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30 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS A Guide for Scientists Any society that is serious about the education of its children must be equally serious about supporting the continuing education of those charged with that task. If we are to meet the needs of diverse students and the nation's needs for scientifi- cally literate citizens and skilled workers, it is essential that teachers have the opportunity to continue to expand their knowledge, pedagogical skills, and labo- ratory expertise from their undergraduate education through their professional careers. Rapid and extensive improvement of science education is unlikely to occur until it becomes clear to scientists that they have an obligation to become in- volved in elementary- and secondary-level science. In this chapter, we describe ways to interest more scientists in becoming involved in professional-develop- ment programs for science teachers, suggest ways that scientists can contribute most effectively, describe various types of programs, and suggest ways to gain administrative support for these programs. This chapter builds on the summary of characteristics of effective programs in Chapter 2. GETTING STARTED Many scientists are ready to get involved, but few know where to begin. Scientists from both academe and industry describe several common motivations for their involvement in professional development. Many say that they "simply love to teach" and believe that science education is so important that they will take an active role, whether or not they are rewarded externally. Others discover from their own children or grandchildren in school how poor science education 30

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS can be and how their children are turned away from learning science. Many scientists want to do something because they have found that many students in introductory undergraduate courses are poorly prepared and not motivated to learn science. Industrial scientists, in particular, share the widespread concern that the schools are not producing the workforce that industry needs both trained scientists and technicians.) Self-Education As a first step, scientists thinking about getting involved in the professional development of science teachers should assess their own teaching to determine whether they are using effective methods of science education. They should educate themselves about the professional lives of elementary- and secondary- school teachers and about classroom science teaching. To assist in the process, this chapter includes three vignettes describing a day in the life of an elementary- school teacher, of a middle-school teacher, and of a high-school biology teacher; they show some of the varied teaching experiences in American public schools {For more information about industry's role in science education, we suggest Business and the Schools, a guide to programs run by businesses for schools, published by the Council for Aid to Education (1992). Because of the availability of this excellent publication, this section focuses pri- marily on ways to involve academic scientists.

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32 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS today. Scientists should also familiarize themselves with school organization and the roles of teachers, administrators, and parents. Although there are many effective partnerships between teachers and scien- tists, to expand effective professional-development programs teachers' and sci- entists' understanding and appreciation of each other's responsibilities must be improved. Their misconceptions about each other exist partly because there are few opportunities for them to interact. Our discussions with teachers around the country revealed that scientists were often perceived to be "threatening" and "not interested" in working collaboratively. That stereotype is perpetuated by miscon- ceptions held by some scientists that cause misunderstandings between them and teachers, including the following: . Because scientists understand a topic, they know how to teach it. Because a topic is a scientist's lifelong interest, it will be interesting to precollege teachers and students or be an appropriate part of the science curricu lum. Because a topic is new, it must be better and should be included in the curriculum. If teachers understood the scientific content better, they would automati- cally be able to teach more effectively and to create new and better curricula. If students and teachers are merely told correct information, they will acquire the skills necessary to recognize correct information when they encounter it. . Working collaboratively with teachers will help to dispel some of those misconceptions. Several professional societies have workshops for teachers and scientists to foster partnerships. These are described below. In addition, the annotated reading list found in Appendix D should help scientists to minimize misunderstandings and educate themselves about the world of teachers and stu- dents, issues of teaching and learning, educational research, and current efforts in science-education reform. Initial Involvement Before beginning work with teachers to plan a professional-development program, scientists should initiate interactions with teachers and school adminis- trators to become familiar with the needs of elementary- and secondary-school science teachers and learn about the realities of the school system. If possible, they should visit other programs or participate in workshops, for example, at professional meetings. Most scientists' first inclination is to volunteer to give a 1- to 2-hour class presentation and discussion of their own research or a review of their subject. That might be a good starting point if planned in conjunction with the teacher. A valuable next step is to visit the elementary- or secondary-school

