References and Bibliography

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). 1993. Supercritical water oxidation program in conjunction with General Atomics and the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute. Champaign.


Baronian, C. 1994. Personal communication on the status of the stockpile. Office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD.


Castle, G. 1993. Hazardous waste facility siting in Manitoba—Case study of a success. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 43:963-968.

Cheng, T.C., S.P. Harvey, and A. McKenzie. 1993a. Cloning and expression of a bacterial nerve agent degrading enzyme from Alteromonas JD6.5. ERDEC Scientific Conference on Chemical Defense Research, November 16-19.

Cheng, T.C., S.P. Harvey, and A.N. Stroup. 1993b. Purification and properties of a highly active organophorus acid anhydrolase from Alteromonas undina. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59:3138-3140.

Cooper, J.F., and R. McGuire. 1983. Catalyzed Direct Chemical Oxidation of Chemical Warfare Agents: Applications in Agent Destruction and Decontamination. Proposal from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.

Copa, W.M., and R.W. Lehmann. 1992. Wet-air oxidation for the destruction of chemical agents. Presentation at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5.



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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions References and Bibliography Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). 1993. Supercritical water oxidation program in conjunction with General Atomics and the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute. Champaign. Baronian, C. 1994. Personal communication on the status of the stockpile. Office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD. Castle, G. 1993. Hazardous waste facility siting in Manitoba—Case study of a success. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 43:963-968. Cheng, T.C., S.P. Harvey, and A. McKenzie. 1993a. Cloning and expression of a bacterial nerve agent degrading enzyme from Alteromonas JD6.5. ERDEC Scientific Conference on Chemical Defense Research, November 16-19. Cheng, T.C., S.P. Harvey, and A.N. Stroup. 1993b. Purification and properties of a highly active organophorus acid anhydrolase from Alteromonas undina. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59:3138-3140. Cooper, J.F., and R. McGuire. 1983. Catalyzed Direct Chemical Oxidation of Chemical Warfare Agents: Applications in Agent Destruction and Decontamination. Proposal from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA. Copa, W.M., and R.W. Lehmann. 1992. Wet-air oxidation for the destruction of chemical agents. Presentation at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5.

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Dave, K., J. Wild, B. Xu, C. Lauriano, and C. Kenerley. 1993a. Expression of the organophosphate hydrolase in the filamentous fungi Gliocladium virens. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. In press. Dave, K., C.E. Miller, and J.R. Wild. 1993b. Characterization of the organophosphorus hydrolases and the genetic manipulation of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta. Chemico-Biological Interactions 87:55-68. Dempsey, C.R., and E.T. Oppelt. 1993. Incineration of hazardous waste: A critical review update. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 43(1). Department of Defense (DOD). 1993. Large Rocket Motor Demilitarization Technology Review and Research and Development Funding Requirement for Fiscal Year 1991-1992. Twenty-fourth DOD Explosives Safety Seminar, St. Louis, MO. August 28-30. Driver, J.H., H.W. Rogers, and L.D. Claxion. 1990. Mutagenicity of combustion emissions from a biomedical waste incinerator. Waste Management 10:177-183. Evans, M. 1993. Information supplied by the Office of Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen, MD. Flamm, K.J., Q. Kwan, and W.B. McNulty, 1987. Chemical Agent and Munition Disposal: Summary of the U.S. Army' s Experience. Report SAPEO-CDE-IS-87005. Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. GA Technologies. 1987. Program Manager for Chemical Munitions, Interim Report on the Risk Analysis of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System. GA-C18714. Santa Monica, CA. Hance, B.J., C. Chess, and P.M. Sandman. 1988. Improving Dialogue with Communities: A Risk Communication Manual for Government. Environmental Communication Research Program, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Harvey, S.P., and J.J. DeFrank. 1993. Biodegradation of chemical warfare agents: Demilitarization applications in Army Science: The New Frontiers. D. Kamely, K.A. Bannister and R.M. Sasmore, eds. Saratoga, WY. Borg Biomedical Books.

