 Auxiliary thought suppression, 277, 293n B Bargaining. See Negotiation and bargaining Basic skills and training, 35 Behavioral patterns modeling of in team training, 152 and self-confidence, 180-181 Bodily expressions. See Facial expressions; Nonverbal expressions

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Page 388 C California Psychological Inventory, 209 CAMS activities, 102-103 Career counseling, 298-299 Catharsis, 289 Causal attributions and self-confidence, 17, 179, 182, 191 and team confidence, 185-186 Cognitive consistency theories, 259-260 Cognitive processes and mechanisms, 7, 28-30 in cooperative learning, 13, 102, 107 in self-confidence, 17 and skills transfer, 32, 46 subjective experience, 60-65, 66, 68 Cohesiveness in groups, 7, 13, 14, 15, 19, 118, 119, 129, 186 and cooperative learning, 88 and interteam relations, 14, 130-131, 137-138, 169 and socially induced affect, 273-274 Cohort team training, 16, 140, 163 Collective efficacy. See Team confidence Combat simulation, 8, 36, 52, 53, 139n, 300 Communication processes, 19, 200-201 among instructors, 21, 303, 306 in cooperative learning, 97, 100-101, 105 see also Feedback Competition, 17, 130 among instructors, 21, 303, 305-306 Comprehension. See Illusions of comprehension and control Computer-assisted training, 303 in cooperative learning, 12, 13, 93, 95, 105, 107 in team settings, 144, 150-151 Computer skills, 305 transferability, 27, 32-33 Concentration on unwanted thoughts, 288-289 Conceptual understanding, 16, 56, 145-147 Concurrent feedback, 50-51 Condition-action rules, 29 Consciousness, 6, 7-8, 207 see also Altered states of consciousness Consumer-oriented improvement methods, 5, 278 Contextual interference, 41-42, 43-44 Contextual variables, 7 in self-confidence, 192-194 in team settings, 13, 14, 118-121 Controversy, 164 structured, 101, 102, 103-105 see also Team training Cooperative learning, 5, 7, 12-13, 83-84, 106-107, 140, 249 application to adults, 13, 96-111 basic theory and research findings, 13, 87-96 cognitive-developmental theory in, 12, 87-88, 92-93, 97, 99 communication aids in, 12, 13, 105,  107 costs and benefits, 110-111 group rewards in, 13, 87, 90-92, 97, 99-101, 107 implementation, 12, 108-111 and individual differences, 96, 106 positive interdependence in, 84-85, 88, 90-91 principles of, 84-87 processing and discussion among members, 86, 93, 95, 107 research needs, 107-108 scripting in, 12, 13, 93, 95, 97, 99-107 social-behavioral theory in, 12, 87,  90-92, 97 Coping confidence, 201-203 Counseling programs, 296, 298-299 Cultural influences, 120, 264 D Deception detection, 19, 275 Decision making, 164 Declarative knowledge, 28-29, 39, 140