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS 33 science classroom of one of the teachers for at least an entire day. That gives the scientist a bird' s-eye view of schools and allows him or her to witness teachers' motivation in the face of the physical and financial constraints of the classroom. As a followup activity, scientists can invite local teachers to campus and structure special seminars at times convenient for teachers and on topics decided on in consultation with the teachers. Scientists can foster open discussions about teachers' needs, explore opportunities for future activities, and discuss the impli- cations of collaboration for K-12 science teaching and learning. Scientists can also invite teachers to a research laboratory for a demonstration that emphasizes the processes of science. The one-on-one interaction between teachers and scien- tists can lead to the involvement of teachers with postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and technicians. Teachers can gradually then become members of a community of people "doing science." The following vignettes describe a day in the life of school teachers at various levels. They provide a snapshot of the nation's public schools through the eyes of teachers and give scientists a glimpse of day-to-day life of the teach ers. A Day in the Life of One Elementary-School Teacher I teach fourth-graders in an urban elementary school serving about 500 stu- dents. My class of 32 students represents over 10 ethnic groups. Among my students are several limited-English speakers, two former special-education stu- dents who have been "mainstreamed" for the first time this year, and 14 from families who live below the poverty level. I have taught for 10 years. For 5 years, I taught at the second-grade level only; since then, I have been assigned a different grade level each year. This summer, I spent a good deal of my vacation preparing to teach fifth-graders; unfortunately, 2 weeks before school began, the principal placed me with a fourth-grade class instead. As always, I report to school a week early to put up attractive bulletin-board displays (to hide the ugly walls), organize my ancient desks and tables, and pre- pare instructional materials. The first day arrives, and I learn that the district computer has miscalculated: the number of students in my class is 32, not 30. The janitor quickly brings in two additional chairs (no tables or desks are available). Of these students, 12 are newly assigned. This year the school has many unexpected new students, forcing the creation of a new class, which will be taught in the school library. Since the library has fallen into disrepair over the last few years, there are no objections from the staff. I sign in at the office well before 8:00 a.m., the required time for teacher arrival. I hurry to my room to complete some last-minute preparations. About 40% of the students take district-provided buses. If the buses are late, so are the students. Today, as the first bell rings at 8:25, most students enter the old, two-story building. Teachers stand just outside their doors, as expected, to welcome their classes and to monitor the halls. When the tardy bell rings at 8:30, the halls are filled with the sound of doors slamming shut.

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34 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS I begin the day by assigning several math problems to students divided into small groups. The problems contain material that will be covered later that morning on a math test. Ten minutes pass, and I ask each group to present its work. The presentations are interrupted when the cafeteria "count" person comes by and yells out to one of his friends. After presentations, I go over the math problems with the students and give them individual math tests. I provide bilingual versions of the test to several limit- ed-English-speaking students and another version for two special-education stu- dents. The latter version includes a section for discussing the math problems with me directly. The test takes approximately 30 minutes. The children then take their morning recess. Next, I facilitate literature-reading groups. Students are grouped by what they choose to read that leads to a wide range of abilities in each group. Reading activities last until 11:00, when students march to the multipurpose room serving as our cafeteria. I take a hurried 20 minutes for lunch, then return to my classroom to prepare for the afternoon. Thirty minutes later I monitor the halls with other teachers as the children come in from the playground. Using several types of materials, I set up learning stations focusing on science and art. Today, students have time to rotate through several stations. Next, we spend 30 minutes discussing the history and culture of California, and I send them out again for the designated afternoon recess. The children return tired and hot from their combined "recess and physical education" period. During the last period, I alternate daily between teaching "art and music" and "science and health." Today I teach science. By the time the stu- dents have completed their science activities, the 3:00 p.m. bell rings. I quickly review homework assignments, pass out notices for parents, and dismiss the stu- dents for the day. All students have gone now, except for one who has been asked to stay late. As he does his homework, I start my preparations for the next day. Next on my "to do" list is to notify several parents by phone about some of my concerns about their children's behavior in school. To get to the phone designated for teachers (limited to local calls), I would have to go to the central office. I decide to remain in the classroom with the detained student and make the calls later that evening. After sending my student home at 4:00 p.m., I hurry down the hall for the month- ly meeting of fourth-grade teachers. I am already familiar with the topic ("preparing students for next month's standardized tests"), and so I try to grade a few math tests during the meeting. Afterwards, I duplicate handouts for tomor-row's activi- ties, finish classroom preparations, and gather today's math tests to grade. I hope I have time to finish them before the "Open House" that evening at the school of my own children. A Day in the Life of One Middle-School Science Teacher My day begins at 6:30 a.m. On the drive to school, I mentally review my plans for the day. I think of my two seventh-grade environmental-studies classes for which I have planned an activity on carbon dioxide. I remind myself to make sure that I have enough solutions for the 34 students in the first class and the 31 stu- dents in the second class and enough on reserve for the occasional accident. Next, my thoughts turn to my three eighth-grade classes on plant science. The Fast Plants unit has been a great success so far. Students have been coming into

