References

ACS (American College of Surgeons) Fact Sheet. The National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (Draft). Chicago: American College of Surgeons, 1992.

Adler, N.E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M.A., et al. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health. No Easy Solution. Journal of the American Medical Association 269:3140-3145, 1993.

AHCPR (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research). AHCPR Purpose and Programs. Rockville, Md.: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, AHCPR, 1990a.

AHCPR. Program Note. Medical Treatment Effectiveness Research. Rockville, Md.: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, AHCPR, 1990b.

Allen, A. Uneasy Access: Privacy for Women in a Free Society. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Allanheld, 1987.

AMA (American Medical Association). Principles of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the AMA Including the Principles of Medical Ethics and Rules of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. 1992.

AMPRA (American Medical Peer Review Association). Managed Competition and the Role of Quality Oversight. Washington, D.C.: AMPRA, 1993.

Anderson, H.J. Managing Data in a New Era. Medical Claims Management 1(4):29-36, 1993.

Andrussier S.E., The Freedom of Information Act in 1990: More Freedom for the Government; Less Information for the Public. Duke Law Journal 729:753-801, 1991.

Aronow, D.B., and Coltin, K.L. Information Technology Applications in Quality Assurance and Quality Improvement, Part II. Journal on Quality Improvement 19:465-477, 1993.

Ayanian, J.Z. Heart Disease in Black and White [editorial]. New England Journal of Medicine 329:656-658, 1993.

Ayanian, J.Z., and Epstein, A.M. Differences in the Use of Procedures between Women and Men Hospitalized for Coronary Heart Disease. New England Journal of Medicine 325:221-225, 1991.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 214
--> References ACS (American College of Surgeons) Fact Sheet. The National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (Draft). Chicago: American College of Surgeons, 1992. Adler, N.E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M.A., et al. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health. No Easy Solution. Journal of the American Medical Association 269:3140-3145, 1993. AHCPR (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research). AHCPR Purpose and Programs. Rockville, Md.: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, AHCPR, 1990a. AHCPR. Program Note. Medical Treatment Effectiveness Research. Rockville, Md.: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, AHCPR, 1990b. Allen, A. Uneasy Access: Privacy for Women in a Free Society. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Allanheld, 1987. AMA (American Medical Association). Principles of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the AMA Including the Principles of Medical Ethics and Rules of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. 1992. AMPRA (American Medical Peer Review Association). Managed Competition and the Role of Quality Oversight. Washington, D.C.: AMPRA, 1993. Anderson, H.J. Managing Data in a New Era. Medical Claims Management 1(4):29-36, 1993. Andrussier S.E., The Freedom of Information Act in 1990: More Freedom for the Government; Less Information for the Public. Duke Law Journal 729:753-801, 1991. Aronow, D.B., and Coltin, K.L. Information Technology Applications in Quality Assurance and Quality Improvement, Part II. Journal on Quality Improvement 19:465-477, 1993. Ayanian, J.Z. Heart Disease in Black and White [editorial]. New England Journal of Medicine 329:656-658, 1993. Ayanian, J.Z., and Epstein, A.M. Differences in the Use of Procedures between Women and Men Hospitalized for Coronary Heart Disease. New England Journal of Medicine 325:221-225, 1991.