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Harvey, S.P., L.L. Szafraniec, W.T. Beaudry, K. Dave, and J.R. Wild, 1993a. OPH: Studies with DFP, G-agents and VX. Biotechnical aspects of synthesis and degradation. U.S. Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Harvey, S.P., K. Dave, and J.R. Wild. 1993b. Enzymatic catalysis of molar concentrations of munitions-grade GB. Proceedings of the 1993 ERDEC scientific conference on chemical defense research. U.S. Army ERDEC Technical Report. In press. Harvey, S.P., A.N. Stroup, W.T. Beaudry, L.L. Szafraniec, P.C. Bossle, J.E. Kolakowski, L.R. Procell, D.K. Rohrbaugh, D.C. Sorrick, Y-C. Yang, 1993c. Alternatives to incineration for chemical demilitarization: studies of HD hydrolysis. Proceedings of the 1993 ERDEC Scientific Conference on chemical defense research. U.S. Army ERDEC Technical Report. In press. Institute of Medicine (IOM). 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Kaplan, S., and B. J. Garrick. 1981. On the Quantitative Definition of Risk. Risk Analysis, 1 (1). Kolakowski, J.E., J.J. DeFrank, and J.R. Wild. 1993. Hydrolysis of VX and its analogs by organophosphorous hydrolase. CRDEC Conference on Chemical Warfare, Aberdeen, MD. November 17-19. MITRE. 1991. Evaluation of the GB Rocket Campaign: Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing . McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation. MITRE. 1992. Evaluation of the VX Rocket Test: Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing. McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation. MITRE. 1993a. Evaluation of the HD Ton Container Test: Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing (April). McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation. MITRE. 1993b. Evaluation of the HD Projectile Test: Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing (May). McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation.

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions MITRE. 1993c. Summary Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing (May). McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation. MITRE. 1993d. Physical and Chemical Integrity of the Chemical Weapons Stockpile—Assessment of the U.S. Chemical Weapons Stockpile: Integrity and Risk Analysis (July). McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation. Moynihan, P.I., L.E. Compton, J. Houseman, J.J. Kalvinskas, and J.B. Stephens. 1983. Safe Disposal Techniques for DOD Toxic Waste. Volume I, Final Technical Report for the Period 17 June 1982 to 17 August 1983. JPL D-918. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 1969. Report of the Disposal Hazards of Certain Chemical Warfare Agents and Munitions. Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of the National Academy of Sciences . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993. 1992. S. 3114. Congressional Record, 138:(129), September 21. National Research Council (NRC). 1984. Disposal of Chemical Munitions and Agents. Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1989a. Improving Risk Communication. Committee on Risk Perception and Communication, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1989b. Demilitarization of Chemical Weapons: Cryofracture. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology. National Research Council (NRC). 1991a. Letter report to Assistant Secretary of the Army on the siting of a cryofracture disposal facility. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology.

