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Appendix

Author Biographies

Leslie Z. Benet, Ph.D., is Professor and Chairman in the Department of Pharmacy at the University of California, San Francisco. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of California, and in 1987 was awarded a Pharm. D. honoris causa from Uppsala University in Sweden. His current research interests and more than 270 publications are in the areas of pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, and pharmacodynamics of immunosuppressive agents, organic nitrates, and NSAIDs. In 1987, Dr. Benet was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He currently serves the IOM as Chair of the Committee on Antiprogestins: Assessing the Science, and as a member of the Forum on Drug Development and Regulation.

Chloe E. Bird, Ph.D., is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Joint Program in Society and Health at the New England Medical Center and Harvard School of Public Health. She earned her Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She has published on gender stratification in the labor force and the social determinants of gender differences in health. Her current research interests include women's representation in the health professions, the effects of the division of household labor and perceived fairness of role allocation on men's and women's mental health, and the social and economic consequences of parenthood for men's and women's health.

Bonnie Ellen Blustein, Ph.D., completed her undergraduate work in philosophy at Radcliffe College (Harvard University) and earned her Ph.D. in History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania. She has taught U.S. history, the history of science, and the history of medicine at the University of



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Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2 - Workshop and Commissioned Papers Appendix Author Biographies Leslie Z. Benet, Ph.D., is Professor and Chairman in the Department of Pharmacy at the University of California, San Francisco. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of California, and in 1987 was awarded a Pharm. D. honoris causa from Uppsala University in Sweden. His current research interests and more than 270 publications are in the areas of pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, and pharmacodynamics of immunosuppressive agents, organic nitrates, and NSAIDs. In 1987, Dr. Benet was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He currently serves the IOM as Chair of the Committee on Antiprogestins: Assessing the Science, and as a member of the Forum on Drug Development and Regulation. Chloe E. Bird, Ph.D., is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Joint Program in Society and Health at the New England Medical Center and Harvard School of Public Health. She earned her Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She has published on gender stratification in the labor force and the social determinants of gender differences in health. Her current research interests include women's representation in the health professions, the effects of the division of household labor and perceived fairness of role allocation on men's and women's mental health, and the social and economic consequences of parenthood for men's and women's health. Bonnie Ellen Blustein, Ph.D., completed her undergraduate work in philosophy at Radcliffe College (Harvard University) and earned her Ph.D. in History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania. She has taught U.S. history, the history of science, and the history of medicine at the University of

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Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2 - Workshop and Commissioned Papers Wisconsin-Madison, Northwestern University, the University of Louisville, and elsewhere. Dr. Blustein is the author of Preserve Your Love for Science: Life of William A. Hammond, American Neurologist (1991) and Educating for Health and Prevention: A History of the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine at the (Woman's) Medical College of Pennsylvania (1993). She has also published numerous articles. Dr. Blustein is presently completing a book on the history of neurology in America, 1863–1945. Her other current research interests include intersections of race/class, and ways in which neurology and neuroscience have been invoked in discussions of social policy issues. Sandra D. Cassard, Sc.D., earned her Sc.D. in Health Policy and Management from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. Her research interests are in the areas of women's health and the relationship between health care services and patient outcomes. R. Alta Charo, J.D., is Assistant Professor of Law and Medical Ethics at the University of Wisconsin Schools of Law and Medicine. She holds honors degrees in biology (Harvard-Radcliffe) and law (Columbia), and has served as Associate Director of the Legislative Drafting Research Fund, Legal Analyst for the Biological Applications Program of the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, and Policy Analyst for the Office of Population of the U.S. Agency for International Development. Professor Charo has served on the steering committee for the International Association for Bioethics and currently serves on the executive boards of the Alan Guttmacher Institute and International Projects Assistance Services. She is currently working on a series of articles concerning reproductive choice in light of enhanced genetic knowledge, and has begun a project on the role of biology as ideology in the political and legal arenas. Ellen Wright Clayton, J.D., M.D., is a graduate of Yale Law School and Harvard Medical School. She is currently Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Assistant Professor of Law at Vanderbilt University, as well as a Charles E. Culpepper Foundation Scholar in Medical Humanities. Her research interests include informed consent, the doctor-patient relationship, and factors that lead patients to sue their physicians. She also has a long-standing interest in the impact of new reproductive technologies on women and in the legal, ethical, and social implications of technologies that make it possible to diagnose and treat genetic disorders. Debra A. DeBruin, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She earned her Ph.D. at the University of Pittsburgh. Her primary research interests lie in the areas of ethics, social and political philosophy, and the philosophy of feminism.