OCR for page 214
--> Baker, N.A. Medicare PROs and Assessment of Quality: Should Physician-Specific Data be Released? Utilization Review 21(16):4-6, 1992. Ball, M.J., and Collen, M.F. Aspects of the Computer-Based Patient Record. Computers in Health Care Series. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992. Barnes, B.A., O'Brien, E., Comstock, et al. Report on Variation in Rates of Utilization of Surgical Services in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Journal of the American Medical Association 254:371-375, 1985. Batalden, P.B., and Buchanan, E.D. Industrial Models of Quality Improvement. Pp. 113-155 in: Providing Quality Care: The Challenge to Clinicians. N. Goldfield and D. Nash, eds. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, 1989. Beauchamp, T., and Childress, J. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Becker, L.B., Han, B.H., Meyer, P.M., et al. Racial Differences in the Incidence of Cardiac Arrest and Subsequent Survival. New England Journal of Medicine 329:600-606, 1993. Belair, R.R. Regional Health Data Networks: Privacy Law and Policy. Paper prepared for the Institute of Medicine Committee on Regional Health Data Networks. Washington, D.C.: Kirkpatrick & Lockhart, 1993. Benn, S. Privacy, Freedom, and Respect for Persons. In NOMOS XIII: Privacy. J. Pennock and J. Chapman, eds. New York: Atherton, 1971. Bennett, C.J. Regulating Privacy: Data Protection and Public Policy in Europe and the United States. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1992. Berwick, D.M. Sounding Board. Continuous Improvement as an Ideal in Health Care. New England Journal of Medicine 320:53-56, 1989. Berwick, D.M., Godfrey, A.B., and Roessner, J. Curing Health Care. New Strategies for Quality Improvement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990. BI (Benton International). CHMIS. Community Health Management Information System. General Overview. New York: BI, 1991a. BI. CHMIS. Community Health Management Information System. CHMIS Overview. New York: BI, 1991b. BI. CHMIS. Community Health Management Information System. Generic Specification. New York: BI, 1992. Bloustein, E.J. Privacy as an Aspect of Human Dignity: A Reply to Dean Prosser. In Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy: An Anthology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Blum, J.D., Gertman, P.M., and Rabinow, J. PSROs and the Law. Germantown, Md.: Aspen, 1977. Blumenthal, D. Total Quality Management and Physicians Clinical Decisions. Journal of the American Medical Association 269:2775-2778, 1993. Borbas, C., Stump, M.A., Dedeker, K., et al. The Minnesota Clinical Comparison and Assessment Project. Quality Review Bulletin 16:87-92, 1990. Braveman, P., Oliva, G., Miller, M.G., et al. Adverse Outcomes and Lack of Health Insurance Among Newborns in an Eight-County Area of California, 1982-1986. New England Journal of Medicine 321:508-513, 1989. Brook, R.H.  Quality of Care Assessment: A Comparison of Five Methods of Peer Review. DHEW Pub. No. HRA 74-2100. Rockville, Md.: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Center for Health Services Research and Development, 1973. Brook, R.H., and Appel, F.A. Quality-of-Care Assessment: Choosing a Method for Peer Review. New England Journal of Medicine 288:1323-1329, 1973. Brook, R.H., and Lohr, K.N. Efficacy, Effectiveness, Variations and Quality: Boundary-Crossing Research. Medical Care 23:710-722, 1985.

OCR for page 214
--> Bulger, R.J. The Search for a New Ideal. Pp. 9-21 in In Search of the Modern Hippocrates. R.J. Bulger, ed. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1987. Burnham, D. The Rise of the Computer State. New York: Random House, 1983. Burnum, J.F. The Misinformation Era: The Fall of the Medical Record. Annals of Internal Medicine 110:482-484, 1989. Burstin, H.R., Lipsitz, S.R., and Brennan, T.A. Socioeconomic Status and Risk for Substandard Medical Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:2383-2387, 1992. California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. Health Data Catalog. Sacramento: State of California, January 1991. Chassin, M.R. Quality of Care. Time to Act. Journal of the American Medical Association 266:3472-3473, 1991. Chassin, M.R. Explaining Geographic Variations. The Enthusiasm Hypothesis. Medical Care 31:YS37-YS44, 1993a. Chassin, M.R. The Missing Ingredient in Health Reform. Quality of Care [editorial]. Journal of the American Medical Association 270:377-378, 1993b. Chassin, M.R., Brook, R.H., Park, R.E., et al. Variations in the Use of Medical and Surgical Services by the Medicare Population. News England Journal of Medicine 314:285-290, 1986a. Chassin, M.R., Kosecoff, J., Park, R.E., et al. Does Inappropriate Use Explain Geographic Variations in the Use of Health Care Services? A Study of Three Procedures. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:2533-2537, 1987. Chassin, M.R., Park, R.E., Fink, A., et al. Indications for Selected Medical and Surgical Procedures-A Literature Review and Ratings of Appropriateness. R-3204/2-CWF/HF/HCFA/PMT/RWJ. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, 1986b. Chassin, M.R., Park, R.E., Lohr, K.N., et al. Differences among Hospitals in Medicare Patient Mortality. Health Services Research 24:1-31, 1989. Chlapowski, F. Note: The Constitutional Protection of Informational Privacy. Boston University Law Review 71:133-145, 1991. CHQC (Cleveland Health Quality Choice). Cleveland-Area Hospital Quality Outcome Measurements and Patient Satisfaction Report. Volumes I and II . Cleveland, Ohio: CHQC, 1993. Chueh, H.C., and Barnett, G.O. Client-Server, Distributed Database Strategies in a Healthcare Record System for a Homeless Population. Proceedings. Seventeenth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, October 30-November 3, 1993. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. Cleaver, C.M. Privacy Rights and Medical Records. Fordham Urban Law Journal 13:165, 184, n.133, 1985. Cooley, T.M. A Treatise on the Law of Torts, or, the Wrongs Which Arise Independent of Contract. Chicago: Callaghan & Co., 1880. Couch, J.B., ed. Health Care Quality Management for the 21st Century. Tampa, Fl.: Hillsboro, 1991. Darby, M. Minnesota Guideline Project Hinges on Local Networks. Report on Medical Guidelines and Outcomes Research 3(4):8-9, 1992. Darby, M. New HCFA Chief Reconsiders Hospital Mortality Reports. Report on Medical Guidelines and Outcomes Research, 4(13):1-2, 5, 1993. Densen, P.M., Fielding, J.E., Getson, J., et al. The Collection of Data on Hospital Patients—The Massachusetts Health Data Consortium Approach. New England Journal of Medicine 302:171-173, 1980. Department of Justice. Report of the Federal Advisory Committee on False Identification: Criminal Use of False Identification. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1976.

