High-Stakes Aviation:

U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft

Committee on Japan

Office of Japan Affairs

Office of International Affairs

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C. 1994



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High-Stakes Aviation: U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft High-Stakes Aviation: U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft Committee on Japan Office of Japan Affairs Office of International Affairs National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1994

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High-Stakes Aviation: U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard to appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was made possible with funding support from the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of Commerce, and the Japan-United States Friendship Commission. Available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94–65759 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05045-6 B-322 Copyright © 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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High-Stakes Aviation: U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft Systems Systems 3 0 2004-01-01T23:05:00Z 2004-01-01T23:06:00Z 1 143 819 DPSL 6 1 1005 9.4402 COMMITTEE ON JAPAN Erich Bloch, Chairman Council on Competitiveness Richard J. Samuels, Vice-Chairman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sherwood L. Boehlert U.S. House of Representatives Lewis M. Branscomb Harvard University G. Steven Burrill Burrill & Craves Lawrence W. Clarkson The Boeing Co. Mildred S. Dresselhaus Massachusetts Institute of Technology David A. Duke Corning, Inc. James M. Fallows The Atlantic Daniel J. Fink D. J. Fink Associates, Inc. John O. Haley University of Washington Jim F. Martin Rockwell International Joseph A. Massey Dartmouth College Mike M. Mochizuki RAND Corp. Hugh T. Patrick Columbia University John D. Rockefeller IV United States Senate Robert A. Scalapino University of California, Berkeley Susan C. Schwab Motorola, Inc. Ex Officio Members: Gerald P. Dinneen, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering James B. Wyngaarden, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine

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High-Stakes Aviation: U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft WORKING GROUP ON U.S.-JAPAN TECHNOLOGY LINKAGES IN TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT Daniel J. Fink, Chairman D. J. Fink Associates, Inc. Lawrence W. Clarkson The Boeing Co. Thomas M. Culligan McDonnell Douglas Jacques S. Gansler TASC (The Analytic Sciences Corp.) John R. Girotto Collins Commercial Avionics Jim C. Hoover Northrop Corp. Lee Kapor GE Aircraft Engine Group Donald H. Lang Pratt & Whitney Edward J. Lincoln* The Brookings Institution Richard J. Samuels Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert M. White Carnegie Mellon University *   Edward Lincoln is currently Special Economic Advisor to the U.S. Ambassador to Japan.

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High-Stakes Aviation: U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft OFFICE OF JAPAN AFFAIRS Since 1985 the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering have engaged in a series of high-level discussions on advanced technology and the international environment with a counterpart group of Japanese scientists, engineers, and industrialists. One outcome of these discussions was a deepened understanding of the importance of promoting a more balanced two-way flow of people and information between the research and development systems in the two countries. Another result was a broader recognition of the need to address the science and technology policy issues increasingly central to a changing U.S.-Japan relationship. In 1987 the National Research Council, the operating arm of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, authorized first-year funding for a new Office of Japan Affairs (OJA). This newest program element of the Office of International Affairs was formally established in the spring of 1988. The primary objectives of OJA are to provide a resource to the Academy complex and the broader U.S. science and engineering communities for information on Japanese science and technology, to promote better working relationships between the technical communities in the two countries by developing a process of deepened dialogue on issues of mutual concern, and to address policy issues surrounding a changing U.S.-Japan science and technology relationship. Staff Alexander De Angelis, Director* Thomas Arrison, Research Associate Maki Fife, Program Assistant *   Alexander De Angelis assumed the position of Director of the Office of Japan Affairs after the departure of Martha Caldwell Harris.

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High-Stakes Aviation: U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1.   INTRODUCTION   8 2.   BACKGROUND AND POLICY CONTEXT   12     Historical Background   12     U.S. and Japanese Policies   15 3.   CURRENT STATUS OF U.S.-JAPAN LINKAGES   36     Airframes   36     Composites   46     Engines   49     Avionics   54     Other Components and Subsystems   56     Distinctive Features of U.S.-Japan Linkages   58 4.   FUTURE TRENDS   65     Markets   65     New Programs   67     Advanced Technology   68     Impact of Broad Industry Forces   69     Possible Scenarios and Implications for U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages   71 5.   CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS   74     The Global Context and U.S. National Interests   74     The Japanese Aircraft Industry,   75     U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages   76     Developing a U.S. Strategy   77

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High-Stakes Aviation: U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Transport Aircraft     APPENDIXES     A.   The Importance of the U.S. Aircraft Industry   95 B.   U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Airframes and Aircraft Systems   103 C.   U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Aeroengines   128