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS class early to check the progress of their plants, comparing the growth of various sets and asking me to have a look at them. I enjoy watching the students interact; their enthusiasm makes the class fun for me. As I drive, I am aware that this commute is the only quiet time I will have to reflect all day. I arrive at school and check the mail, finding the usual plethora of catalogs and brochures filled with goodies that our small budget $100 per year cannot afford. At 7:00 a.m., I go to the weekly faculty meeting, which offers a brief chance to speak with colleagues. This week several teachers give small committee reports on the designated meeting topic: integrated curriculum. The meeting adjourns at 8:10 a.m., and I rush down the hall to unlock my classroom door. Students pour into the room giggling, pushing, and shoving each other playfully (for the most part). The first bell rings; 5 minutes later, we hear the second bell and the school day begins. There are now 34 active bodies in my small room. In 50 minutes, this group of students changes places with a group of 31 students, entering with the clamor of simultaneous chatter. At least five students are calling my name or asking questions with urgency ("What are we going to do today?" "Is this right?"). During this period, we have two interruptions over the loudspeaker: a break to read the morning bulletin and a timeout to recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag. Another 50-minute period ends with the bell. Five minutes later 33 eighth-graders enter the room. I turn my attention to a new topic, using different equipment and teaching strategies to communicate the appropriate concepts. This class, stocked with changing hormones, seems more social and more boisterous than other classes. The unique challenge of this age group is to keep up with the emotional roller coaster that dominates the dynamics of the classroom; it calls for more of what I refer to as "nurturing and social work." Another bell announces the 25-minute lunch period. There is no phone in my classroom, so I rush to the school office to make some important parent phone calls during this time. I have 10 minutes left for a cup of coffee with colleagues before the next class begins. After lunch, a group of 24 students comes into the room for "silent reading." During this 20-minute interlude, the entire student population spends time reading or doing homework. I am not in charge of assessing the students' work, but I am often called on for assistance and attention. At the next bell, my conference period begins. During the next 50 minutes, I talk with counselors about problems related to my students, call more parents, mix solutions for laboratory exercises, read mail, plan lessons, and grade papers. Unfortunately, I am unable to work in my classroom because it is being used by another teacher. Two classes later it is 3:00 p.m. By this time, I have met with 194 students who have worked with me, leaned on me, laughed with me, and learned with me. At 3:30 p.m., I leave school for a meeting at the central office. Like all my colleagues, I serve on several districtwide committees. Today, I attend a meeting on technol- ogy in the classroom. Later, as I head home, I reflect on this day's events for the first time. I have spent at least a third of my time on "social work" (negotiating conflicts between students, learning about difficulties that have kept students from completing their homework, listening to problems at home, listening to jokes, trying to get kids to focus, and disciplining those who get out of line), about 90 minutes in meetings, and 10 minutes conversing with colleagues. I have had no "think time" no time to reflect on my teaching, my students, or other areas of my life. I have a stack of 97 papers to grade, and I still have to stop by K-Mart to get materials for the next day's lab with my own money. 35

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36 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS A Day in the Life of One High-School Biology Teacher When I began teaching at Normal High School, I did not have my own class- room. I used a cart for my laboratory supplies. I would set up a laboratory exercise in one classroom before first period, teach the lab, dismantle it, and rush to the next class. This took place for three consecutive periods. After several years of teaching, I now have my own classroom and I no longer use a cart to store my supplies. I am teaching an advanced-placement biology course and two honors courses. At 8:20 a.m., my day begins with a free period. I prepare laboratory exercises during this time and then teach classes during the next three periods. After three morning classes, at 1 1:35 a.m. I become a lunchroom monitor. I have no time during this period to review teaching material, work with students, or prepare for afternoon activities. At 12:15 p.m., I use my own lunch period to prepare for the upcoming double period of AP biology. The laboratory exercises for this class require significant preparation. I try with little time, microscopes that were purchased in the 1 960s, and no teaching assistant to simulate a college-level laboratory experience. There is no time for the five biology teachers at Normal to assist each other with these kinds of preparation or to share our teaching experiences. Last summer I made an attempt to collaborate with some colleagues on the revision of a labora- tory manual with funding from an Eisenhower grant. The project was not entirely successful, because of administrative criticism and lack of support. The labs take me straight through to the end of the school day. I clean up, prepare materials for the next day, schedule guest speakers for future AP classes, correct labs, grade exams, work with student leaders in the National Honor Society (for which I am the adviser), collect new laboratory materials in local stores or ponds, and purchase pet food and shavings. I use my own money to purchase these supplies because the money is not available from the school district. I am owed over $100 that I spent on materials; I do not expect to be reimbursed. Since I began at the school, the expendable part of the AP budget has been reduced to one-fourth, and the laboratory exercises have become more sophisti- cated. Colleagues at the local university have donated some of the reagents and supplies for the exercises; others have been given by ABC Research. The local university has recently started to give area teachers its excess equipment and glassware from its laboratories. Unfortunately, these supplies are scarce. There is a circulating rumor that there is going to be another cut in the district's science budget. I spend the evening preparing classroom materials for the following day. CONTRIBUTING MOST EFFECTIVELY Roland Barth, a former principal, wrote in Improving Schools from Within (1990~: Perhaps the most influential contribution a university can make in assisting teachers, parents, and principals in improving their schools is to convey prestige and respectability to them.... Recognition these days is the commodity in greatest supply in universities and in shortest supply to teachers and principals.