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions National Research Council (NRC). 1991b. Letter report, Comments on Proposed Cryofracture Program Testing. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology. National Research Council (NRC). 1991c. Demilitarization of Chemical Weapons by Cryofracture, A Technical Assessment. Panel on the Current Status of the Cryofracture Process. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology. National Research Council (NRC). 1993a. Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1993b. Letter report to the Assistant Secretary of the Army, Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing: Part I. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology. National Research Council (NRC). 1993c. Letter report to Assistant Secretary of the Army to recommend specific actions to further enhance the CSDP risk management process. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology. National Research Council (NRC). 1994a. Review of Monitoring Activities Within the Chemical Demilitarization Program. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1994b. Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing: Part II. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology. Office of Federal Facilities Enforcement (OFFE). 1993. Recommendations for Improving the Federal Facility Environmental Restoration Decision-Making Process and Setting Priorities in the Event of Funding Shortfalls. Interim Report of the Federal Facilities Environmental Restoration Dialogue Committee (February). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress. 1992. Disposal of Chemical Weapons: An Analysis of Alternatives to Incineration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Picardi, A., P. Johnston, and R. Stringer. 1991. Alternative Technologies for the Detoxification of Chemical Weapons: An Information Document. Prepared for Greenpeace International, Washington, D.C. PLG, Inc. 1993. Briefing presented at the Alternative Technologies Forum, Washington, D.C., June 30. Reichert, C. 1975. Study of Mustard Destruction by Hydrolysis. Report DRES-TN-329. Defense Research Establishment Suffield Ralston, Canada. Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). 1985. M55 Rocket Disposal Program Study, M55-CS-02, Probabilities of Selected Hazards in Disposition of M55 Rockets. (November). LaJolla, CA. Sines, B.J., E.W. Teather, S.P. Harvey, and W. Weigand. 1993. Investigation of Biological Reactor Designs for Treatment of Methanol and Thiodiglycol Waste Streams. Applied Biochem. Technology. Testor, J.W., H.R. Holgate, F.J. Armellini, P.A. Weblep, W.R. Killilea, G.T. Hong, and H.E. Barner. 1991. Supercritical Water Oxidation Technology: A Review of Process Development and Fundamental Research. Pp. 35-76 in the ACS Symposium Series No. 518. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. U.S. Army. 1987. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Risk Analysis of the Disposal of Chemical Munitions at Regional or National Sites. SAPEO-CDE-IS-87008. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. U.S. Army. 1988. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available from Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. U.S. Army. 1993a. M55 Rocket Surveillance Funding Risk Assessment. Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center, Safety Office, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions U.S. Army. 1993b. Trip report on pollution abatement systems in Germany by MAJ J. Ontiveros. Office of Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen, MD. U.S. Army. 1993c. Chemical Event Report—Additional Information. Mustard (HD) leaking from one-ton container prepared by Mr. Harold Oliver, Tooele Army Depot EOC, DSN 790-3686, 1410 hours, 9 Sep 93. Office of Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen, MD. U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA). 1982. Long Range Chemical Demilitarization Concept Study—Revised. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA). 1983. Final Demilitarization Plan for Operation of the Chemical Agent Munitions System (CAMDS) at Tooele Army Depot, Ut. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Watts, R.R., B. Fitzgerald, G. Heil, H. Garabedian, R. Williams, S. Warren, L. Fradkin, and J. Lewtas. 1989 (November). Use of Bioassay Methods to Evaluate Mutagenicity of Ambient Air Collected Near a Municipal Waste Combuster. JAPCA (Air and Waste Management Association). Watts, R.R., P.M. Lemieux, R.A. Grote, R.W. Lowans, R.W. Williams, L.R. Brooks, S.H. Warren, D.M. DeMarini, D.A. Bell, and J. Lewtas. 1992. Development of source testing, analytica, and mutagenicity bioassay procedures for evaluation emissions from municipal and hospital waste combustors. Environmental Health Perspectives. 98:227-234. Yang, Y-C., J.A. Baker, and J.A. Ward. 1992. Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Chemical Reviews 92:1729-1743. Yang, Y-C., L.L. Szafraniec, W.T. Beaudry, and C.A. Bunton. 1993. Perhydrolysis of nerve agent VX. J. Org. Chem., 58, 6964-6965. Evaluation of Standard and Alternative Methods for the Decontamination of VX and HD in Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities, Report ERDEC-TR-054. U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions INDEX A Aberdeen Proving Ground, 18, 24, 42, 77, 127, 164, 165 Accidental exposure/release baseline system procedures for, 93 health risks in, 68-69 in neutralization processes, 171 operational release, 66 relative risk in alternative technologies, 80-81 relative risk in baseline system, 78-80 risk assessment, 63, 72-77 storage risk vs. disposal risk, 5-6, 11, 83 in transportation, 6 Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, 68 Acidic hydrolysis, 105 Administrative management in baseline system, 95 as public concern, 30 Afterburner processing in baseline system, 8, 89, 90 in high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 107, 108 role of, 53 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 70 Alkaline hydrolysis, 105, 161 Alternative technologies current status, 11, 102-104, 120-121 delay of implementation and, 6-7, 11, 130 developmental state of, as selection criterion, 98, 100 dunnage decontamination in, 115-116 energetics destruction in, 114-115 evaluation criteria, 4-7, 9, 134-136 evaluation of destruction processes of, 101, 105-109 experimental research facility for, 18, 128 gelled agents in, 113 implementation of, 18-19, 128 integrated systems, 109-113 metal parts decontamination in, 115 neutralization processes as, 9-10, 16-18, 126-128, 130 in Public Law, 102-484, 134-136 recommendations for research, 13, 16-18, 20, 109-113, 123, 126-128 relative risk assessment of, 80-81 requirements for further development, 118-119 research on, 1-2 risk assessment of, 13, 123 safety of, as selection criterion, 99-100 types of, 98 Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions, 17, 22-23, 98, 119, 127 Animal studies, 71 Army, Department of, 1, 2, 5, 14, 19-20, 22-23, 23-24, 27, 123-124 , 129 community relations, 26-27, 30, 31 exposure standards, 69 implementation schedule, 32 munition leakage reports, 43-45 risk assessment, 64, 83 storage surveillance regulations, 47 waste stream standards, 53 Automated Continuous Agent Monitoring Systems (ACAMS), 8, 93 B Baseline system agent destruction in, 88 current status, 7 development of, 1, 23-24