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Page 389 Delayed feedback, 11, 50, 51, 56 Depression, 20, 278, 288, 291-292, 293 Desert battle training, 36, 53 Directed forgetting, 281-282, 283, 292 Disasters, 289-290 Dispute-management training, 297 Duration training, 43-44 E Educational games. See Interactive games Electronic networks, 144, 151 Emotional states. See Emotion dishabituation; Mental and emotional states Emotion dishabituation, 20, 286-288 Empathy, 258 Endurance, hypnotic effects, 18, 214-218, 247 Environmental context, 39-40 and memory, 39-40, 282, 283 see also Institutional impediments to training Errors in training, 21, 72, 299-300, 301 Escalante, Jaime, 302-303 Expectancy-by-value theories, 175 Extrinsic feedback, 11, 50, 56 F Face-to-face interaction, 13, 15, 86,  151, 155-156, 166, 168 Facial expressions, 151 of instructors, 268 in negotiation, 271-272 and socially induced affect, 9, 57,  261-263, 264, 268, 274-275, 276n False consensus effect, 60-61 False memories, 12, 76-79, 80 hypnotically induced, 225, 226, 228,  229 Fatigue, 25 hypnosis effects, 18, 214, 247 Fear, 257, 278 and thought suppression and confrontation, 20, 293 Feedback, 11, 50-51, 56 and self-confidence, 190-191, 198, 200 in team settings, 14, 16, 114, 116, 148, 165 to training providers, 301-302, 303 Feeling-of-knowing judgments, 68-69 Feynman effect, 70 Flight performance and training part-task methods, 45, 46, 47 simulators, 52-53, 55 and socially induced affect, 266-267 in team settings, 124, 164 Forensic hypnosis, 225, 228-230 Fractionating of tasks, 46, 47 G Games. See Interactive games Gender, 161, 204 Goal-setting, in self-confidence, 192-194, 198 Group processing, 16, 141, 148, 157-158, 166 in cooperative learning, 86, 93, 95, 107 Group rewards, 13, 87, 90-92, 97,  99-101, 107 H Habit suppression, 18, 247, 293n Healthy illusions, 176, 177 Helping behavior, 273 Hindsight effect, 63, 67 Horizontal transfer, 26 Hypermnesia, 224-225, 226-227 Hypnosis, 5, 6, 18, 208-210, 246, 247 forensic, 225, 228-230 and learning, 18, 218-220, 247 and memory, 18, 78, 224-230, 247 in pain control, 18, 210-214, 247 placebo effect, 18, 212, 248n sensory and perceptual impacts, 18, 211-212, 220-223, 247 strength and endurance effects, 18, 214-218, 247

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Page 390 susceptibility to, 18, 209-210, 248n and time perception, 218-219, 223-224 I Identical elements in training and tasks, 11, 26-33, 47, 56 Illusions of comprehension and control, 6, 11-12, 57-59, 302 in self-monitoring of learning, 65-74 see also Subjective experience Illusions of remembering, 57-59, 80 memory without remembering, 61, 74-76 see also False memories Immediate feedback, 50 Incentive structuring, 87, 97 Incidental context, 39 Individual processes, 5, 7, 10-12, 23, 140 and cooperative learning, 12-13, 88, 90, 95, 106 learning and remembering, 10-12 in team settings, 140, 141, 143, 166 see also Illusions of comprehension and control; Transfer of skills Influential context, 39 Innate-ability fallacy, 21, 298-299, 301 and teaching ability, 303, 304 Instance-based retrieval, 30-31 Institutional impediments to training, 6, 7, 20-21, 295, 306 innate-ability fallacy, 21, 298-299, 301 misunderstood aspects of training, 21, 299-303, 306 perception of value, 21, 296-298 for teachers, 303-306 Instructors, 21, 168-169, 303-305 and administrative structures, 21, 303, 305-306 confidence ratings, 196 in cooperative learning, 93, 95, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110 measures of effectiveness, 301-303 and socially induced affect, 9, 268-270, 274-275 and subjective experience, 63, 66, 68, 70, 80 Intentional forgetting, 281-282, 283, 292 Interactive games, 15, 132-136, 137 Interdependence, 7, 8, 16, 141, 153-155, 166 in cooperative learning, 84-85, 87, 88, 90-91, 92, 99 Intermittent feedback, 11, 56 Interteam relations, 13-14, 129-132, 137-138 Intrinsic feedback, 50, 51 Isolation, of instructors, 21, 305 J Justice motives, 259-260 K Keller, Helen, 74, 75 L Language skills, 27-28, 30 Law School Admissions Test (LSAT), 68 Lawsuits, 297 Learned helplessness, 175, 176 Length of training, 11, 47-49, 56 Level of aspiration, 177-178, 182 Like and dislike, 161, 269-270, 273, 275 Los Angeles Police Department, 36, 296, 297 M Maintenance of skills, 140 Mass hysteria, 272 Mathematical skills, 28, 34, 35, 37-38, 44, 265

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Page 391 Measures of training effectiveness, 301-303 Meditation, 5, 6, 8, 171, 230-231, 234 and socially induced affect, 275 Memory, 7 environmental influences, 39-40, 282, 283 and hypnosis, 18, 78, 224-230, 247 and illusions of comprehension, 70 and sleep learning, 247 without remembering, 61, 74-76 see also Declarative knowledge; False memories; Illusions of remembering; Procedural knowledge; Thought suppression Mental and emotional states, 7, 8, 16-19, 171 in team settings, 16, 141, 149-150, 162-163, 166 see also Altered states of consciousness; Cognitive processes and mechanisms; Consciousness; Emotion dishabituation; Memory; Motivational processes; Self-confidence; Socially induced affect; Thought suppression Metacognition, 7, 14, 91, 102, 103, 122-124, 265 Military training, 8-9, 54-55, 124, 300 combat simulation, 8, 36, 52, 53, 139n, 300 Mimicry, 19, 168, 256, 261-263, 268-269, 274-275 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 209 Minority groups, 161, 298 Models. See Role models and self- confidence; Shared mental models; Socially induced affect; Vicarious information Morale, 14; see also Team building and development Motivational processes, 9, 25 hypnosis, 18, 215-216, 247 self-confidence, 5, 17, 173, 181-184 in team settings, 144-145, 204-205 Motor skills and mood, 265-266 see also Transcendental meditation transfer processes, 29-30 Myers Briggs Type Indicator, 298-299 N National Training Center, California,36, 53, 300 Negative feelings, 265-266 and group panic, 272 socially induced affect, 267-268, 269, 274, 275 Negative transfer, 26, 45, 47, 49, 51 Negligent retention, 301 Negotiation and bargaining, 14 intraorganizational, 120-121, 130-131, 138 and socially induced affect, 270-272, 275 Nonhypnotic stress inoculation, 18 Nonverbal expressions in negotiation, 271-272 and socially induced affect, 9, 19, 57, 264 see also Facial expressions Nuclear power industry training, 301 Nuclear Training Center, Connecticut, 297 O Objective bases for judgment, 64 Obsessive thoughts, 278 suppression and confrontation, 20, 278, 291, 293 Opposing force (OPFOR) regiment, 300 Optimism, 176-177, 204 Organizational factors. See Cultural influences; Institutional impediments to training; Interteam relations; Team building and development; Team performance; Team training Outshining hypothesis, 40

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Page 392 P Pain hypnotic control of, 18, 210-214, 247 and thought suppression, 287 Panic behavior, 272, 275 Paramnesia, 226 Participant-modeling, 187-188 Part-to-whole training, 11, 26, 44-47, 56 Pattern identification, 39 Peer relationships, in team settings, 16, 141, 148-150, 161-162, 166 see also Cooperative learning Perceptual processes distortions and team identification, 14 hypnosis impacts, 220-223 and mood, 265 part-task training, 46 and perceived competence, 174 Persuasion techniques and self-confidence, 17, 189-190, 199-201 in socially induced affect, 268-270, 274-275 Pessimism, 175, 176-177 Phase training, 43-44 Phobias, 187, 188, 189, 288, 290 Physiological effects, 276n of altered states of consciousness, 207, 208 on self-confidence, 180, 191-192 of socially induced affect, 275 Police, 36, 226, 228, 296-297 Positive attitudes and feelings, 265-266 and group panic, 272 socially induced affect, 266-267, 269, 274, 275 in team training settings, 149-150 Positive communication, 200-201 Positive interdependence. See Interdependence Positive transfer, 26, 45, 49, 51-52 Posttraining performance, 141, 164-166, 168, 301-302, 303 Procedural knowledge and skills transfer, 28, 29 and team training, 147-148, 166 Production rules, 29, 32 Professional identification and team training, 151-152 Progressive part task recombination, 46 Promotive interaction, 16, 141, 155-156, 166, 168 Pseudomemories. See False memories Psychotherapy and false memory, 79 and thought suppression and confrontation, 279, 290-292, 293 Pure-part task recombination, 46 R Readiness for training or performance, 8-9, 17 Real-world models, 37 Recall processes, 67, 74-75 Reinstatement hypothesis, 40 Relaxation, 277 and restricted environmental stimulation, 239 and transcendental meditation, 18, 234 Remembering. See Illusions of remembering; Memory REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, 244, 245 Repetitive part task recombination, 46 Research activities and evaluation, 4-5, 7, 10 teachers' use of, 303 Restricted environmental stimulation (REST), 5, 6, 8, 18, 236-243, 247 Retraining programs, 296 Revivication, 227 Rewards group, 13, 87, 90-92, 97, 99-101, 107 and self-confidence, 17, 194 Role models, and self-confidence, 17, 187-188, 198-199 Rote motor tasks, 56

