capabilities starting from old know-how.18 While it appears that the level of technology transfer to Japan that is occurring through the FS-X program is higher than what occurred in connection with the F-15, the extent to which the Japanese will be able to capitalize on it—in military as well as commercial aircraft development—is still an open question.

Finally, there is also considerable disagreement about the value of Japanese technology developed for the program that U.S. industry will have access to (either as flowback or through licensing). Observers disagree on the quality of Japan's phased array radar technology. While General Dynamics is reported to have found the flowback of composite wing technology from Mitsubishi to be useful, with the sale of the fighter division to Lockheed—which has been viewed as superior to General Dynamics in composites technology—the ultimate value of technology transfer in this area is uncertain. It is safe to say that the value of the technology flow to the United States is nowhere near the value that has flowed to Japan through this program.


Chinworth, op. cit., p. 155. He also remarks on the irony of the pains taken by the United States to avoid transferring design technology during the F-15 program, only to transfer F-16 design technology to the same companies a few years later.

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