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Airline Travel Information System (cont'd) language understanding methods, 258, 268

N-best filtering in, 227

and Online Airline Guide, 219

order in problem solving, 229

overview of, 46

recognition errors, 261, 262

spontaneous input, 234

template-based approach, 259

understanding errors, 262

Algorithms

ambiguity-handling, 56

assessment of, 391-392, 405, 409-412

Baum-Welch training (forward-backward), 178-179, 199, 202-207, 489

beam search, 202, 210, 212, 214

compression, 83, 381

databases, 405-409

inside/outside, 263-264, 489-490, 491

intonation contours, 45

large vocabularies, 307

learning, 249, 250, 263-264

nonlinear interpolation, 97

part-of-speech assignment, 143

probabilistic parsing, 56

prosodic phrase generation, 146, 147, 151

reference resolution, 57

robustness, 391, 392, 405, 412-416

search, 180-181, 189, 199, 202, 208, 209, 264-265

speech processing, 21, 393

speech recognition, 28, 409-411, 412, 417-418, 431, 468, 469

speech synthesis, 468

Stack, 202, 208

standardization, 7

text-to-speech, 25

Viterbi, 173, 180, 199, 202, 208-209, 210, 213

voice coding, 7

wordspotting, 404, 431

Allophone models, 182

American Automobile Association, 354

Ameritech, 291, 292, 293, 302

Analog-to-digital converter, 22-23, 189, 350

Analysis-by-synthesis systems

articulatory data, 125

and automatic learning, 127

bit-rate reduction and, 23

and "break index "data, 148-149

defined, 118

linear predictive coding, 24, 26-27, 119

PSOLA methods 119-120

source-filter technique, 119

in speech analysis, 26-27

in speech recognition, 30

text-to-speech conversion as, 136

Apple Macintosh, 52

Applications of voice communications. See Assistive technology for disabled persons

Deployment of applications

Military and government applications

Telecommunications

Telephony

air travel information systems, 46, 85-86, 162

aircraft pilots, 40, 41, 44, 45, 359, 365, 509

assessment criteria, 409-410

automatic teller machines, 86

computer-aided instruction, 151

databases for, 406-408

baggage handlers, 40

consumer electronics

programming, 43, 353

development environment, 400-401

driving instructions, 354

economic impact of, 280

expectations for, 505-506

force feedback glove, 98, 101

foreign language learning, 44



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