OCR for page 214
--> Des Harnais, S. Current Uses of Large Data Sets to Assess the Quality of Providers. Construction of Risk-Adjusted Indexes of Hospital Performance. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 6:229-238, 1990. Donabedian, A. Evaluating the Quality of Medical Care. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 44:166-203, 1966. Donabedian, A. Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring.  Volumes 1-3. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Health Administration, 1980, 1982, 1985. Doyle, E. Physicians Worried by Requests to Turn Over Data Bank Reports. ACP Observer 12(9):6, 1992. Dubois, R.W. Inherent Limitations of Hospital Death Rates to Assess Quality. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 6:220-228, 1990. Dubois, R.W., Brook, R.H., and Rogers, W.H. Adjusted Hospital Death Rates: A Potential Screen for Quality of Medical Care. American Journal of Public Health 77:1162-1166, 1987a. Dubois, R.W., Moxley, J.H., Draper, D., et al. Interpreting Hospital Mortality: Is it a Predictor of Quality? New England Journal of Medicine 317:1674-1680, 1987b. DVA (Department of Veterans Affairs). VA Databases Resource Guide. M.C. Beattie, R.M. Swindle, and L.A. Tomko, eds. Palo Alto, Calif.: HSR&D Center for Healthcare Evaluation, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1992. DVA. Decentralized Hospital Computer Program. Veterans Health Administration, Medical Information Resources Management Office, August 1993. Dworkin, R. Taking Rights Seriously. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977. Eaton, J.W. Card-Carrying Americans: Privacy, Security and the National I.D. Card Debate. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1986. Eddy, D.M. Variations in Physician Practice: The Role of Uncertainty. Health Affairs 3(Summer):74-89, 1984. Elison, L.M., and Nettiksimmons, D. The Right of Privacy. Montana Law Review 48:1-52, 1987. Equifax. Harris-Equifax Consumer Privacy Survey, 1992. Atlanta: Equifax, 1992. Faden, R. Maintaining the Balance Between the Privacy of Private Sector Health Records and the Need for Information: An Overview. Address given at a conference, ''Health Records: Social Needs and Personal Privacy," sponsored by the Task Force on Privacy, the Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C., February 11-12, 1993. Federal Register. Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects: Notices and Rules. 56:28002-28032, June 18, 1991. (For FDA policy, see Federal Register 56:28025-28029, June 18, 1991a.) Federal Register. Health Care Financing Administration. Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (proposing the Uniform Clinical Data Set). 56:67078-67080, December 27, 1991b. Fleming, C., Wasson, J.H., Albertsen, P.C., et al. A Decision Analysis of Alternative Treatment Strategies for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association 269:2650-2658, 1993. Fried, C. Privacy. Yale Law Journal 77:475-493, 1968. Gable, C.B. A Compendium of Public Health Data Sources. American Journal of Epidemiology 131:381-394, 1990. Gallagher, S.S., Finison, K., Guyer, B., and Goodenough, S. The Incidence of Injuries Among 87,000 Massachusetts Children and Adolescents: Results of the 1980-81 Statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program Surveillance System. American Journal of Public Health 74:1340-1346, 1984. GAO (General Accounting Office), Information Management and Technology Divison (IMTEC).