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions disassembly operations in, 85, 87 dunnage decontamination in, 85, 92-93 energetics destruction in, 88-89, 113-114 experimental research facility for, 18, 128 improvement of, 8, 11, 15-16, 94-97, 116-118, 125-126 management structure, 95 material feed streams in, 56-57, 87 metal parts decontamination in, 89, 115 mineralization in, 55 monitoring procedures in, 93-94 pollution abatement in, 89-92 process, 7-8, 85-93 programmatic risk assessment of, 72-77, 83-84 recommendation for implementation, 16, 125 relative risk assessment of, 78-80 risk of storage vs. implementation of, 5-6, 11, 130 risks in, 67-68 storage in, 85 transport operations in, 6, 85 Binary munitions, 21n Biological treatment as alternative technology, 9, 10 developmental status, 176-177 enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis, 106-107, 176-179 integrated with neutralization process, 110, 111-113, 176, 179-180 mineralization via, 56 of oxidation waste products, 106, 180 Bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, 34 Blister agents, 2, 34 degradation in storage, 3 reported leakages of, 43-45 See also Mustard agents Blue Grass Army Depot, 5, 24, 46, 77 Bursters, in munitions, 35 C Calcium hydroxide, 10, 105 Cancer/carcinogenicity, 69 Candle mist-eliminator vessel, 90 Carbon filter beds in baseline system, 87 potential problems with, 152-153 recommendations for, 16, 116-118, 125-126 role of, 148 technical description of, 148-153 Catalytic fixed-bed oxidation, 108 Charcoal scrubbing, 11, 115-118 Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System (CAMDS), 18, 19, 68, 119, 128 Chemical and munitions stockpile condition of, 1, 2-3 contents of, 2, 21, 34-35 current status of, 43-45 degradation risks, 2-3, 19, 128-129 evolution of disposal methods for, 1 legislative history, 22-23 locations of, 2, 24, 35, 42 in National Research Council research, 22-25 non-agent materials in, 56-58 storage risk vs. disposal risk, 5-6, 10, 11, 12, 32, 83, 121, 130 Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program monitoring program, 59-60 origins of, 1, 22 recommendations for, 12-20, 120-131 staffing needs, 19-20, 129 Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, 10, 52, 56, 110-111, 161, 162 Chlorine oxide, 105 Clean Air Act, 3, 59 Clean Water Act, 3, 59 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 59 Corrosion in high-pressure oxidation, 107 as obstacle to disassembly, 45 in oxidation-neutralization approach, 112 of stored munitions, 45 in supercritical water oxidation, 157, 158 Cryofracture process, 87 D Decontamination fluids, 57 Decontamination levels in baseline system, 89 3X, 53, 56 5X, 53, 54, 58, 89

