Index

A

Abiotic processes, 66, 285

Advection, 55, 57, 285

Advisory panels. See Expert and advisory panels

Aerobic biodegradation, 44, 285

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 232

Air pollution, 21

Air sparging, 7, 9, 143-148, 166, 169, 170, 183, 185, 285

Alkyl benzene sulfonate, 23

Alternate concentration limits (ACL), 219

Alternative technologies, 7, 10, 11, 158

containment systems, 10, 160-162, 184, 186

energy requirements, 7, 185

limitations of, 10, 11, 186

see also In situ reactive barriers;

Intrinsic bioremediation

Alternative water supplies, 225

American Water Works Association, 23

Anaerobic biodegradation, 44, 46, 138-139, 286

Animal studies, 13, 232-233

Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs), 215, 219, 222

Aqueous-phase transport, 48, 53-57

Aquifers, 35-36, 286

Arsenic, 26, 47, 48, 216

B

Background concentrations (cleanup goal), 13, 222

Bacteria, 44, 46, 65, 237

Barium, 26, 47

Barriers to innovation, 7, 11, 16, 168, 172, 185, 186

development phase, 172-174, 187

economic, 174, 176, 178, 180-181

implementation and procurement, 177-178

institutional, 173, 175-176, 177-178, 180

selection phase, 175-176

technical, 172-173, 175, 177, 179-180

Batch flushing model, 107-108

Benzene, 26, 50, 216.

See also BTEX



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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup Index A Abiotic processes, 66, 285 Advection, 55, 57, 285 Advisory panels. See Expert and advisory panels Aerobic biodegradation, 44, 285 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 232 Air pollution, 21 Air sparging, 7, 9, 143-148, 166, 169, 170, 183, 185, 285 Alkyl benzene sulfonate, 23 Alternate concentration limits (ACL), 219 Alternative technologies, 7, 10, 11, 158 containment systems, 10, 160-162, 184, 186 energy requirements, 7, 185 limitations of, 10, 11, 186 see also In situ reactive barriers; Intrinsic bioremediation Alternative water supplies, 225 American Water Works Association, 23 Anaerobic biodegradation, 44, 46, 138-139, 286 Animal studies, 13, 232-233 Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs), 215, 219, 222 Aqueous-phase transport, 48, 53-57 Aquifers, 35-36, 286 Arsenic, 26, 47, 48, 216 B Background concentrations (cleanup goal), 13, 222 Bacteria, 44, 46, 65, 237 Barium, 26, 47 Barriers to innovation, 7, 11, 16, 168, 172, 185, 186 development phase, 172-174, 187 economic, 174, 176, 178, 180-181 implementation and procurement, 177-178 institutional, 173, 175-176, 177-178, 180 selection phase, 175-176 technical, 172-173, 175, 177, 179-180 Batch flushing model, 107-108 Benzene, 26, 50, 216. See also BTEX

