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David B. Roe and Jay G. Wilpon, Editors

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy Press
Washington D.C. 1994

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VOICE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN HUMANS AND MACHINES David B. Roe and Jay G. Wilpon, Editors National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington D.C. 1994

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Page ii NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS * 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. * Washington, D.C. 20418 This volume is based on the National Academy of Sciences' Colloquium on Human-Machine Communication by Voice. The articles appearing in these pages were contributed by speakers at the colloquium and have not been independently reviewed. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this volume are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Voice communication between humans and machines / David B. Roe and Jay G. Wil pon, editors. p.   cm. Based on a colloquium sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04988-1 1. Automatic speech recognition. 2. Man-machine systems. I. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) TK7882.S65V62  1994 006.4'54—dc20 94-29114 CIP Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii Acknowledgments The editors would like to thank the many authors who contributed to this book. Without their insights and hard work this book would not have been possible. We also thank Lawrence Rabiner, who inspired and helped organize the NAS-sponsored Colloquium on Human/Machine Communication by Voice. The efforts of Irene Morrongiello, who was instrumental in coordinating every aspect of the manuscript, and Martina Sharp, who made formatting changes to keep the style similar between the diverse contributions of the authors, are gratefully appreciated. We wish to thank many anonymous reviewers who made generous comments on the chapters. Finally, this book would not have been possible without the support of our wives, Carol Roe and Sandy Wilpon.

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Page v Contents Dedication 1 Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines— An Introduction Lawrence R. Rabiner 5 SCIENTIFIC BASES OF HUMAN-MACHINE COMMUNICATION BY VOICE Scientific Bases of Human-Machine Communication by Voice Ronald W. Schafer 15 The Role of Voice in Human-Machine Communication Philip R. Cohen and Sharon L. Oviatt 34 Speech Communication—An Overview James L. Flanagan 76

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Page vi SPEECH SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGY   Computer Speech Synthesis: Its Status and Prospects Mark Liberman 107 Models of Speech Synthesis Rolf Carlson 116 Linguistic Aspects of Speech Synthesis Jonathan Allen 135 SPEECH RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY   Speech Recognition Technology: A Critique Stephen E. Levinson 159 State of the Art in Continuous Speech Recognition John Makhoul and Richard Schwartz 165 Training and Search Methods for Speech Recognition Frederick Jelinek 199 NATURAL LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING TECHNOLOGY The Roles of Language Processing in a Spoken Language Interface Lynette Hirschman 217 Models of Natural Language Understanding Madeleine Bates 238 Integration of Speech with Natural Language Understanding Robert C. Moore 254 APPLICATIONS OF VOICE-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY I A Perspective on Early Commercial Applications of Voice-Processing Technology for Telecommunications and Aids for the Handicapped Chris Seelbach 275

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Page vii Applications of Voice-Processing Technology in Telecommunications Jay G. Wilpon 280 Speech Processing for Physical and Sensory Disabilities Harry Levitt 311 APPLICATIONS OF VOICE-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY II Commercial Applications of Speech Interface Technology: An Industry at the Threshold John A. Oberteuffer 347 Military and Government Applications of Human-Machine Communication by Voice Clifford J. Weinstein 357 TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT   Deployment of Human-Machine Dialogue Systems David B. Roe 373 What Does Voice-Processing Technology Support Today? Ryohei Nakatsu and Yoshitake Suzuki 390 User Interfaces for Voice Applications Candace Kamm 422 TECHNOLOGY IN 2001   Speech Technology in the Year 2001 Stephen E. Levinson and Frank Fallside 445 Toward the Ultimate Synthesis/Recognition System Sadaoki Furui 450 Speech Technology in 2001: New Research Directions Bishnu S. Atal 467

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Page viii New Trends in Natural Language Processing: Statistical Natural Language Processing Mitchell Marcus 482 The Future of Voice-Processing Technology in the World of Computers and Communications Yasuo Kato 505 Author Biographies 515 Index 525

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