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS 37 Scientists can contribute to the professional development of teachers in many ways. They can contribute directly by sharing their scientific knowledge, their understanding of the processes of scientific research, and their individual profes- sional experience. They can also contribute in less-tangible ways. For example, scientists' involvement builds teachers' optimism about the eventual success of a program and builds the program' s credibility among parents, administrators, stu- dents, and even funding agencies. Scientists' specific contributions can be summarized as follows: Scientists can support good science-process teaching by modeling scien- tific processes what scientists do and how they do it. Scientists can work with teachers to design inquiry-based laboratory exercises for use in K-12 classrooms but should be careful not to underestimate the time that will be required for field testing and development. This kind of collaboration helps to build a broader base of investigative approaches in K-12 science laboratories. Scientists can also help teachers to evaluate existing laboratory experiments, interpret data, and find rel- evant connections to current research. In this way, student laboratory exercises can be put into a research-oriented context. Scientists can provide accurate scientific content that also adds to the teachers' understanding of scientific process. Content learning is an essential part of science education, but content is best learned and retained when presented in the context of the processes of science how science works. Directors of programs that focus on inquiry-based and hands-on learning have observed that once teachers have developed an understanding of scientific processes, they often begin to seek out the content knowledge that can be used as a basis for inquiry into real and immediate scientific questions (J. Bower, personal communication). When teachers seek information themselves, it is likely to be successfully con- nected to what they do in the classroom. The search for content to elucidate inquiry-based teaching reverses the common approach of teaching content first. The scientist can become an invaluable resource for teachers and their students when the impetus to acquire content knowledge comes from inquiry-based expe- riences. More important, this approach ensures that the content is relevant to the teacher in the classroom, not just to what the scientist thinks the teacher should know. Scientists can ensure the accuracy of scientific content of existing cur- ricula by working with teachers to evaluate the accuracy of existing curricula and textbooks. Scientists can help teachers to identify existing curricula and tailor them to local needs. Developing new curricular materials, however, must be done cautiously and with appropriate expertise because good curriculum design takes money, many iterations, field testing, and dissemination. New discoveries do have an intrinsic interest to students, but they need to be incorporated into a coherent curriculum and be developed in an age-appropriate manner. Scientists can provide research opportunities for practicing teachers.

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38 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS Participating in laboratory or field research can provide teachers with experi- ences that foster understanding of and excitement about the processes of sci- ence the kinds of experiences that often are missing from their undergraduate education. Research experiences, however, do not translate automatically into improved inquiry-based teaching in the classroom, even if the teacher is invigo- rated. For teachers to incorporate a new teaching strategy into classroom activi- ties, they must practice, be coached by a team member, and analyze outcomes (Joyce and Showers, 1980; Showers, 1985~. Once they have experienced and accepted inquiry-based laboratory exercises, they are more likely to pursue new content to elucidate the exercises, design their own laboratory exercises, and teach in innovative ways. This scenario is enhanced through long-term support and networking between teachers and scientists. ~ . . . . . . scientists can act as scientific mentors. Mentoring relationships can de- velop early in the interactions between scientists and teachers, and these relation- ships can grow into continuing, mutually beneficial partnerships. Many scien- tists have reported that their interactions with teachers have resulted in improved teaching in their own classes. Many teachers have reported that they have devel- oped collegial interactions with scientists in university or industrial settings. These professional relationships can lead to research experiences for teachers during summers and other times convenient to teachers, collaborative review of curricula, and grants for new scientific or educational projects. Scientists can provide connections to the rest of the scientific community. Teachers are often isolated from the professional scientific community, so colle- gial relationships with scientists can be an important link between the science and science-education communities. Scientists can foster this linkage by including teachers in seminars or lectures at the university or research facility, by inviting teachers to spend time in research laboratories, by providing teachers with elec- tronic-mail addresses at the university so that they can be connected to the scien- tific community throughout the country through electronic networking, and by encouraging and sponsoring teachers to become members of scientific and sci- ence-education professional organizations. Scientists can assist in planning, conceptualizing, and writing grant pro- posals for science-education projects. Successful professional scientists today must have effective grant-writing skills. Teachers often do not have the time, nor have they had the need, to develop those skills. The current financial conditions of most public schools, however, make the need for outside funding of new projects, or even of basic science instruction, critical. Scientists can provide a valuable service by working with teachers to prepare grant proposals. Teachers who develop these skills are in the best position to take advantage of federal and private resources directed to science education. Scientists can provide teachers access to equipment, science journals, and catalogs not usually available in schools. A particularly effective way to do this is to prepare "kits" of equipment with everything needed for a group of

