phase morphology and the nature of the interface between these phases. Frequently, the unfavorable polymer-polymer interactions that lead to immiscibility cause an unstable and uncontrolled morphology and a weak interface. These features translate into poor mechanical properties and low-value products, that is, incompatibility. When this is the case, strategies for achieving compatibility are sought, generally employing block or graft copolymers to be located at the interface, much like surfactants. These copolymers can be formed separately and added to the blend or formed in situ by reactive coupling at the interface during processing. The former route has, for example, made it possible to make blends of polyethylene and polystyrene useful for certain packaging applications by addition of block copolymers formed via anionic synthesis. However, viable synthetic routes to block copolymers needed for most commercially interesting combinations of polymer pairs are not available. For this reason, the route of reactive compatibilization is especially attractive and is receiving a great deal of attention for development of commercial products. It involves forming block or graft copolymers in situ during melt processing by reaction of functional groups. Extensive opportunities exist for developing schemes for compatibilization and for fundamental understanding of their mechanisms. A better understanding of polymer-polymer interactions and interfaces (e.g., interfacial tension, adhesion, and reactions at interfaces) is essential. Especially important is the development of experimental techniques and better theories for exploring the physics of block and graft copolymers at such interfaces. This knowledge must be integrated with a better understanding of the rheology and processing of multiphase polymeric materials so that the morphology and interfacial behavior of these materials can be controlled.

A wide variety of compatibilized polymer alloys have been commercialized, and the area is experiencing a high rate of growth. A product based on poly(phenylene oxide), a polyamide, and an elastomer has been introduced for use in forming injection-molded automobile fenders and is currently being placed on several models of U.S. and European-made automobiles. The polyamide confers toughness and chemical resistance, the poly(phenylene oxide) contributes resistance to the harsh thermal environment of automotive paint ovens, while the elastomer provides toughening. Another automotive application is the formation of plastic bumpers by injection molding of ternary blends of polycarbonate, poly(butylene terephthalate), and a core shell emulsion-made elastomeric impact modifier (Figure 3.5). In this blend, the polycarbonate brings toughness, which is augmented at low temperatures by the impact modifier, while the poly(butylene terephthalate) brings the needed chemical resistance to survive contact with gasoline, oils, and greases. In the first example, the poly(phenylene oxide) and polyamide are very incompatible, and reactive coupling of the phases is required for morphology control and for interfacial strengthening. In the second example, the polycarbonate and polyester apparently interact well enough that no compatibilizer is needed.

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