1. toward these specific areas in order to remedy a past injustice and to avoid perpetuating that injustice.
  2. Volunteers for clinical studies should be offered the opportunity to participate without regard to gender, race, ethnicity, or age. Women and men should be enrolled as participants in clinical studies in a manner that ensures that research yields scientifically generalizable results applicable to both genders.

These principles guide the committee's deliberations in the following chapters, which examine the challenges to applying these principles, and achieving equity in clinical studies, that arise from four specific areas: scientific considerations (Chapter 4); social and ethical considerations (Chapter 5); legal considerations (Chapter 6); and issues surrounding risks to reproduction and offspring (Chapter 7).

REFERENCES

DeBruin, D.A. 1994. Justice and the inclusion of women in clinical studies: A conceptual framework. In: Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2, A. Mastroianni, R. Faden, and D. Federman, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Faden, R., Kass, N., and McGraw, D. In press. Women as vessels and vectors: Lessons from the HIV epidemic. In: Feminism and Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction, S. Wolf, ed. New York: Oxford University Press.


Levine, C. 1990. Women and HIV/AIDS research: The barriers to equity. Evaluation Review 14(5):447-463.


Mitchell, J.L., et al. 1992. HIV and Women: Current controversies and clinical relevance, Journal of Women's Health 1 (1):35-39.


National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 1978. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.


Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction and International Women's Health Coalition. 1991. Creating Common Ground: Women's Perspectives on the Selection and Introduction of Fertility Regulation Technologies. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Sherwin, S. 1994. Women in Clinical Studies: A feminist view. In: Women and Health Research: The Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2, A. Mastroianni, R. Faden, and D. Federman, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Young, I.M. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.



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