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many types of systems (but particularly interactive systems) to incorporate NLP into their systems. Users will begin to expect their systems to understand spoken or typed commands and queries, to be able to classify bodies of text, and to extract various kinds of information from bodies of text.

REFERENCES

Allen, J., Natural Language Understanding, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., Menlo Park, Calif., 1987.

Bates, M. (ed.), Proceedings of the ARPA Workshop on Human Language Technology, Princeton, N.J., March 1993, Morgan Kaufmann Publishing Co., 1993.

Bates, M., and R. M. Weischedel (eds.), Challenges in Natural Language Processing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993.

Bobrow, R., R. Ingria, and D. Stallard, "Syntactic/Semantic Coupling in the BBN DELPHI System," DARPA Speech and Natural Language Workshop, Harriman, N.Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1992.

Gazdar, G., and C. Mellish, Natural Language Processing in LISP, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989.

Hirschman, L., et al., "Multisite Data Collection and Evaluation in Spoken Language Understanding," in Bates (ed.), Proceedings of the ARPA Workshop on Human Language Technology, Morgan Kaufmann, 1993.

Montague, R., Pragmatics and Intensional Logic, Synthese vol. 22, pp. 68-94, 1970.

Pallett, D., et al., "Benchmark Tests for the DARPA Spoken Language Program," in Bates (ed.), Proceedings of the ARPA Workshop on Human Language Technology, 1993.

Smith, G. W., Computers and Human Language, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K., 1991.

Weischedel, R. M., J. Carbonell, B. Grosz, M. Marcus, R. Perrault, and R. Wilensky, "Natural Language Processing," Annual Review of Computer Science, Vol. 4, 1990.

Winograd, T., Language as a Cognitive Process, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1983.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Grosz, B., D. E. Appelt, P. Martin, and F. Pereira, TEAM: An Experiment in the Design of Transportable Natural Language Interfaces. Artificial Intelligence, 1985.

Lehnert, W. G., and B. Sundheim, "A Performance Evaluation of Text Analysis Technologies," AI Magazine, Fall, pp. 81-94, 1991.

Neal, J., and S. Walter, S. (eds.), Natural Language Processing Systems Evaluation Workshop, Rome Laboratory, 1991.

Sundheim, B. (ed.), Proceedings of the Third Message Understanding Conference, 1991.

Sundheim, B. (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth Message Understanding Conference, 1992.

Sundheim, B. (ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth Message Understanding Conference, 1993.



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