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS 39 students and to arrange for teachers to receive the kits when they are needed for an exercise. This economizes on equipment cost by ensuring that equipment is available when needed but does not need to be stocked and stored. It also makes it possible for the teacher to concentrate on teaching, rather than on the logistics of setting up a laboratory. TYPES OF PROFESSIONAL-DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Once scientists become interested in professional development they can be- come involved in many kinds of programs that will promote their effective con- tributions. The overwhelming majority of programs that we reviewed were de- signed for individual teachers who chose to participate. The various types of programs for individual teachers are described below. In Chapter 6, we discuss alternative types of programs designed for systemic reform of education through programs that focus on groups of teachers or larger parts of the education system. We believe that such systemic programs hold the greatest promise for an eventual reform of science education that reaches all teachers and all students, but such programs are complicated to initiate and sustain. Scientists and teachers can choose from various professional-development activities. We list here categories of individual programs in order of increasing need for commitment on the part of the teachers and scientists involved. The most common professional-development programs focus on activities in specific topics, such as molecular biology, biotechnology, genetics, and ecology. Some programs are open to all teachers in a specific region, school, district, or state; others draw participants from a national pool through a selective application process. Many kinds of institutions participate in professional-development pro- grams for science teachers. They include 2- and 4-year colleges and universities, museums, zoos, and science and technology centers. Lectures and Seminars Local universities, museums, and professional societies often sponsor indi- vidual public lectures, lecture series, and seminars for science teachers. Indi- vidual lectures usually occur during the school year on Saturdays, in the late afternoons, or in evenings. The lecturer, usually a research scientist, often uses the situation to introduce teachers to up-to-date science content. The effective- ness of this approach depends on the lecturer's ability to communicate complex research results in a way that meets the needs of the audience. The same organizations often offer continuing seminar series that include lectures followed by participant discussion. Sometimes, teachers find this format on university campuses, where they can interact with faculty and graduate stu- dents. Teachers are most likely to participate in these events if they take place after school hours, if universities advertise them widely, if the teachers consider

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40 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS the subject matter to be important, and if they can be used to obtain continuing education or graduate credit. Lectures can be convenient and easy ways for scientists to begin their in- volvement, but they might not be as effective in yielding classroom impact as types of programs that promote more active participation. Lecture or seminar content and presentation can often be irrelevant to the needs and interests of the teachers, especially if they have not been adequately planned. If opportunities to meet and plan with key teachers are provided, guest lecturers are more likely to match their expertise to their audience and be able to engage its active participa- tion. Some experienced scientist-speakers have incorporated classroom visits and meetings with teachers as part of their presentation preparation. Short Workshops A common professional-development activity is a workshop, usually a 1- to 6-hour exploration of a specific topic. Workshops usually occur during staff- development days allocated by school districts. They can be held at a school site, a nearby college or university, a statewide professional-development gathering, or a state or national teachers' convention. A common source of funding for such workshops has been the Department of Education's Dwight D. Eisenhower Math- ematics and Science Education State Grants program (see Appendix I for a dis- cussion of funding). Teachers typically receive continuing-education credit rec- ognized by local and state education agencies for attending these workshops. The location of a workshop can have an impact on teachers and scientists. For example, workshops held at a college or university can give the teachers a chance to visit research laboratories. Workshops held in the schools give scien- tists a chance to learn about teachers' working conditions and laboratory re- sources. Exposure to elementary- and secondary-school teaching situations also helps scientists to accommodate their strategies to teachers' circumstances. Some colleges, universities, and other organizations have promoted both lecture series and short workshops by establishing speakers' bureaus. Teachers are encouraged to select from a list of scientists, often identified through profes- sional societies. Scientists then help teachers to supplement their classroom material by visiting classrooms or inviting teachers to visit their laboratories. Communication between scientists and teachers helps scientists to present mate- rial that fits into existing curricula. It is often through short workshops, and thus interactions with teachers, that scientists gain appreciation for the needs of teachers and become more interested in and committed to science education. Poorly planned workshops can have the opposite effect, disengaging both scientists and teachers.

