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Technology for Small Spacecraft Pane! on Small Spacecraft Technology Committee on Advanced Space Technology Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1994

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by Contract NASW-4003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 94-67334 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05075-8 Available in limited supply from: The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D. C . 20418 Additional copies available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 1-800-624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America . . 11

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PANEL ON SMALL SPACECRAFT TECHNOLOGY Laurence J. Adams, Martin Marietta (Ret.), Consultant, Potomac, MD, Chair Steven Aftergood, Senior Research Analyst, Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC Jay E. Boudreau, President, Ballena Systems Corporation, Los Alamos, NM Bernard Budiansky, Gordon McKay Professor of Structural Mechanics and Abbot and James Lawrence Professor of Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA Robert S. Cooper, President and Chief Executive Officer, Atlantic Aerospace Electronics Corporation, Greenbelt, MD Fred E. Culick, Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Jet Propulsion, California Institute of Technology, Altadena, CA Wolfgang H. Demisch, Managing Director, Bankers Trust, New York, NY Emanuel J. Fthenakis, Fairchild Industries (Ret.), Potomac, MD Clark W. Hawk, Director, Propulsion Research Center, Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Huntsville, AL John M. Hedgepeth, President, Digisim Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA Mary V. Jones, Director, Engineering Support, Atlantic Research Corporation, Gainesville, VA Frank E. Marble, Richard L. Hayman and Dorothy M. Hayman Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Professor of Jet Propulsion, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA Franklin D. Martin, Director, Scientific Space Programs, NASA Space Flight Programs, Space Systems Division, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (Term ended 2128194) John H. McElroy, Dean of Engineering, University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington, TX Duane T. McRuer, Chair, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Chairman, Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA Norman F. Parker, Varian Associates (Ret.), Cardiff by the Sea, CA Robert O. Ritchie, Director, Center for Advanced Materials, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA William C. Schneider, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD Alfred Schock, Director, Energy System Dept., Fairchild Space and Defense Corporation, Germantown, MD Richard R. Weiss, Sr. Staff Specialist, Office of the Undersecretary of Defense (Acquisitions), Arlington, VA John B. West, Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA William L. Whittaker, Director & Senior Research Scientist, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Advisor Wiley J. Larson, Associate Professor, U. S. Air Force Academy, Department of Astronautics, Colorado Springs, CO Staff JoAnn Clayton, Director Allison C. Sandlin, Study Director William E. Campbell, Senior Project Assistant Maryann Shanesy, Project Assistant ~ 111

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COMMITTEE ON ~V0CED SPACE TECHNOLOGY Laurence J. Adams, Martin Marietta (Ret.), Consultant, Potomac, MD, Chair Jay E. Boudreau, President, Ballena Systems Corporation, Los Alamos, NM Bernard Budiansky, Gordon McKay Professor of Structural Mechanics and Abbot and James Lawrence Professor of Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA Robert S. Cooper, President and Chief Executive Officer, Atlantic Aerospace Electronics Corporation, Greenbelt, MD Fred E. Culick, Professor, Mechanical Engineering and Jet Propulsion, California Institute of Technology, Altadena, CA Emanuel J. Fthenakis, Fairchild Industries (Ret.), Potomac, MD Clark W. Hawk, Director, Propulsion Research Center, Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Huntsville, AL Mary V. Jones, Director, Engineering Support, Atlantic Research Corporation, Gainesville, VA Franklin D. Martin, Director, Scientific Space Programs, NASA Space Flight Programs, Space Systems Division, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA John H. McElroy, Dean of Engineering, University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington, TX Norman F. Parker, Varian Associates (Ret.), Cardiff by the Sea, CA Robert O. Ritchie, Director, Center for Advanced Materials, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA William C. Schneider, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD Richard R. Weiss, Sr. Staff Specialist, Office of the Undersecretary of Defense (Acquisitions), Arlington, VA John B. West, Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA William L. Whittaker, Director & Senior Research Scientist, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Ex Officio Duane T. McRuer, Chair, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Chairman, Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA Staff JoAnn Clayton, Director Allison C. Sandlin, Study Director William E. Campbell, Senior Project Assistant Maryann Shanesy, Project Assistant 1V

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AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD Duane T. McRuer, Chair, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Chairman, Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA Bernard L. Koff, Chair, National Aeronautical Test Facilities Study, Executive Vice President, Engineering and Technology, Pratt & Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL Steven Aftergood, Senior Research Analyst, Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC Joseph P. Allen, President and Chief Executive Officer, Space Industries International, Inc., Washington, DC James M. Beggs, Senior Partner, J.M. Beggs Associates, Arlington, VA Guion S. Bluford, Jr., Vice President and General Manager of Engineering Services Division, NYMA, Inc., