. "3 Justice in Clinical Studies: Guiding Principles." Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1994.
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toward these specific areas in order to remedy a past injustice and to avoid perpetuating that injustice.
Volunteers for clinical studies should be offered the opportunity to participate without regard to gender, race, ethnicity, or age. Women and men should be enrolled as participants in clinical studies in a manner that ensures that research yields scientifically generalizable results applicable to both genders.
These principles guide the committee's deliberations in the following chapters, which examine the challenges to applying these principles, and achieving equity in clinical studies, that arise from four specific areas: scientific considerations (Chapter 4); social and ethical considerations (Chapter 5); legal considerations (Chapter 6); and issues surrounding risks to reproduction and offspring (Chapter 7).
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