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS 4 Summer Workshops or Institutes National Science Foundation (NSF) summer institutes of the 1960s and early 1970s were popular and effective in increasing teachers' knowledge and enthusi- asm for science, even if effects on students could not be measured (GAO, 1984~. Similar content- and inquiry-based workshops have been developed in recent years, and many are supported by NSF and other federal agencies. Some institutes address misconceptions or lack of knowledge in specific fields. In the life sciences, programs have focused on evolution, ecology, genet- ics, or molecular biology and the techniques for gene isolation and manipulation. Others have provided updates of basic concepts in light of modern information or have focused on learning to use new tools in the classroom. Still other programs have focused on the bioethical implications of new knowledge, particularly in genetics, and exposed participants to techniques of ethical analysis and strategies for conducting effective classroom discussions about ethical public policy. Of the institutes we examined, the ones that best met our criteria for effec- tiveness reinforced the processes of science by using activities that caused teach- ers to rethink their own knowledge. Such programs incorporate both new infor- mation and new interpretations. The continuing challenge for scientists and teachers is to adjust their courses so that they examine the processes of science through experiments and demonstrations for their students. Demonstrations with- out experiments are discouraged in favor of real experiments. A number of summer institutes and workshops (and some school-year workshops) offer inten- sive hands-on laboratory training in new techniques and are designed to promote transfer of laboratory skills and techniques to schools. In some instances, hands- on laboratory exercises have been developed that are readily transferable to high- school or even middle-school classrooms. Many of those exercises, however, are expensive to implement, especially in school districts where science budgets are low or nonexistent. Some of the best institutes included laboratory investigations that tested hypotheses; these were developed through teacher-scientist partner- ships. The institutes promoted teacher comfort with the procedures and interpre- tations, thereby increasing the likelihood of their use in the classroom. Specific kinds of workshops are considered below. Learning to Use New Tools in the Classroom In some school districts, computers have become an integral part of elemen- tary- and secondary-school education. Nelson et al. (1992, p. 85) reported that 61% of eighth-graders and 79% of twelfth-graders attended schools that had a computer laboratory (although there are few data on the use of computers specifi- cally for science classes). Computers as a teaching tool are far more useful in the science classroom although still uncommon than in a separate laboratory. Professional-development programs have been designed to familiarize teachers

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42 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS with computers and their appropriate applications in classroom activities. Some applications beyond word-processing are to collect real-time data, generate charts and graphs for laboratory reports, analyze statistical data, and measure precisely in the science laboratory. Instruction in computing technology and networking through the modem can be part of programs (see box). Every day, more information becomes available on the Internet and World Wide Web. Laser disks and interactive videos are also becoming more available in schools. Programs are available to assist teachers in using these tools thoughtfully in the classroom and not merely as entertainment devices. Their effective use depends greatly on the instructional strategies em- bedded in the software or video or in the print materials that accompany them and on adequate preparation of teachers. But poorly conceived educational software abounds. The experience of several programs has shown the difficulty of providing basic computer services in schools. It is particularly difficult to secure funds and permission for additional telephone lines for modem use. And teachers do not have time to use computers at school even if they are available. Thus, providing teachers with computers and modems for home use to promote their networking with other teachers and with scientists is another effective use of computers for teachers. Development of Supplemental Curricula Another type of professional-development program focuses on involving science teachers in curriculum development. The underlying principle is that teachers know best about teaching strategies and scientists about science. By working together, they can develop or improve classroom and laboratory activi- ties. Teachers who are involved in the programs then pilot test the materials in their own classes and in some cases ask other teachers to field test the materials to