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Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2 - Workshop and Commissioned Papers Elizabeth Fee, Ph.D., is Professor of History and Health Policy at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, and holds a joint appointment in the Johns Hopkins Institute for the History of Medicine. She is the author of Disease and Discovery (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987), editor of Women and Health (Baywood, 1983), and co-editor, with Roy M. Acheson, of A History of Education in Public Health (Oxford University Press, 1991). She is also co-editor, with Daniel M. Fox, of AIDS: The Burdens of History (University of California Press, 1992), and serves as contributing editor for history for the American Journal of Public Health. She teaches courses at Johns Hopkins on the History of Public Health, the History of Health Policy, and Women's Health. Ellen Flannery, J.D., is Partner in the law firm of Covington and Burling in Washington, D.C. Her practice includes pharmaceutical and medical device law. She has been a Lecturer in Food and Drug Law at the University of Virginia Law School from 1984–1990, and has written several articles on the regulation of drugs and medical devices. Ms. Flannery is Chair of the American Bar Association (ABA) Section on Science and Technology and Vice Chair of the Food and Drug Law Committee of the ABA's Business Law Section. Ms. Flannery earned her J.D. cum laude from Boston University School of Law, where she served as Editor-in-Chief of the Law Review, and an A.B. cum Laude from Mount Holyoke College. Vanessa Northington Gamble, M.D., Ph.D., is an associate Professor in the Departments of History of Medicine, Preventive Medicine, and Family Medicine at the University of Wisconsin. She teaches courses on health policy, race and American medicine, and the history of American medicine. She obtained a M.D. and a Ph.D. in the History and Sociology of Science from the University of Pennsylvania. Her primary area of research is the history of race and racism in American medicine. She has written and lectured extensively on the topic. Her book Making A Place For Ourselves: The Black Hospital Movement, 1920–1945, will be published next year by Oxford University Press. She is presently working on a history of black women physicians and a study of how issues of race have influenced American medical thought. Sanford N. Greenberg, J.D., is an associate in the law firm of Covington & Burling in Washington, D.C. He specializes in environmental insurance coverage and federal and state health care funding. Mr. Greenberg received his J.D. with highest honors from the George Washington University National Law Center, where he was Editor-in-Chief of the Law Review. He received his A.B. from Princeton University, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Mr. Greenberg also has earned an M.A. and Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of California at Berkeley under fellowships from the Danforth Foundation and

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Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2 - Workshop and Commissioned Papers National Science Foundation. Prior to associating with Covington & Burling in 1991, Mr. Greenberg was a law clerk on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Tracy Johnson, M.A., is Project Manager for the Society for the Advancement of Women's Health Research at the Bass & Howes consulting firm. She holds an M.A. in Religious and Biomedical Ethics. Her research and publications have focused on women's health and have included such topics as women in clinical trials, sexual assault, RU486, cocaine use in pregnancy, prenatal diagnosis, and women in academic medicine. Ms. Johnson has also served as the Community Education Coordinator for the Sexual Assault Resource Agency in Charlottesville, Virginia, and as Project Manager at Commonwealth Clinical Systems, a data processing company for Medicare Peer Review Organizations (PROs). Robert J. Levine, M.D., is Professor of Medicine (medical ethics) and Lecturer in Pharmacology at Yale University School of Medicine. He is Chairperson of the Institutional Review Board at Yale-New Haven Medical Center and a Fellow of the Hastings Center and of the American College of Physicians. Dr. Levine is Editor of IRB: A Review of Human Subjects Research and has served as a consultant to several federal and international agencies involved in the development of policy for the protection of human subjects. He is author of numerous publications including Ethics and Regulation of Research (2nd ed., 1986). Barbara W. Lex, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Associate Professor of Psychiatry/Anthropology in the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center of the Department of Psychiatry of Harvard Medical School. She received her Ph.D. in (medical) anthropology from Syracuse University in 1969, and began work in alcohol and drug abuse problems. Dr. Lex received her M.P.H. from the Harvard School of Public Health in 1982, having focused her studies on psychiatric epidemiology, health care promotion, and public health policy and management. Throughout her career Dr. Lex has published and reviewed several publications on the epidemiology of alcohol effects on women, youth, elderly, and minority group members (American Indians, Hispanics, and African Americans). Wendy K. Mariner, J.D., LL.M., M.P.H., is Professor of Health Law at Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health. She earned her J.D. from Columbia University, her LL.M. in Taxation from New York University, and her M.P.H. from Harvard School of Public Health. Before joining Boston University, Professor Mariner taught Health Law at Harvard School of Public Health and Harvard Medical School, where she remains a Lecturer in Social