OCR for page 214
--> Medical ADP Systems: Automated Medical Records Hold Promise to Improve Patient Care. GAO/IMTEC-91-5. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991. GAO, IMTEC. Automated Medical Records. Leadership Needed to Expedite Standards Development. GAO/IMTEC-93-17. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993a. GAO, IMTEC. Health Care Information Systems. National Practitioner Data Bank Continues to Experience Problems. GAO/IMTEC-93-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993b. Gardner, E. UB-82 Forms Offer Wealth of Information, Misinformation. Modern Healthcare 20(38):18-29, 1990. Gates, M. Rochester Pioneers New Frontier with Cost and Quality Reform Model. Report on Medical Guidelines and Outcomes Research 4(18):11-12, 1993a. Gates, M. Patient Outcomes Take on Long-Term Implications at Henry Ford. Report on Medical Guidelines and Outcomes Research 4(20):6-7, 1993b. Gavison, R. Privacy and the Limits of Law. Yale Law Journal 89:421-471, 1980. Gellman, R.M. Prescribing Privacy: The Uncertain Role of the Physician in the Protection of Patient Privacy. North Carolina Law Review 62:255-294, 1984. Gerety, T. Redefining Privacy. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 12:233-296, 1977. Goldfield, N., and Nash, D.B., eds. Providing Quality Care: The Challenge to Clinicians. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, 1989. Gosfield, A.G. PSROs: The Law and the Health Consumer. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1975. Gostin, L. Consequences to the Individual of Data Collection and Information Use and Individual Rights and Expectations and Societal Needs. Panel presentation at a conference, "Health Records: Social Needs and Personal Privacy," sponsored by the Task Force on Privacy, the Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C., February 11, 12, 1993. Gostin, L.O., Brezina, J.T., Powers, M., et al. Privacy and Security of Personal Information in a New Health Care System. Journal of the American Medical Association 270:2482-2493, 1993. Greenfield, S. Adjusting for Severity: Variations in Outcomes. Paper presented at a conference, "Measuring, Managing, and Improving Quality in the ESRD Treatment Setting," sponsored by the Institute of Medicine, Washington, D.C., September 21-22, 1993. Greenfield, S., Aronow, H.U., Elashoff, R.M., and Watanabe, D. Flaws in Mortality Data. The Hazards of Ignoring Comorbid Disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 260:2253-2255, 1988. Hand, R., Sener, S., Imperato, J., et al. Hospital Variables Associated with Quality of Care for Breast Cancer Patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 266:3429-3432, 1991. Hannan, E.L., Bernard, H.R., O'Donnell, J.F., et al. A Methodology for Targeting Hospital Cases for Quality of Care Record Reviews. American Journal of Public Health 79:430 436, 1989a. Hannan, E.L., Kilburn, H., Bernard, H., et al. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: The Relationship Between In-Hospital Mortality Rate and Surgical Volume After Controlling for Clinical Risk Factors. Medical Care 29:1094-1107, 1991a. Hannan, E.L., Kilburn, H., Lindsey, M.L., et al. Clinical Versus Administrative Data Bases for CABG Surgery. Does It Matter? Medical Care 30:892-907, 1992. Hannan, E.L., Kilburn, H., O'Donnell, J.F., et al. Adult Open Heart Surgery in New York State: An Analysis of Risk Factors and Hospital Mortality Rates . Journal of the American Medical Association 264:2768-2774, 1990.

OCR for page 214
--> Hannan, E.L., Kilburn, H., O'Donnell, J.F., et al. Interracial Access to Selected Cardiac Procedures for Patients Hospitalized with Coronary Artery Disease in New York State. Medical Care 29:430-441, 1991b. Hannan, E.L., O'Donnell, J.F., Kilburn, H., et al. Investigation of the Relationship Between Volume and Mortality for Surgical Procedures Performed in New York State Hospitals. Journal of the American Medical Association 262:503-510, 1989b. Harris/Equifax. Health Care Information Privacy. A Survey of the Public and Leaders. Conducted for Equifax. New York: Louis Harris and Associates, 1993. HCFA (Health Care Financing Administration), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Medicare Hospital Mortality Information, 1986. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987. HCFA. Medicare Hospital Mortality Information, 1990. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991. Health Affairs. Special Issue: Variations in Medical Practice. 3(2):6-148, 1984. Health Pages. Green Bay/Madison/Milwaukee Edition. l(1):1-68, 1993. Health Pages. St. Louis Edition. 1(1):1-64, 1994. Hendricks, E. Hacker "Manual" Tells Wannabes How to Penetrate TRW Database. Privacy Times 12(15):1-2, 1992. Herdrich, M.A. California v. Greenwood: The Trashing of Privacy. The American University Law Review 38:993, 999-1002, 1989. Hibbert, C. What To Do When They Ask for Your Social Security Number. Available at: hibbert@xanadu.com, 1992. Hospital Inpatient Care. Washington Consumers' Checkbook 8(3):22-36, 1992. HSA (Health Security Act). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993. Iezzoni, L.I. Measuring the Severity of Illness and Case-mix. Pp. 70-105 in Providing Quality Care: The Challenge to Clinicians. N. Goldfield and D.B. Nash, eds. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, 1989. Iezzoni, L.I., Foley, S.M., Saley, J., et al. Comorbidities, Complications, and Coding Bias. Does the Number of Diagnosis Codes Matter in Predicting In-Hospital Mortality? Journal of the American Medical Association 267:2197-2203, 1992. Inquiry. Special Issue on Quality of Care. 25:423-468, 1988. IOM (Institute of Medicine). Access to Medical Review Data. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1981. IOM. Medicare: A Strategy for Quality Assurance. Volumes I and II K.N. Lohr, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990. IOM. The Computer-Based Patient Record: An Essential Technology for Health Care. R.S. Dick and E.B. Steen, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1991a. IOM. Kidney Failure and the Federal Government. R.A. Rettig and N.G. Levinsky, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1991b. IOM. Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use. M.J. Field and K.N. Lohr, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992a. IOM. Setting Priorities for Health Technology Assessment. A Model Process. M.S. Donaldson and H.C. Sox, Jr., eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992b. IOM. Access to Health Care in America. M.A. Millman, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993a. IOM. Assessing Genetic Risks: Implications for Health and Social Policy. L.B. Andrews, J.E. Fullarton, K.E. Hanna, N.A. Holtzman, and A.G. Motulsky, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993b. Prepublication copy. IOM. Assessing Health Care Reform. M.J. Field, K.N. Lohr, and K.D. Yordy, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993c.