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup Biodegradation, 64, 65, 90, 91-92, 286 aerobic, 44, 285 anaerobic, 44, 46, 138-139, 286 and pump-and-treat systems, 119 Biological characteristics, 44, 46 Bioremediation, 286. See also In situ bioremediation Biotransformation, 44, 64-66, 76, 182, 286 Bioventing, 8, 134-136, 166, 170, 187, 286 BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), 91, 286 C Cadmium, 26, 47, 48, 216 Canada, 173, 238 Capillary force, 63, 286 Capitalization, 11, 173, 174 Carcinogens, 215, 220, 231, 232 Categorization. See Site characterization CERCLA. See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Characterization. See Site characterization Chemical properties, heterogeneity, 69, 71. See also Contaminant chemistry; Geochemical characteristics Chlorinated solvents, 48-49, 50, 287 in situ bioremediation, 8, 132, 134, 137-141, 167, 169, 170 Chloroform, 26 Cholera, 22 Chromium, 22-23, 26, 47, 48, 216 Cleanup goals, 18, 31-32, 213-214 alternatives, 13, 219-227 and CERCLA, 214, 215-218, 219 containment, 4, 6, 13, 224-225 and costs, 31-32, 116-118, 241, 242, 243, 250 interim objectives, 13-14, 16, 248-249, 250, 268 partially restricted use, 13, 223 and RCRA, 214, 218-219 technology-based, 13, 223-224, 250 unrestricted use, 220-223 Cleanup times, 77 calculation of, 6, 104-105, 107-112, 118, 120-122 DNAPL sites, 259 pump-and-treat systems, 6, 15, 104-113, 119, 120 and site conditions, 15, 87-89, 104-107, 119, 120 sorption effects, 61-63 and system design, 6, 168, 169, 170-171 in technical impracticability determinations, 6, 15, 104, 112-113 Clean Water Act, 249 Commercialization, 11, 173, 174 Community relations and Superfund program, 18, 271 technical issues, 18, 173, 176, 271 Complete restoration (cleanup goal), 13, 220 Complexation, 45, 287 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), 12, 22, 214, 215-218, 219, 255, 256-257, 287. See also Superfund program Conductivity, 38, 40, 90, 119, 290 Consolidated aquifers, 35, 36, 39 Consultants, 11, 175, 185 Containment, 15, 20, 250, 287 alternative technologies for, 10, 160-162, 184, 186 as cleanup goal, 4, 6, 13, 224-225 pump-and-treat systems used in, 98-99, 119-120 and restoration potential, 211 Contaminant chemistry, 46-47, 76-77 degradation reactions, 63-66 and ease of site cleanup, 4, 5, 6, 84-87, 262 and innovative technology effectiveness, 165-168, 186 inorganic compounds, 47, 48 migration mechanics, 49, 52-60

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup organic compounds, 47-49, 50-51 retention mechanisms, 60-63 see also Dissolution; DNAPLs; LNAPLs; NAPLs; Sorption Contingent valuation method (CVM), 245 -247 Continuous flushing model, 107-108 Contracts and contractors, 11, 175-176, 177, 180-181 Conventional pump-and-treat systems. See Pump-and-treat systems Cooperative agreements, 179, 180, 187 Copper, 26, 47 Corrective Action Rule, 256, 272 Cosolvents, 148-149, 287 Costs. See Economic barriers to innovation; Economics of cleanup Cuyahoga River, 21 D Darcy's Law, 39-40, 288 Data collection and needs, 75, 115-116, 198-200, 211, 257 extent of contamination, 115, 201-202, 212 hydrogeology, 73, 206 restoration potential, 206-208 site characterization, 15, 175, 198-208, 211-212, 269-270 site info repository, 15, 269-270 source area location, 202-206 toxicity, 229-230, 233, 235 Dayton, N.J., 96-97 DDT, 216 Degradation reactions, 63-64, 66, 90. See also Biodegradation Denitrification, 46, 288 Density, 58, 288 Department of Defense (DOD), 11, 27, 172, 181 Department of Energy (DOE), 11, 26, 28, 172, 181, 187 Desorption, 7, 45, 288 thermal, 9, 167, 171 Detection limits (cleanup goal), 13, 222 Development of innovative technologies, 172-174, 181-184, 187, 196 and infeasibility fee, 263-264, 270-271 Dissolution, 7, 45, 119, 288 of inorganics, 47, 48 DNAPLs (denser-than-water nonaqueous-phase liquids), 2-3, 49, 86, 118, 288 EPA policies, 256, 258-259 in heterogenous settings, 96-97, 98-99, 100, 102 migration of, 49, 52-53, 59, 103, 204-205 plumes, 53, 258 pool formation, 53, 111, 112, 203-204 Dose-response evaluation, 233-234 Drinking water standards, 12-13, 19, 32, 215, 216, 219, 250 E Early action policies, 16, 257-258, 271-272 Ecological risks, 236-239, 250 Economic barriers to innovation, 7, 11, 16, 180-181, 186 development phase, 174 implementation and procurement, 178 selection phase, 176 Economics of cleanup, 2, 239, 250 benefits estimation, 13, 245-248, 250-251 innovative technologies, 7, 11, 185 national costs, 2, 28-29, 239-241, 250-251 and nonattainment of cleanup goals, 18, 19-20 and site characterization, 2, 11-12, 73, 250, 269 site-level costs, 28, 33n:3, 116-118, 241-245, 250 see also Economic barriers to innovation