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Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2 - Workshop and Commissioned Papers Medicine. At Boston University, she is a senior faculty member in the Law, Medicine, and Ethics Program and faculty advisor for the J.D.-M.P.H. joint degree program. Professor Mariner has been named an American Foundation for AIDS Research/Michael Bennett Scholar to study AIDS and the future of legal entitlement to health care. Vanessa Merton, J.D., is Associate Dean for Clinical Education and Professor of Law at Pace University School of Law. Formerly a professor and Director of Clinical Programs at City University of New York Law School and New York University Law School, she currently teaches health law courses and supervises the Health Law Clinic. Professor Merton was the founding chairperson of the Institutional Review Board of the Community Research Initiative of New York, one of the first centers for community-based biomedical research on AIDS, and the first Associate for Law at the Hastings Center Institute for Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences. She has lectured and written extensively on issues of biomedical and professional ethics, health law, and professional education. Janet L. Mitchell, M.D., M.P.H., is Chief of Perinatology at Harlem Hospital Center and Assistant Professor at Columbia University School of Public Health and College of Physicians and Surgeons. She earned her M.D. from the Howard University School of Medicine and her M.P.H. from the Harvard University School of Public Health. Dr. Mitchell directs the largest prenatal program for substance abusing pregnant women in New York City. Her career interests include substance abuse by pregnant women, women and AIDS, adolescent pregnancy, and infant mortality. Jonathan D. Moreno, Ph.D., is Professor of Pediatrics and of Medicine (Bioethics) and Director of the Division of Humanities in Medicine at the SUNY Health Sciences Center in Brooklyn. He is also an Adjunct Associate of the Hastings Center. Currently, Dr. Moreno is collaborating on a clinical ethics textbook and writing a book on consensus in bioethics. Janice Racine Norris, M.A., graduated from Smith College in 1984 with an A.B. in European History. She received a M.A. in European Medieval History from Boston College in 1987, and is currently a doctoral candidate at Binghamton University where her dissertation topic focused on Anglo-Saxon women of the late sixth to mid-ninth centuries and their participation in the Christianization of England. Ms. Norris has a long-standing interest in contemporary women's issues, and in recent years has developed an interest in Native Americans of the Southwest. John Robertson, J.D., is Thomas Watt Gregory Professor of Law at the University of Texas School of Law at Austin. A graduate of Dartmouth College

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Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2 - Workshop and Commissioned Papers and Harvard Law School, he has written widely on law and bioethics issues, including the book, The Rights of the Critically Ill and numerous articles on reproductive rights, organ transplantation, and human experimentation. A Fellow of the Hastings Center, he has served on a federal Task Force on Organ Transplantation, on the National Institutes of Health Panel on Fetal Tissues Transplantation Research, and on the Ethics Committee of the American Fertility Society. His new book, Autonomy and Ambivalence: Reproductive Technology and the Limits of Procreative Liberty, will be published in 1994 by Princeton University Press. Susan Sherwin, Ph.D., is Professor of Philosophy and Women's Studies at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. She earned a Ph.D. in Philosophy from Stanford University, and was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Moral Problems in Medicine Project, Case Western Reserve University. Ms. Sherwin is the author of No Longer Patient: Feminist Ethics and Health Care (Temple University Press, 1992). Bonnie Steinbock, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Albany. Her publications are in applied ethics, primarily bioethics. She is the author of Life Before Birth: The Moral and Legal Status of Embryos and Fetuses (Oxford University Press, 1992). Diane Stoy, R.N., Ed.D., is Operations Director of the Lipid Research Clinic at the George Washington University, where she is also Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Care Sciences. Ms. Stoy has designed and directed recruitment and adherence programs for a variety of collaborative clinical studies involving women, such as studies with young women and oral contraceptives, postmenopausal women and hormone replacement, and elderly women and cholesterol-lowering medications. Carol S. Weisman, Ph.D., is Professor of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. She holds a Ph.D. in Social Relations from Johns Hopkins. She has conducted research on a variety of issues related to women's health, including studies of women's use of contraception and cancer screening services; provision of fertility-control services to women; gender differences in physician-patient communication; and effects of shift work on women's health. She is currently studying prevention of unintended pregnancy and STDs among adolescent and young adult men and women in Baltimore.

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Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2 - Workshop and Commissioned Papers Elena S. H. Yu, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Public Health in the Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics of the Graduate School of Public Health at San Diego State University. Dr. Yu has conducted research in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and the United States in the areas of minority and women's health, aging and dementia, and caregiving and caregiver's burden. She has published numerous scientific articles in the areas of epidemiology and neurology. In 1984 and 1985, Dr. Yu served as a consultant to the Secretary of Health and Human Services' Task Force on Black and Minority Health. In 1993, she served as a consultant to the Centers for Disease Control on the issue of measurements and uses of race and ethnicity in public health. Ruth E. Zambrana, Ph.D.,, is Associate Professor of Social Welfare at UCLA (on leave). She is currently serving as a Senior Research Scientist at the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Center for Medical Effectiveness Research in Rockville, Maryland. Her research areas of interest are in racial and ethnic differences in factors which influence health status, family and children's health, and pregnancy outcome in low-income groups.

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