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Defense, Department of, 58 Depot Area Air Monitoring System (DAAMS), 8, 93 Dioxins, 11, 69, 71 Disassembly in baseline system, 85, 87 corrosion as obstacle to, 45 cryofracture process for, 87 mechanized, 14-15, 124 for neutralization processes, 163-164 recommendations for system design, 14-15, 124 Disposal of Chemical Munitions and Agents, 43 Disposal processes design recommendations, 14-16, 124-126 evaluation criteria, 3-7 feed streams, 56-57 goals for, 3, 9, 52 historical approaches to, 1 in National Research Council research, 22-25 non-agent materials in, 58 regulatory environment, 3, 25 residual materials in, 52-56 risks in, 67-68, 72-77, 78-80 as systems approach, 4 waste streams in, 57 Dunnage, 3 alternative technologies for, 115-116 in baseline system, 8, 56, 57, 85, 92-93 decontamination of, 58 in recommendations for system design, 14, 124 types of materials in, 57, 58 E Economic considerations, 4 in delay of implementation, 32 as evaluation criterion, 82-83, 130 Electrical incinerators, 115, 116 Electrochemical oxidation, 106 Electroencephalograph monitoring, 68 Energetics, 2 alternative technologies for treatment of, 10, 114-115 in baseline system, 7, 87, 88-89 alecontamination of, 58 materials classified as, 35, 57 in neutralization processes, 164 on-site disposal, recommendations for, 18, 127 propellant removal from, 35, 114 propellant stabilizer degradation in, 2-3, 19, 24, 46-51, 128-129 in recommendations for system design, 14, 15, 124-125 in slurry form, 15, 58, 125 in waste stream separation, 3, 56-57 Energy, Department of, 70 Environmental Protection Agency, 5, 58, 59, 66, 70 Environmental risk in citizen concerns, 30-31 in evaluation of disposal technologies, 25 in neutralization processes, 171 persistence of mustard agents, 35 regulatory protection, 58-60 Ethanolamine, 10, 105 Evaluation criteria, 4-7 cost considerations in, 82-83, 130 definition of end products in, 52 nontechnical factors in, 25-26, 62 public opinion as, 83 risk minimization as, 4-7, 61-62, 66-67, 130 safety as, 99-100 for selecting alternative technologies, 98-101 socioeconomic factors as, 81-82 technology readiness as, 98, 100 Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Disposal System Operational Verification Testing, 94-96 Explosives, in chemical munitions, 35 Exposure assessment, 66 F Fluidized-bed combustion, 108 Fuses, 35 G Gas wastes, 52, 57 activated carbon filter beds for, 16, 125-126, 148-153 in baseline system, 8, 89-90, 92 in dunnage decontamination, 92 emission standards, 53, 59 in enhanced baseline system, 11, 116-118 exposure standards, 53 health risks, 70