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup Education and training of public, 18, 173, 176, 271 of scientists, 23-24 of technical personnel, 184-185 Electro-osmotic purging, 184 Elkhart, Ind., 225, 226 Enhanced pump-and-treat systems, 7, 8-9, 126-127, 185 limitations of, 7, 8-9, 185 see also Air sparging; Bioventing; In situ bioremediation; In situ chemical treatment; In situ thermal technologies; Pulsed pumping; Soil flushing; Soil vapor extraction Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 22, 256, 257 community relations activities, 18, 271 DNAPL policies, 256, 258-259 early action policies, 16, 257-258, 271-272 evaluation of cleanup activities, 14-15, 266, 270 expert panels use, 17, 266-267 and innovative technologies, 11, 172, 187 long-term exposure prevention strategies, 16, 272 site data repository, 15, 269-270 site-level guidance, 17-18, 265-266 SITE program, 179, 187 technical impracticability policy, 15, 259, 260-263, 268-269 Technology Innovation Office (TIO), 180, 187 Epidemiological studies, 13, 228-232 limitations of, 13, 228-230, 236 Ethylbenzene, 26, 216. See also BTEX Expenditures. See Economics of cleanup Expert and advisory panels innovative technology approval, 17, 264, 271 for site and remedy evaluation, 17, 266-267, 269 Exposure identification, 234, 235 F Fairchild Semiconductor Corp., San Jose, Calif., 98-99 Feasibility studies, 132, 174, 269, 289 Federal government, 27, 173 and innovative technology, 177-178, 187 technical expertise of regulatory staff, 17, 269 see also Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Environmental Protection Agency Fick's law, 120-121 Field tests, 181-182 Firestone Tire and Rubber Co., Salinas, Calif., 94-95 Flow nets, 41 Flow of ground water, 39-40, 115 effects of pumping, 31, 40, 41 see also Migration pathways Fractured media, 39, 100, 119, 289 G Gasoline, 2, 4, 47, 51, 93, 165 biodegradability of, 4, 93, 119 Geochemical characteristics, 40, 44, 45 hydrogeochemical cycle, 42-44 and reaction rates and pathways, 75-76 Goals. See Cleanup goals Gradients. See Hydraulic properties, gradients Guidance documents, 256, 257, 269 on DNAPLs, 258, 259 on technical impracticability waivers, 260 H Hardeman County, Tenn., 230-231 Hazard identification, 233, 235 Health-based cleanup goals, 7, 13, 215, 222-223 and attainment feasibility categories, 14, 15-16, 261-263, 268

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup pump-and-treat systems capabilities, 15, 103, 119 waivers, 219, 260 Health risks, 1-2, 250 animal studies, 13, 232-233 assessment and evaluation, 13, 227, 233-236, 250 epidemiological studies, 13, 228-232 see also Health-based cleanup goals Henry's Law constant, 50-51, 57, 90, 289-290 Heterogeneity, 2, 67-69, 76, 206, 290 chemical, 69, 71 and cleanup times, 106, 109-110, 119, 120 and contaminant fate and transport, 73-75 Horizontal wells, 145-146, 185, 290 Hydraulic barriers, 120, 290 Hydraulic containment. See Containment Hydraulic properties, 37-39 conductivity, 38, 40, 90, 119, 290 gradients, 38, 290 Hydrocarbons, in situ bioremediation, 7, 8, 131-134. See also Petroleum products and derivatives; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Hydrodynamic dispersion, 55, 56 Hydrogeochemical cycle, 42-44 Hydrogeology, 12, 206 and ease of site cleanup, 4, 5, 6, 84-87, 262 see also Heterogeneity Hyporheic zones, 237 I IBM Corp., 96-97, 102 Implementation phases, 177-178 Indemnification, 177-178 Innovative technologies, 7, 11, 16, 125-126 combinations of processes, 164, 165, 186 costs, 7, 11, 185 development, 172-174, 181-184, 186, 187, 263-264 evaluation and monitoring, 186 failure of, 11, 175-176, 186, 264, 271 implementation and procurement, 177-178, 186 selection, 174-176 and site conditions, 164-168, 169, 170-171, 186 testing, 11, 17, 186 see also Alternative technologies; Barriers to innovation; Enhanced pump-and-treat systems Inorganic compounds, 47, 48, 184. See also Metals In situ bioremediation, 182-183, 185 of chlorinated solvents, 8, 132, 134, 137-141, 167, 169, 170 of hydrocarbons, 7, 8, 131-134, 165, 166, 169, 170 intrinsic, 10, 158-160, 167, 169, 171, 182, 186 of metals, 9, 141-143, 167, 169, 171 In situ chemical treatment, 9, 76, 151-152, 185 oxidation, 167, 171 In situ reactive barriers, 10, 162-164, 167, 169, 186 In situ thermal technologies, 185 desorption, 9, 167, 171 radio frequency heating, 9, 153, 157-158 steam-enhanced extraction, 9, 153, 154-156 vitrification, 153, 160, 290 Institutional barriers to innovation, 7, 11, 16, 180, 186 development phase, 173 implementation and procurement, 177-178 selection phase, 175-176 Institutional structures, long-term exposure prevention, 16, 267, 272