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS 43 identify problems. The result is new materials to supplement established cur- ricula. Teachers become both advocates of new curricula and trainers of other teachers. Although workshops might be a good way to develop supplementary curricula, we caution against the use of professional-development activities to develop curricular activities de novo. Curriculum-development programs are expensive and take time. If quality control is not emphasized, new materials can be used incorrectly and the programs might have little lasting impact. Hands-on Programs Promoting Science Inquiry A growing number of programs are designed to provide science teachers with experiences that translate science into tasks that actively engage students in the learning process. Science is taught by challenging students to explore scien- tific concepts by engaging their senses of touch, sight, smell, and sound. These activities have come to be known as "hands-on" science. Effective programs have used the hands-on experience as a basis for student inquiry and developing critical thinking skills. Professional-development programs built around hands- on participation by teachers are designed to help teachers learn pedagogical tech- niques that bring children into contact with the physical world. Hands-on activi- ties have been shown to be an effective way to achieve inquiry-based learning, especially in younger students. Increasingly, hands-on professional-develop- ment programs involve teams of teachers from the same school or school district and focus primarily on elementary-school teachers. These hands-on programs are likely to lead to minds-on learning experiences for students. Research Experiences for Teachers Local universities, research institutions, and industrial and national laborato- ries have increasingly become providers of summer research experiences for science teachers. Teachers who work in scientists' laboratories are usually funded by a stipend that comes from supplements to federal research grants, by grants from professional societies, by special grants to national laboratories, or by in- dustry. Successful programs take into account that a stipend must correspond to a teacher's earning potential in other summer jobs. Research experiences typi- cally last for 3-8 weeks in the summer. In the most effective programs, a teacher becomes a part of the research-laboratory team. Such programs increase teach- ers' understanding of the processes of science, expose them to the teamwork required in modern research, and involve them in both the frustrations and fail- ures and the rewards and successes of experimental science. Many scientists who invite teachers into their laboratories find that such experiences educate the scien- tists about teachers' needs and scientific backgrounds. Some have found that the value of the research experience can be enhanced

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44 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS if several teachers are supported in a laboratory setting and then meet regularly during the summer to exchange their experiences and to discuss ways to translate the experiences into lesson plans. That process is an effective way to promote direct transfer of new information into the classroom. Scientists' involvement in the process gives them the opportunity to recognize the difficulties that teachers face when transferring their research experiences into elementary- and second- ary-school classrooms. Examples of programs that bring teachers into research laboratories are the Industry Initiatives for Science and Mathematics Education program in the San Francisco Bay area, the Department of Energy's national laboratories, and the Summer Scholars programs of the American Society for Biochemistry and Mo- lecular Biology, the American Society for Cell Biology, and the American Physi- ological Society. Not all of them have been as effective as they might have been, because real partnerships have not been formed. Comprehensive Programs In some institutions, a comprehensive set of complementary professional- development programs in which many things happen simultaneously have been developed. Such programs typically are housed in research institutions or sci

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS 45 once centers, where many resources are drawn on to create a science-rich envi- ronment for teachers. Comprehensive programs can accomplish the difficult task of developing and maintaining communication networks among teachers, who then are able to support one another continually. Those programs are character- ized by a high degree of collaboration with other professional-development programs. Partnerships can be established between teachers and universities, museums, zoos, industrial settings, and extension services of federal agencies. Comprehensive programs can help to promote systemic change (see Chapter 6) if they work together with all elements of a school, district, or region to promote systemwide reform. Duration of Programs The goals of a program will dictate its length, but the duration of the program affects its accessibility to all teachers. Short workshops need to be scheduled at a time and place convenient for the teachers. A summer program designed to last

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46 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS 4 weeks or longer will not reach the many teachers for whom 1-3 weeks is a more attractive option, given family considerations and the need for summer employ- ment. Many teachers feel the need for a break in the summer and are reluctant to participate in longer professional-development programs, and longer programs must pay enough to compensate for loss of employment income. If professional- development programs are to be truly effective, they must reach all teachers, so a range of durations, daily hours, and locations should be available. Support and Participation of School Administrators Many of the program developers in our survey initially planned and secured funding for the programs independently and were not part of the local school administrative structures. Teachers who later became interested in the programs learned about them directly from the organizers, local universities, other teachers, professional-education publications, or pre-existing networks. In many cases, programs functioned without the attention of school administrators, union lead- ers, parents in the surrounding community, or even awareness on the part of the school district's central office. Although teachers and scientists involved in the programs often benefited tremendously from them, they rarely became self-sus- taining. Many lasted until the first round of funding disappeared usually no more than a few years and among those programs, few offered followup activi- ties to teachers who completed the programs. Individual-based programs should aim to include administrators and policy-makers in their planning and develop- ment so that the programs have a greater likelihood of being incorporated into the practices and budgets of schools or school districts. Examples of Effective Professional-Development Programs Although many programs that were examined benefited from some of the scientist contributions that are necessary for effective programs, few exhibited them all. We highlight here examples of different ways that scientists have contributed to effective professional-development programs. . The North Carolina Biotechnology Center (NCB C), Research Triangle Park. The initial planning of the program was done by teachers; current ad- ministrators of the program are former research biologists. These scientist-ad- ministrators help to nurture support for the program in the state legislature. Their knowledge about the educational system in North Carolina has facilitated the involvement of scientists at state universities, and most of the administration and consensus-building is done by NCBC staff. Scientists are provided with all the materials needed to conduct the biotechnology-oriented activities for teachers within their own universities, and the NCBC administrative center provides con