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions in high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 107-108 in neutralization processes, 163, 165, 169, 171 temporary storage of, 116 GB, 2, 34 accidental release of, 6 adverse effects of, 68 baseline system performance in destruction of, 94 caustic neutralization of, 56 enzyme-catalyzed biologic hydrolysis of, 106-107, 176-177, 178-179 leakage of, 45 low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification of, 105 mineralization of, 55 neutralization of, 10, 16, 26, 159, 160, 166, 173-174, 180 physical properties, 21, 34 storage risks, 67 in supercritical water oxidation, 156-157 Gelled agent, 15, 16, 17, 45, 113, 124, 126 General Accounting Office, 2 H H, 34, 69 adverse effects of, 68 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, 3, 59 HD, 34 baseline system performance in destruction of, 94 low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification of, 105 mineralization of, 55 in neutralization-incineration system, 110 neutralization of, 10 in World War I, 69 Health risk agent exposure standards, 53 in citizen concerns, 27-29 in evaluation of disposal technologies, 25, 61 evidence of, 68-69 long-term, low-level exposure, 69-72 programmatic risk assessment of, 72-77, 83-84 recommendations for research, 12, 122 types of, in disposal technology, 62-63 High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 108, 114 High-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 107-108, 114 HT, 34 Hydrogen chloride, 107 Hydrogen fluoride, 107 Hydrogen peroxide, 105, 106, 161 Hydrogenation process, 109, 115 Hydrolysis. See also Neutralization of GB, 159 See also Neutralization I Implementation of alternative technologies, procedure for, 18-19, 128 cost of delay in, 4 of liquid incinerator pilot testing, 10 pace of, 11, 121 in Public Law, 102-484, 136-137 recommendations for, 16, 20, 125 risk of delay in, 6-7, 11, 13, 75, 130 schedule for, 25, 32, 82, 119 site-specific considerations, 4, 13, 18, 122-123, 128 Incineration technologies in alternative disposal technologies, 9 areas for improvement in, 8 in baseline system, 1, 7-8, 11, 88-89, 90-92, 95 baseline system dunnage furnace, 92-93 electrical power in, 115, 116 energetics destruction in, 15, 113-114, 125 health concerns, 5 integrated with neutralization processes, 110-111 liquid incinerator, 9, 10, 85, 88 for metal parts decontamination, 115 risk of long-term, low-level exposure, 70-72 See also Afterburner processing Ionizing radiation, 106 J Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), 1, 2, 7, 8, 11, 15, 24, 35, 45, 49, 59, 68, 85, 92, 97, 117, 151 performance evaluation, 94-96 risk assessment of, 77

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions L Landfill of neutralized materials, 26, 116 in slurry form, 53 Leakage, evidence of, 43-45 Lethal doses, 53 Liquid incinerator, 9 in baseline system, 88, 95 possible implementation schedule, 10 Long-term effects current estimation of, 69-72 in disposal operations, 63 EEG patterns in assessment of, 68 environmental, 30 persistence of mustard agents, 35 in risk assessment, 5, 6 Low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification, 101, 105 Low-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 105-107 M M55 rockets, 22 baseline system performance in decontamination of, 94 energetics destruction in baseline system, 88 estimates of safe storage life, 47, 48 leakage from, 6, 43-45 propellant removal from, 35 propellant stability in, 2-3, 19, 24, 46-51, 67, 128-129 recommendations for, 19, 51, 128-129 storage condition of, 2-3, 46 Mason Report, 50 Mechanized disassembly, 14-15, 124 Metal parts, 3 alternative technologies for decontamination of, 10, 115 in baseline system, 7, 56, 57, 87, 89 corrosion of, 45 decontamination of, 58, 113 gelled agent in, 113 in neutralization processes, 164 on-site disposal, recommendations for, 18, 127 in recommendations for system design, 14, 15, 124, 125 types of components in, 57 Metals emissions in baseline system, 92 Mineralization in baseline system, 55 chemical processes in, 55 definition, 55 in low-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 105-106 MITRE Corporation, 19, 24, 49-50 Moderate-temperature, high-pressure oxidation, 107 Molten salt processes, 108, 114-115 Monitoring in baseline system, 8, 85, 93-94 of charcoal filter beds, 117, 151, 153 current state of, 59-60 decontamination levels in, 53 dose-response, 68 in enhanced baseline system, 116-118 false positives in, 93-94, 151 of neutralization processes, 171 of occupational exposures, 68 recommendations for, 19, 128-129 regulatory requirements, 59 temperature, in baseline system, 88 temporary gas storage for, 116 Munitions binary, 21n corrosion in, 45 recommendations for disassembly, 14-15, 124 removal of agent in baseline system, 7 unitary, definition of, 21n See also Energetics Mustard agents. See also Blister agents adverse effects of, 68, 69 biological treatments for, 106, 107, 177, 179 carcinogenicity, 69 gelled, 15, 45, 113, 124 low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification of, 105 neutralization of, 16, 126, 160, 161, 168, 169, 172, 173 physical properties of, 21, 34-35 pressurized in stored projectiles, 44, 45, 67 N National Research Council, 1, 2, 43 in chemical agent and munitions disposal research, 22-25

