made without any wheat or rye.16 Perhaps other fermentations or other substrates for this fermentation to do this job can also be found.

Biotechnology

With all the advances in biotechnology these days, it seems likely that the genes that cause gluten to form in wheat will soon be isolated. Inserting them into the chromosomes of Africa's native grains could bring profound changes. Suddenly, sorghum or pearl millet would (at least in theory) produce bread that rises without any extra help. This is not a far-fetched idea. Indeed, it will be surprising if it does not come about within the next decade or two.

16  

Information from N.G. Malleshi and H.S.R. Desikachar.



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