Bringing the Dead to Life . . . . . . Just Add Water

Although the seeds of many flowering plants can survive complete dehydration, all other plant parts die when they dry. Certain plants, however, have the seemingly miraculous ability to recover from desiccation. Within hours of being watered, their leaves, stems, and sometimes even flowers spring back to life. Tissues that were brown and seemingly irreparably damaged take up a healthy green color and resume active growth once again.

No one knows how many species can defy drought in this way, but it is a small number, and at least four of them are African grasses related to tef. This suggests that crossbreeding them with tef might yield hybrids combining the qualities of a good cereal with the ability to withstand the ultimate drought.

This fascinating possibility of a fail-safe crop that can bounce back from complete desiccation is being studied by Australian plant physiologist Don Gaff.* So far, his biggest problem (other than getting funds for such far-out research) has been to get tef to breed with its "resurrection relatives." Fertility barriers between the species are too high for natural pollination, so Gaff has adopted a process known as "somatic hybridization." Using electrical pulses, he induces cells from the leaves to fuse as if they were normal pollen and egg cells. To accomplish this, he must first strip the cells of their cellulose walls. The fused cells resulting from this forced marriage can be regenerated into whole plants using the techniques of tissue culture.

Although only at the beginning of this challenging work, Gaff has already found four eligible partners for tef. These are:

  • Eragrostis paradoxa. A rare species collected in Zimbabwe, this relatively low-growing grass with very fine leaves has remarkable resilience and has survived growing on soils only 1 cm deep.

  • Eragrostis hispida. This species, too, was from Zimbabwe and is taller and has broad, hair-covered leaves.

  • Eragrostis nindensis. A vigorous grower, widely distributed in Namibia and other arid areas of southern Africa, this wild tef is locally valued as sheep fodder.

  • Eragrostis invalida. Gaff's sample of this perennial was collected in the Tingi Mountains near the Niger River's source in Sierra Leone. Tallest of the four, it is still only 60 cm high; short rhizomes assist its clumps to spread.


Don F. Gaff, Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

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