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup Insurance coverage, 176 Interdisciplinary educational programs, 184-185 Interfacial tension, 59-60, 290 Interim cleanup objectives, 13-14, 16, 248-249, 250, 268 for technical impracticability waivers, 260, 261, 268 Intrinsic bioremediation, 10, 158-160, 167, 169, 171, 182, 186 Ion exchange, 45, 60, 291 Iron reduction, 46 K Karst systems, 237 King of Prussia, Pa., 100 L Landfills, 24, 47, 238 Latency periods (diseases), 228 Leachates, 48, 107, 291 Lead, 26, 47, 48 Leaking storage containers, 24, 26, 28, 33, 47, 48 Lenses (geologic deposits), 69, 119, 291 and cleanup times, 109-110, 120-121 Liability issues, 11, 175-176 LNAPLs (less-dense-than-water nonaqueous-phase liquids), 2, 49, 53 , 54, 86, 291 Long Island, N.Y., 165 Long-term site management, 16, 267, 272 Love Canal incident, 21, 22, 227 M Management options, 197-198 Manganese, 26, 47 Maps, 73 Maxiumum contaminant levels (MCLs), 32, 215, 216, 218, 292 Melting points, 49, 50-51 Mercury, 66 Metals, 48, 184 in situ bioremediation of, 9, 141-143, 167, 169, 171 Methanogenesis, 46, 292 Methanotrophic bacteria, 137-138, 292 Methylene chloride, 26 Micelles, 149-150, 292 Microbes, 44, 46, 64, 66, 182 in ground water, 236-237 growth stimulating materials, 44, 182, 183 see also Biodegradation; Biotransformation; In situ bioremediation Migration pathways, 2, 12, 46-47, 49, 52-54 aqueous-phase transport, 48, 53-57 NAPL transport, 48, 49, 52-54, 58-60, 69, 73, 76-77 vapor-phase transport, 57-58 Models and modeling, 75, 286, 292, 293 air flows, 183 cleanup times, 107-109 transport and fate, 76 Moffett Air Force Base, Calif., 173 Molecular diffusion, 3, 55, 57, 288 Monitoring of cleanup, 114, 115-116, 186, 272 and treatment system modification, 116-118, 120 Monitoring wells, 119, 292 N NAPLs (nonaqueous-phase liquids), 2-3, 8, 48-49, 76-77, 86, 111, 118, 185, 203, 292 and cleanup times, 107, 111, 119, 120, 121 entrapment, 63, 73, 119 residual, 111 transport, 48, 49, 52-54, 58-60, 69, 73, 76-77 see also DNAPLs; LNAPLs National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup Contingency Plan (NCP), 215, 235, 256, 292-293 Niagara Falls, N.Y., 21, 22, 238 Nickel, 26, 47 Nonaqueous-phase liquids. See DNAPLs; LNAPLs; NAPLs Nondegradation. See Background concentrations O Organic compounds, 47-49, 50-51 biodegradation of, 55, 64, 65 Oxidation reactions, 45, 293 inorganics, 47, 48 P PAHs. See Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Partially restricted use standards, 13, 223 Partitioning, 118, 293 PCBs. See Polychlorinated biphenyls Permits, 256 Pesticides, 24, 46, 51 Petroleum products and derivatives, 48, 49, 51 bioventing, 8, 134 in situ bioremediation, 7, 8, 10, 132 see also Gasoline Phenol, 26, 50, 132 Phthalates, 46 Physical characteristics, 35-40, 73 ground water flow, 39-40 hydraulic properties, 37-39 see also Heterogeneity; Hydrogeology Pilot tests and prototypes, 186, 207-208, 211-212 of early action programs, 257-258, 272 of infeasibility fee, 263-264 Plants and vegetation, 237-238 Plumes, 15, 57, 71-72, 120, 168, 169, 195-197, 211, 293-294 DNAPL, 53, 258 ecological effects, 250 reemergence and persistence of, 94, 96-97, 102, 116 Point-of-use treatment, 13, 225, 226 Policy formation and issues, 14, 248, 250, 255-257 early action policies, 16, 257-258, 271-272 implementation, 265-267 interagency consistency in application, 265, 268-269 statements, 256 see also Cleanup goals; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; rinking water standards; Regulation; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 46, 48, 51, 216, 294 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 46, 48, 49, 50, 216, 294 Pore volumes, 107, 112-113, 114, 118, 120, 294 Pores, 36, 294 Porosity, 38, 294 Precipitation, of metals, 42, 45, 76 Procurement processes, 177-178 Public health. See Health-based cleanup goals; Health risks Public relations. See Community relations Pulsed pumping, 8, 136-137, 185, 294 Pump-and-treat systems, 1, 7, 29, 30, 80-82, 166, 287 appropriate uses, 100, 104 cleanup times, 6, 15, 104-113, 119, 120 effects on ground water flows, 31, 40, 41 enhanced, 7, 8-9, 126-127, 185 evaluation and monitoring, 14-15, 29, 31, 80-81, 82-84, 113, 115-118 , 119, 120, 266 factors affecting performance, 4, 6, 15, 84-89, 119-120