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Page 393 S Schematic knowledge representation, 42-43 School settings, 34, 35, 37, 39, 66, 196 Scripting, 12, 13, 93, 95, 97, 99-107 Segmenting of tasks, 46 Self-actualization, 234, 235 Self-assessment. See Illusions of comprehension and control; Self-monitoring; Subjective experience Self-concept, 175-176 Self-confidence, 6, 16-17, 171, 173-178 contextual influences, 192-194 information, 178-180, 187-192 and motivation, 5, 17, 173, 181-184 research needs, 203-206 research summaries, 187-203 role of feedback, 190-191, 198, 200 techniques for enhancing, 9, 17, 197-203 theories of, 174, 178-186 see also Illusions of comprehension and control; Team confidence Self-efficacy. See Self-confidence Self-esteem, 176 self-help strategies, 278 and team training, 16, 163, 166 Self-help strategies, 278 Self-modeling, 199 Self-monitoring, 57-58, 65-74, 157-158, 173, 177 and evaluation of instruction, 57-58, 67-68, 80 Self-reaction, 173, 177 Sensory deprivation. See Restricted environmental stimulation Shared mental models, 7, 14, 15, 16, 124, 137, 146 Simplifying of tasks, 46, 47 Simulation devices and exercises, 11, 17, 36, 45, 52-55, 56, 132-136, 137, 138n, 144 combat training, 8, 36, 52, 53, 139n, 300 fidelity of, 11, 26, 52-55, 56 Situated learning, 7, 11, 26, 33-36, 56 Sleep, 8, 208, 246-247 Sleep learning, 5, 6, 18-19, 243-246, 247 Social competency, 16, 162-163, 166, 169 Social loafing, 186 Socially induced affect, 5, 6, 19-20, 249, 251-252, 259-260, 274-275, 275-276n cognitive mechanisms, 256-260, 274 concordant and discordant affect, 19, 252-256, 258, 259-260, 261, 270, 274, 276n conditioning mechanisms, 256, 260-261, 274 mechanisms of, 19, 256-265, 274 and mimicry, 168, 256, 261-263,  268-269, 274-275 performance impacts, 265-274, 275 Social processes, 7, 33 and cooperative learning, 12-13 and subjective experience, 60-61 Social support, in team settings, 148-149, 161-162, 165, 166, 167 Sport confidence, 6, 174 Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, 209 Stereotyping, 298 Strategy development, 130-131, 138 Strength, hypnotic effects, 18, 214-218, 247 Stress, 18, 25, 278, 288, 289 in team settings, 149, 158 and transcendental meditation, 18, 247 Structured controversy, 101, 102, 103-105 Subconscious processes, 8; see also Hypnosis; Thought supression Subjective experience, 57-59, 60-65, 66, 68, 79-80 assumptions about others', 12, 60-64, 65-66, 76 as basis for judgment, 11-12, 23, 59-74, 80 of hypnosis, 18, 247 Symbolic representation. See Abstract instruction