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A GUIDE FOR SCIENTISTS 47 tinning support. Scientists are allowed to do what they do best: illustrate the process of science to teachers and share their enthusiasm for science with them. Iowa Chautauqua, University of Iowa. This program involves research scientists on its advisory board. The scientists' role is to help to conceptualize the program, aid in grant procurement, and make departmental resources available. Community-college faculty serve as consultants in the development of curricu- lum units. . The Exploratorium, San Francisco. Research scientists with expertise in the physical sciences are the teachers of teachers in a summer program with followup activities throughout the school year. Research scientists with different teaching styles model the inquiry-based strategies used in the conduct of research to demonstrate to teachers how to phrase leading questions to engage student thinking. Lectures are avoided. . Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) Science Education Partnership, Seattle. FHCRC's programs involve research scientists at many levels. This one was initiated by a research scientist who organized a small planning committee of teachers, FHCRC public-relations staff, and research sci- entists. The scientists' interest, creativity, and tenacity resulted in institutional- ization of the program. One indicator of institutionalization was the creation of a new position: Science Education Partnership program director. Within the pro- gram, research scientists are both mentors and resource persons for the teachers. Through collaborative activities, a mutual exchange of professional expertise has developed. As resource persons, scientists also provide content-update lectures for teachers. Cornell University. Research scientists initiated and direct summer insti- tutes for teachers from the surrounding area of upstate New York. These insti- tutes have created partnerships between scientists and teachers to develop new laboratory materials for teachers attending the summer programs. The network, both personal and electronic, promotes communication among teachers about their classroom experience with new laboratory and content updates. An elec- tronic bulletin board, maintained by Cornell faculty and support staff, promotes communication among the whole group and allows posting, for example, of used equipment available from university laboratories. Scientists also respond rapidly to teachers' technical questions via the bulletin board. Lansing Community College Hands-on Science Workshops. The Science Department of Lansing Community College, through its Teacher Education Project, offers inquiry-based workshops for K-6 teachers. The workshops are designed with science-shy teachers in mind. The goals are to help teachers to become more confident about their knowledge of fundamental concepts in biol- ogy, chemistry, geoscience, and physics and to encourage them to integrate pro- cess-oriented activities and student investigations into their own classroom in- struction. Workshop leaders demonstrate research-based teaching strategies and . .

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48 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS provide ready-made materials for classroom use, which reflect the new science objectives of the Michigan Department of Education. . University of Illinois. The University of Illinois in Urbana has an excel- lent "footlocker program" to support molecular biology and other experiments in local schools. Complete footlockers of equipment with everything needed for experiments are loaned to the schools. An alternative is a traveling equipment van that can go from school to school. The program requires administrative support from a college, university, or industrial company. RECOMMENDATIONS More scientists should become involved in professional-development pro- grams for science to help ensure substantive improvements in science education. Scientists should educate themselves about K-12 education and not as- sume that they know or understand the problems and issues involved. That requires learning about teachers' needs and working cooperatively to form part- nerships with teachers and science educators. It also requires learning about the educational research on how students learn science and how to teach most effec- tively. Scientists should examine their own teaching in undergraduate classes and laboratory exercises. Their classes include potential science teachers, so scientists should be aware that their teaching will be modeled by these teachers and ask themselves whether they are promoting active learning and good process and content teaching. To promote better science education, scientists should Become champions of science education in their own institutions and professional communities. Respect and support colleagues and students who become involved in science education. Join professional organizations concerned with science education, such as the National Association of Biology Teachers and the National Science Teach- ers Association. Work with their own professional organizations to support K-12 sol once education. Support reciprocal interchanges of scientists and other science educa- tors at their own conferences. .