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup and failure of innovative systems, 11, 264 limitations of, 1, 3, 7, 15, 102 modification of, 116-118, 120 pulsed, 8, 136-137, 185, 294 use in containment, 98-99, 119-120 R Radio frequency heating, 9, 153, 157-158 RCRA. See Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Reaction pathways and rates, 75-76 Reactive barriers. See In situ reactive barriers Records of Decision, 174, 177, 294 Redox potential, 76, 294-295 Reduction reactions, 45, 295 Regulation, 14, 18 guidance documents, 256, 257, 269 of innovative technology, 11, 177-178 interagency consistency in application, 265, 268-269 monitoring and evaluation, 119 technical expertise of staff, 11, 17, 175, 265 see also Cleanup goals; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; Drinking water standards; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Remedial action plans, 177, 295 Remedial investigations (RI), 73, 259, 269, 295 Research programs and needs contaminant distribution and transport, 73-75 historical, 22-24 infeasibility fee funding for, 263-264, 270-271 innovative technologies, 181-184, 264 pump-and treat-systems, 118 reaction pathways and rates, 75-76 site characterization, 210-211, 212 subsurface characteristics, 72-73 Residence time, 42, 44, 295 Residual contamination, 53, 63, 111, 169, 170-171, 295 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 12, 22, 33, 214, 216 , 218-219, 255, 256-257, 272, 295 site characterization guidelines, 18, 269 Restoration potential, 18, 206-208, 211 Restricted use, 224-225. See also Partially restricted use standards Retardation, 61, 90, 295 Retention mechanisms, 60 NAPL entrapment, 63, 73, 119 sorption, 60-63, 119 Risk assessments, 233-236, 296 Risk characterization, 234, 235 S Safe Drinking Water Act, 33, 173, 296 Salinas, California, 94-95 Sampling and sampling methods, 73, 115, 259 San Jose, California, 98-99, 102 Saturated zone, 36, 55, 296 Savannah River (DOE) site, 237 Selection processes data requirements, 211, 259 innovative technologies, 174-176 Service stations, 4, 91, 93, 165 Sewage, 22 Site characterization, 11-12, 17, 193-195, 211, 296 data needs, 15, 175, 198-208, 211-212, 269-270 ease-of-cleanup categories, 4-6, 15-16, 17, 84-86, 89-99, 100, 104 , 261-263, 268 EPA guidance, 17-18, 265-266 and management, 197-198, 208, 210 plume versus source area, 195-197, 211 stages, 208-210