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Natural disasters, 80 Nerve agents, 2 health monitoring in storage areas, 68 See also GB; VX Neutralization advantages of, 159 in alternative disposal technologies, 9-10, 130 developmental status, 173-175 disposal of gelled materials in, 16, 17, 126 of GB via NaOH, 56 in integrated systems, 109-113, 179-180 limitations of, 162-164 in low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification, 105 potential applications for, 164-165 recommendations for research, 16-18, 20, 109-113, 126-128 research needs for, 172-174 risks in, 170-171 system design, 165-170 technical description, 159-162 waste streams in, 161, 163, 165, 168-170 Newport Army Ammunition Plant, 18, 24, 42, 127, 164, 165 Nitrocellulose, 46, 49 2-Nitrodiphenylamine, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 Nitrogen oxides, 69, 96 in baseline system, 8 regulation of, 59 Nitroglycerin, 46 O Ocean dumping, 1, 23 Office of Technology Assessment, 2, 49 Oxidation processes in alternative disposal technologies, 9, 10 biological treatments, 106-107 electrochemical, 106 for energetic destruction, 58, 114 high-temperature, low-pressure, 108, 114 integrated with neutralization process, 110, 111-113, 166-168, 169 low-temperature, low-pressure, 105-107 moderate-temperature high-pressure, 107 safety concerns in, 10 supercritical water oxidation, 9, 10, 58, 107, 110, 114, 154-158 ultraviolet light in, 106 wet air oxidation, 9, 10, 107, 110, 114, 154-158 Oxone, 105 P Plasma arc furnace, 108, 115 Pollution abatement activated carbon filter beds for, 16, 87, 125-126, 148-153 in baseline system, 7, 8, 89-92 dunnage furnace, 92-93 in enhanced baseline system, 11, 116-118 role of, 53 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 89 Potassium hydroxide, 10 Potassium persulfate, 105-106 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, 64, 78 Propellants. See Energetics Public concern/opinion, 5, 22 Alternative Technologies Forum for, 138-147 alternative technology research and, 24 in decision-making process, 82, 83, 84 demilitarization treaty requirements in, 29 disposal activities after demilitarization in, 29, 81-82 ecological impacts in, 30-31 in evaluation of disposal technologies, 2, 7, 26-27, 31 health risk in, 27-29 location of final processing facility and, 56 management of disposal facilities in, 30 in Public Law 102-484, 133-134 recommendations for role of, 14, 123-124 site-specific impacts in, 30 socioeconomic impacts in, 81, 84 Public Law 99-145, 22 Public Law 102-484, 22, 27, 133-137 Pueblo Depot Activity, 42 Q Quench tower, 90