OCR for page 214
--> IOM. Emergency Medical Services for Children. J.S. Durch and K.N. Lohr, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993d. IOM. Employment and Health Benefits: A Connection at Risk. M.J. Field and H.T. Shapiro, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993e. IOM/CBASSE (Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education). Toward A National Health Care Survey. A Data System for the 21st Century. G.S. Wunderlich, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992. Isikoff, M. Theft of U.S. Data Seen as Growing Threat to Privacy. Washington Post, December 28, 1991, p. Al. Kahn, K.L., Draper, D., Keeler, E.B., et al. The Effects of the DRG-Based Prospective Payment System on Quality of Care for Hospitalized Medicare Patients—Final Report. R3931-HCFA. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, 1992. Kaiser Permanente. 1993 Quality Report Card. Oakland, Calif.: Kaiser Permanente, 1993a. Kaiser Permanente. 1993 Quality Report Card Supplement. Performance Measure Methodologies. Oakland, Calif.: Kaiser Permanente, 1993b. Kane, R.L., and Lurie, N. Appropriate Effectiveness: A Tale of Carts and Horses. Quality Review Bulletin 18:322-326, 1992. Keeler, E.B., Kahn, K.L., Draper, D., et al. Changes in Sickness at Admission Following the Introduction of PPS. Pp. 24-43 in The Effects of the DRG-Based Prospective Payment System on Quality of Care for Hospitalized Medicare Patients. Final Report. K.L. Kahn, et al., eds. R-3931-HCFA. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, 1992a. Keeler, E.B., Rubenstein, L.V., Kahn, K.L., et al. Hospital Characteristics and Quality of Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:1709-1714, 1992b. Keller, J. The Vermont Program for Quality Health Care (mimeo handout). Burlington, Vt., National Health Policy Forum, June 7, 1993. Krakauer, H., and Jacoby, I. Predicting the Course of Disease. Inquiry 30:115-127, 1993. Kratka, J. For Their Eyes Only. The Insurance Industry and Consumer Privacy. Boston: Massachusetts Public Interest Research Group, 1990. Lasovich, D., White, E., Thomas, D.B., et al. Underutilization of Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy among Women with Stage I or II Breast Cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association 266:3433-3438, 1991. Leape, L.L., Hilborne, L.H., Kahan, J.P., et al. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft. A Literature Review and Ratings of Appropriateness and Necessity. RAND/JRA-02. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, 1991. Lohr, K.N. Commentary: Professional Peer Review in a "Competitive" Medical Market. Case Western Reserve Law Review.  The Legal Implications of Health Care Cost Containment: A Symposium 36(4):1175-1189, 1985-86. Lohr, K.N., Grossman, J.H., and Cassel, C.K. From the IOM. Issues in Measuring and Assuring Quality of Care for Health Care Reform. Journal of the American Medical Association 270:1911, 1993. Longo, D.R., Bohr, D.A., Miller, L., and Miller, J. Inventory of External Data Demands Placed on Hospitals. A Report of the Quality Measurement and Management Project. Chicago: The Hospital Research and Educational Trust, 1990. Luft, H.S., and Romano, P.S. Chance, Continuity, and Change in Hospital Mortality Rates: Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients in California Hospitals, 1983 to 1989. Journal of the American Medical Association 270:331-337, 1993. Lu-Yao, G.L., McLerran, D., Wasson, J., et al. An Assessment of Radical Prostatectomy. Time Trends, Geographic Variation, and Outcomes. Journal of the American Medical Association 269:2633-2636, 1993. McCloskey, H.J. Privacy and the Right to Privacy. Philosophy 55:17-38, 1980. McNeil, B.J., Pederson, S.H., and Gatsonis, C. Current Issues in Profiling Quality of Care. Inquiry 29:298-307, 1992.