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup studies and evaluations, 12, 17, 73 see also Biological characteristics; Contaminant chemistry; Geochemical characteristics; Hydrogeology; Physical characteristics Small Business Technology Transfer Program, 181 Soil flushing, 9, 148-151, 167, 171, 183, 185, 296 Soil vapor extraction (SVE), 7, 8, 127-131, 165, 170, 183, 185 Solvents, 48, 94-95. See also Chlorinated solvents; Cosolvents; Trichloroethylene Sorption, 3, 45, 60-63, 62, 76, 119, 185, 296 and cleanup times, 107, 119, 120 Source areas, 15, 71-72, 195-197, 202-206, 211, 296 Source control and remediation, 170-171, 296 Sources of contamination, 24, 120, 296-297 South Macomb Disposal Superfund site, Mich., 238 Spatial variability, 66 in contaminant sources, 71-72 see also Heterogeneity Standards. See Cleanup goals; Drinking water standards State regulation, 22, 27, 216, 256 and interagency consistency of application, 265 technical expertise of agency staff, 17, 269 Steam-enhanced extraction, 9, 153, 154-156 Steam stripping, 167, 171, 297 Storage coefficient, 38, 297 Sulfate reduction, 46, 297 Superfund program, 22, 28, 174, 238, 239 Accelerated Cleanup Model, 257 DNAPL sites, 260 site characterization guidelines, 18, 269 site data collection, 270 see also Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Surface water, 21, 238 Surfactants, 149, 297 T Tailing, 61, 87, 88, 297 Technical barriers to innovation, 7, 11, 16, 179-180, 186 development phase, 172-173 implementation and procurement, 177 selection phase, 175 Technical infeasibility determinations, 15, 259, 260-263, 268-269 and community relations, 18, 271 fees under, 263-264, 269, 270-271 use of estimated cleanup times, 6, 15, 104, 112-113 Technology transfer, 173, 181 Technology-based cleanup standards, 13, 223-224, 250 Testing. See Field tests; Pilot tests and prototypes; Sampling and sampling methods Tetrachloroethylene, 26, 48-49, 50 Time periods. See Cleanup times; Latency periods; Long-term site management; Residence time Toluene, 26, 50. See also BTEX Toxicity of contaminants, 47 data needs and evaluation, 229-230, 233, 235 Training. See Education and training Transport systems. See Migration pathways Treatment trains, 164, 165, 186, 297 Trichloroethylene (TCE), 3, 26, 48, 50, 109-110, 120-121, 151, 216 , 218 Typhoid, 22 Tyson's Dump, King of Prussia, Pa., 100, 101

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup U Unconsolidated aquifers, 36, 39 Unrestricted use goals, 220-223 Unsaturated zone, 36, 55, 297 V Vacuum extraction, 164, 166, 298 Vadose zone, 36, 298 Vapor extraction. See Soil vapor extraction Vapor-phase transport, 57-58 Variable pumping, 8, 136 Ville Mercier, Quebec Province, 103 Vinyl chloride, 26 Viscosity, 58-59, 298 Viscous fingering, 59 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 46, 48, 90, 128, 298 Volatilization, 53, 57, 183, 185, 298 W Waste sites, 1, 24, 26-29, 33, 47 Waterloo Centre for Ground Water Research, Canada, 173 Weapons, 26, 27 Wellhead treatment, 225, 298 Wetlands, 237-238 X Xylenes, 26, 50, 216. see also BTEX Z Zinc, 26, 47

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Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup Other Recent Reports Of The Water Science And Technology Board In Situ Bioremediation: When Does It Work? (1993) Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Predicting Relative Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty (1993) Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas (1993) Sustaining Our Water Resources: Proceedings, WSTB Symposium (1993) Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992) Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy (1992) Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries (1991) Preparing for the Twenty-First Century: A Report to the USGS Water Resources Division (1991) Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences (1991) A Review of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Pilot Program (1990) Ground Water and Soil Contamination Remediation: Toward Compatible Science, Policy, and Public Perception (1990) Managing Coastal Erosion (1990) Ground Water Models: Scientific and Regulatory Applications (1990) Irrigation-Induced Water Quality Problems (1989) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624-6242

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