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions R Research needs for alternative technologies, 10, 16-19, 118-119, 126-129 experimental facility for, 18, 128 integrated systems in alternative technologies, 109-113 latent health risk of disposal activities, 12, 122 M55 rocket propellant stability, 51 for neutralization processes, 172-174 recommendations for, 16-19, 126-129 for removal of gelled agent, 15, 124 site-specific risk, 13, 77, 122-123 stockpile degradation, 19, 128-129 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 3, 59, 89 Resource recovery, 55, 109 Risk factors assessment methodology, 61-67 citizen concerns about, 27-29 definition of total risk, 4 in delayed implementation, 6-7, 11, 13, 20, 32, 75, 123, 130 as evaluation criterion, 4-7, 61, 62, 130 latent health hazards, 12, 122 in long-term, low-level exposure, 5, 69-72 M55 rockets, 46, 48-51 measurement of safety, 63 obstacles to assessment, 71 occupational, 62-63 in oxidation processes, 10 programmatic studies, 72-77, 83-84 relative risk in alternative technologies, 80-81 relative risk in baseline system operations, 78-80 as selection criterion for alternative technologies, 99-100 site-specific, 4, 13, 61-62, 77-78, 122-123, 123 in storage vs. disposal, 5-6, 10, 11, 12, 32, 83, 121, 130 Rocky Mountain Arsenal, 26, 68 S Salt wastes, 53 in baseline system, 8, 88, 90, 92-93 in low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification, 105 in recommendations for improving baseline system, 96 Science Applications International Corporation, 48, 49 Slag removal, 8 in baseline system, 88, 95 Slurry wastes, 53 energetics as, 15, 58, 125 Sodium hydroxide, 10, 57, 105 Sodium hypochlorite, 10, 105 Solvolysis. See Neutralization Staffing needs, 19-20, 129 Storage in baseline system, 85 current stockpile conditions, 2-3 of gas stream, 116 munitions leakages in, 43-45 programmatic risk assessment of, 72-77 reconfiguration of, pending disposal, 13, 123 relative risk of, 78 risk of disposal vs. degradation in, 5-6, 10, 11, 12, 32, 83, 121, 130 risks of, 57 site-specific risks, 13, 122-123 Sulfuric acid, 105-105 Supercritical water oxidation advantages of, 154 as alternative technology, 9, 10, 107 disadvantages of, 157, 158 of energetics, 58, 114 integrated with neutralization process, 111-113, 169 integrated with neutralization processes, 110 technical description, 154-157 See also Oxidation processes T Thermal treatment high-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 108 high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 107-108 of stack gases, 117, 151 for unconditional release of treated material, 53 See also Incineration technologies Tooele Army Depot, 6, 7, 8, 18, 42, 43, 50, 68, 85, 94, 128, 149 recommendations for improving baseline installation at, 95-97

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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Toxic Substances Control Act, 3, 59 Transportation in alternative disposal systems, 17-18, 127 in baseline system, 85 in evaluation of disposal technologies, 26 neutralization levels required for, 56 off-site operations in alternative technologies, 10 risk in, 6, 67 Transportation, Department of, 58-59 Treaty requirements, 1, 10, 21, 25, 52, 56, 110-111, 161, 162 citizen concerns about, 29 U Ultraviolet fight, 106 V Venturi scrubber, 90 VX, 2, 34, 96 adverse effects of, 68 baseline system performance in destruction of, 94 caustic neutralization of, 106 enzyme-catalyzed biologic hydrolysis of, 106-107, 177-179 hydrolyric neutralization of, 10, 16, 160-161, 166-168, 169, 172, 180 low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification of, 105 mineralization of, 55 in neutralization-incineration system, 110 physical properties, 21, 34 in supercritical water oxidation, 156-157 W Waste streams in baseline system, 7-8, 57, 92-93 complete decontamination of, 55 decontamination fluids in, 57 decontamination levels, 53 in dunnage decontamination, 92-93 in energetics destruction, 114 liquid, 52 in low-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 105 in neutralization processes, 160, 161, 163, 165, 168-170, 171 non-agent materials in, 58 recommendations for system design, 14-15, 124-125 regulation of, 58-60 resource recovery from, 55, 109 salt products, 8, 88, 90, 92-93, 96, 105 separation of, 3 solid materials, 52-53 types of, 52-53, 57 water discharge standards, 59 water emission/exposure standards, 53 in wet air oxidation, 10 in wet-air oxidation, 112 See also Gas wastes Wet air oxidation, 9, 10, 107, 110, 114 advantages of, 154 biological treatment after, 106, 180 disadvantages of, 158 integrated with neutralization process, 111-113, 169 technical description, 154-157 See also Oxidation processes Workers, chemical disposal, 62-63 World War I, 69 World War II, 69