OCR for page 214
--> McPherson, K., Strong, P.M., Epstein, A., et al. Regional Variations in the Use of Common Surgical Procedures: Within and Between England and Wales, Canada and the United States of America. Social Science and Medicine 15A:273-288, 1981. Marquis, M.S. Consumers' Knowledge About Their Health Insurance Coverage. R-2753HHS. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, 1981. Marquis, M.S., Kanouse, D.E., and Brodsley, L. Informing Consumers about Health Care Costs. A Review and Research Agenda. R-3262-HCFA. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, 1985. Martin, J. Managing the Database Environment. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1983. Mayo Foundation. Index to Medical Records Access Policy. Internal Document, May 1991. Merrick, N.L., Brook, R.H., Fink, A., et al. Use of Carotid Endarterectomy in Five California Veterans Administration Medical Centers. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:2531-2535, 1986. MIB (Medical Information Bureau). MIB Fact Sheet. Boston: MIB, 1989. Miller, M. Patients' Records Are Treasure Trove for Budding Industry. Wall Street Journal, February 27, 1992. Moses, L.E. Framework for Considering the Role of Data Bases in Technology Assessment. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 6:183-193, 1990. NAHDO (National Association of Health Data Organizations). NAHDO Resource Manual. Falls Church, Va.: NAHDO, 1988. NAHDO. The State Health Data Resource Manual: Hospital Discharge Data Systems. Falls Church, Va.: NAHDO, 1993. Nash, D.B. Is the Quality Cart Before the Horse? [editorial]. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:917-918, 1992. National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. Uniform Laws Annual 9(1):475. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Co., 1988. NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). National Health Interview Survey, 1991. Public Use Data Tape. NTIS Order No. PB93-500700. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service, 1993. Newhouse, J.P., and Insurance Experiment Group. Free for All? Lessons from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993. NRC (National Research Council). Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. G.T. Duncan , T.B. Jabine, and V.A. de Wolf, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1993. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). Federal Government Information Technology: Electronic Record Systems and Individual Privacy. OTA-CIT-296. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986, p. 15. OTA. The Quality of Medical Care: Information for Consumers. OTA-H-386. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988. OTA. Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information. OTA-TCT-576. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993. Palmer, R.H. Ambulatory Health Care Evaluation: Principles and Practice. Chicago: American Hospital Association, 1983. Palmer, R.H., and Adams, M.M.E. (Commissioned Paper). Quality Improvement/Quality Assurance Taxonomy: A Framework. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1993. Parent, W.A. Privacy, Morality, and the Law. Philosophy and Public Affairs 12:269-288, 1983. Patrick, D.C., Madden, C.W., Diehr, P., et al. Health Status and Use of Services Among Families With and Without Health Insurance. Medical Care 30:941-949, 1992. Paul, J.E., Weis, K.A., and Epstein, R.A. Data Bases for Variations Research. Medical Care 31:S96-S102, 1993.