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Page 394 T Task analysis, 11, 47 Taskwork, 140, 141, 145-153, 166, 167 Team building and development, 5, 13-15, 121-125, 137-138, 168 and cohesion, 14, 129 gaming exercises, 15, 132-136, 137 and interteam relations, 13-14, 129-132, 137-138 and performance, 13-14, 81, 113-114, 125-129 and shared mental models, 7, 14, 15, 16, 124, 137, 146 Team confidence, 184-186, 195-197, 204-206 Team performance, 5, 12-16, 81, 137-138 contextual variables, 13, 118-121 determinants of, 115-121 and feedback, 114, 116 and part-task training of individuals, 45 and socially induced affect, 273-274 see also Cooperative learning; Interteam relations; Team building and development; Team confidence; Team training Team training, 7, 15-16, 83, 140-143, 166 accountability in, 16, 141, 144, 156-157, 165, 166, 168 changes in group structure and dynamics, 141, 163-164, 166 of cohort groups, 16, 140, 163 and feedback, 14, 16, 148, 165 group performance impacts, 16, 141, 159, 160 guidelines, 166-168 and individual performance, 140, 141, 159-160 individuals in, 140, 141, 143, 166 inputs, 15-16, 140-141, 143-145, 166-167 mediating processes, 13, 15, 16, 141, 153-158, 166, 168-169 obstacles to, 168-169 outcomes, 15, 16, 141, 158-166, 167-168 peer relationships impacts, 16, 141, 148-150, 161-162, 166 positive interdependence in, 8, 16, 141, 153-155, 166 posttraining activities, 141, 164-166, 168 preparation, 141, 144-145, 166 processing and discussion among members, 16, 141, 148, 157-158, 166 promotive interaction in, 16, 141, 155-156, 166, 168 psychological health impacts, 16, 141, 149-150, 162-163, 166 research literature, 141, 143 resources, 15, 16, 140, 144, 166 task characteristics, 15, 141, 144, 166 taskwork versus teamwork orientation, 140, 141, 152-153, 166, 167 training processes, 15, 141, 145-153, 166 Teamwork, 140, 141, 152-153, 166, 167 Thought patterns, and self-confidence, 181-183 Thought rebound, 283-286 Thought suppression, 5, 6, 8, 20, 249, 277-278, 292-293 alternatives to, 20, 288-292, 293 consequences of, 283-288 effectiveness of, 279-283 of emotional topics, 286-288, 292 motivation for, 278-279 research needs, 20 Time perception, and hypnosis, 218-219, 223-224 Training, definition of, 140, 166 Transcendental meditation (TM), 6, 18, 231-236, 247 physiological effects, 18, 233-234 research status, 18 theory, 232-233 Transfer of skills, 6-7, 11, 25-26, 55-56, 140 and abstract instruction, 11, 26, 33, 34, 36-39, 56

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Page 395 contextual issues, 26, 33-36, 39-40, 56 and cooperative learning, 13, 95-96, 106, 107 failure in, 26, 45, 47, 49, 51, 55, 301 and feedback, 11, 50-51, 56 by identical elements, 26-36, 56 and length of training, 11, 47-49, 56 part-to-whole training, 11, 26, 44-47, 56 prediction of, 51-52 principles of, 36-55, 56 and simulation exercises, 11, 36, 45, 52-55, 56 from team settings, 159-160, 164-165, 167 and variable practice, 11, 25-26, 41-44, 56, 73-74 Trauma, 20, 278, 289-290, 293 Tutoring, 12, 13, 83 U Unconscious plagiarism, 74, 75, 80 V Variable practice training, 11, 25-26, 41-44, 56, 73-74, 299 Vertical transfer. See Part-to-wholetraining Vicarious information in self-confidence, 179, 180, 188-189 in socially induced affect, 255, 256, 258 Visual aids and displays, 12, 13, 95, 105, 107 W Worksheets, 12, 13, 95, 107 Z Zeigarnik effect, 274

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