OCR for page 214
--> PHCCCC (Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council). Hospital Effectiveness Report: A Model Report. HE 5-Volume I. Harrisburg: PHCCCC, 1989. PHCCCC. A Consumer's Guide to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery, Harrisburg: PHCCCC, 1992. Piller, C. Privacy in Peril. How Computers are Making Private Life a Thing of the Past. Macworld 10(7):124-130, 1993. Pipko, S., and Pucciarelli, A.J. The Soviet Internal Passport System. International Lawyer 19:915-919, 1985. Powers, M. Legal Protections of Confidential Medical Information and the Need for AntiDiscrimination Laws. Pp. 221-255 in AIDS, Women and the Next Generation. R. Faden, G. Geller, and M. Powers, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Powers, M. Privacy and the Control of Genetic Information. In The Genetic Frontier: Ethics, Law, and Policy . M.S. Frankel and A.H. Teich, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science Press, 1993. PPRC (Physician Payment Review Commission). Annual Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: PPRC, 1992. PPRC. Annual Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: PPRC, 1993. PPSC (Privacy Protection Study Commission). Personal Privacy in an Information Society. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977a. PPSC.  Appendix 4. The Privacy Act of 1974: An Assessment.  Washington,  D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977b. Rachels, J. Why Privacy Is Important. Philosophy and Public Affairs 4:323-333, 1975. Raskin, I.E., and Maklan, C.W. Medical Treatment Effectiveness Research. A View from Inside the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Evaluation & the Health Professions June: 161-186, 1991. Raz, J. The Morality of Freedom. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1986. Reiman, J.H. Privacy, Intimacy, and Personhood. Philosophy and Public Affairs 6:26-44, 1976. Roos, L.L., Cageorge, S.M., Austen, E., et al. Using Computers to Identify Complications After Surgery. American Journal of Public Health 75:1289-1295, 1985. Roos, L.L., Roos, N.P., Cageorge, S.M., et al. How Good Are the Data? Reliability of One Health Care Data Bank. Medical Care 20:266-276, 1982. Roos, L.L., Sharp, S.M., Cohen, M.M., and Wajda, A. Risk Adjustment in Claims-Based Research: The Search for Efficient Approaches. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 42:1193-1206, 1989. Roos, N.P. Hysterectomy: Variations in Rates Across Small Areas and Across Physicians' Practices. American Journal of Public Health 74:327-335, 1984. Roos, N.P., Black, C., Frolich, N., et al. Assessing the Relationship Between Health Care Use and the Health of a Population: Seeking Levers for Policy Makers. Daedalus 1993, in press. Roos, N.P., and Roos, L.L. High and Low Surgical Rates: Risk Factors for Area Residents. American Journal of Public Health 71:591-600, 1981. Roper, W.L., Winkenwerder, W., Hackbarth, G.M., et al. Effectiveness in Health Care: An Initiative to Evaluate and Improve Medical Practice. New England Journal of Medicine 319:1197-1202, 1988. Rothfeder, J. Privacy for Sale. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. Schoeman, F.D. Privacy: Philosophical Dimensions of the Literature. In Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy: An Anthology. F.D. Schoeman, ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Shattuck, J. In the Shadow of 1984: National Identification Systems, Computer-Matching and Privacy in the United States. Hastings Law Journal 35:991-1005, 1984.

OCR for page 214
--> Shils, E. Privacy: Its Constitution and Vicissitudes. Law and Contemporary Problems 31:281, 282, 1966. Smith, S. NHIS Electronic Data Products. Public Health Reports 108:409, 1993. Stern, R.S. Record Linkage. A Powerful Tool for Epidemiological Analysis [editorial]. Archives of Dermatology 122:1383-1384, 1986. Steven, C. Good Medicine. Washingtonian 29:90-114, 1993. Tanouye, E. Merck Will Exploit Medco's Database. Wall Street Journal, August 4, 1993, p. B1. Thomson, J.J. The Right to Privacy. Philosophy and Public Affairs 4:295-314, 1975. Tillmann, I.A., and Sullivan, S. Quality and the Future of American Health Care. In Building Blocks for Change: How Health Care Reform Affects Our Future. J.A. Meyer and S. Silow-Carroll, eds. Washington, D.C.: The Economic and Social Research Institute, 1993. Tribe, L. American Constitutional Law. Mineola, Minn.: Foundation, 1978. Trubow, G.B. (ed.) Privacy Law and Practice. New York: Bender, 1991. Turkington, R.C. Legal Protection for the Confidentiality of Health Care Information in Pennsylvania: Patient and Client Access; Testimonial Privileges; Damage Recovery for Unauthorized Extra-Legal Disclosure. Villanova Law Review 32:259, 269, 1987. USDHEW (U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare). Secretary's Advisory Committee Report on Automated Personal Data Systems. Records, Computers and the Rights of Citizens. DHEW Pub. No. (OS)73-97. 1973. USDHHS. Report to Congress: The Feasibility of Linking Research-Related Data Bases to Federal and Non-Federal Medical Administrative Data Bases. AHCPR Pub. No. 910003. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1991. USDHHS. Literature Review. Automated Data Sources for Ambulatory Care Effectiveness Research. M.L. Grady and H.A. Schwartz, eds. AHCPR Pub. No. 93-0042. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1993a. USDHHS. Protecting Human Research Subjects.  Institutional Review Board Guidebook. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993b. U.S. News & World Report. 1991 Survey on America's Best Hospitals. August 5, 1991. U.S. News & World Report 1992 Annual Guide on America's Best Hospitals. June 15, 1992. U.S. News & World Report 1993 Annual Guide on America's Best Hospitals. 115(2):68-94, 1993. U.S. Senate, Subcommittee on Courts, Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Federal Identification Systems: Hearings on S. 1706 before the Subcommittee on Courts, Senate Committee on the Judiciary. 98th Congress, 1st Session 5, July 19, October 5, 21, 1983, p. 169. VanAmringe, M., and Shannon, T.E. Commentary: Awareness, Assimilation, and Adoption: The Challenge of Effective Dissemination and the First AHCPR-Sponsored Guidelines. Quality Review Bulletin 18:397-404, 1992. Waller, A.A. Appendix B. Legal Aspects of Computer-Based Patient Records and Record Systems. In The Computer-Based Patient Record: An Essential Technology for Health Care. R.S. Dick and E.B. Steen, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1991. Waller, A.A. Confidentiality Issues in Electronic Data Interchange. Conference on Electronic Data Interchange: If You Are a Health Care Provider, It Applies to You! Bloomington, Minn., November 20, 1992. Ware, W. The New Faces of Privacy. The Information Society 9:195-211, 1993. Warren, S.D., and Brandeis, L.D. The Right to Privacy. Harvard Law Review 4:193-220, 1890. (See further, Katz v. United States 389 U.S. 347; 1967.) Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language. 2nd ed. D.B. Guralnik, ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980. WEDI (Workgroup for Electronic Data Interchange). Report to Secretary of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1992.

OCR for page 214
--> Weissman, J.S., Gatsonis, C., and Epstein, A.M. Rates of Avoidable Hospitalization by Insurance States in Massachusetts and Maryland. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:2426-2427, 1992. Welch, W.P., Miller, M.E., Welch, H.G., et al. Geographic Variation in Expenditures for Physicians' Services in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 328:621-627, 1993. Wennberg, J.E. Dealing with Medical Practice Variations: A Proposal for Action. Health Affairs 3:6-32, 1984. Wennberg, J.E. Small Area Analysis and the Medical Care Outcome Problem. Pp. 17-206 in AHCPR Conference Proceedings: Research Methodology: Strengthening Causal Interpretations of Nonexperimental Data. L. Sechrest, E. Perrin, and J. Bunker, eds. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 90-3454, Rockville, Md.: Department of Health and Human Services, 1990. Wennberg, J.E., and Gittelsohn, A. Variations in Medical Care Among Small Areas. Scientific American 246:120-134, 1982. Wennberg, J.E., Barnes, B.A., and Zubkoff, M. Professional Uncertainty and the Problem of Supplier-Induced Demand. Social Science and Medicine 16:811-824, 1982. Wennberg, J.E., McPherson, K., and Caper, P. Will Payment Based on Diagnosis-Related Groups Control Hospital Costs? New England Journal of Medicine 311:295-300, 1984. Wenneker, M.B., and Epstein, A.M. Racial Inequalities in the Use of Procedures for Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease in Massachusetts. Journal of the American Medical Association 261:253-257, 1989. Wenneker, M.B., Weissman, J.S., and Epstein, A.M. The Association of Payer with Utilization of Cardiac Procedures in Massachusetts. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1255-1260, 1990. Westin, A.F. Privacy and Freedom. New York: Atheneum, 1967, p. 39. Westin, A.F. Databanks in a Free Society. Computers, Recordkeeping and Privacy. (Report of the Project on Computer Databanks of the Computer Science and Engineering Board, National Academy of Sciences.) New York: Quadrangle, 1972. Westin, A.F. Computers, Health Records, and Citizen Rights. Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Bureau of Standards, 1976. Whittle, J., Conigliaro, J., Good, C.B., and Lofgren, R.P. Racial Differences in the Use of Invasive Cardiovascular Procedures in the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical System. New England Journal of Medicine 329:621-627, 1993. Wilensky, G., and Jencks, S. The Health Care Quality Improvement Initiative: A New Approach to Quality Assurance in Medicare. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:900-903, 1992. William M. Mercer, Inc. CHMIS Information Repository. Hartford Foundation Grant. Initial Analytic Framework Deliverable for Task 7. Seattle: William M. Mercer, Inc., 1993. Williamson, J.W. Assessing and Improving Outcomes in Health Care: The Theory and Practice of Health Accounting. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1978. Winslow, C.M., Kosecoff, J.B., Chassin, M., et al. The Appropriateness of Performing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. Journal of the American Medical Association 260:505-509, 1988a. Winslow, C.M., Solomon, D.H., Chassin, M.R., et al. The Appropriateness of Carotid Endarterectomy. New England Journal of Medicine 318:721-727, 1988b. Work Group on Computerization of Patient Records. Toward a National Health Information Infrastructure. Report of the Workgroup to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, April 1993. Zinman, D. Heart Surgeons Rated. State Reveals Patient-Mortality Records. Newsday, December 18, 1991, p. 3.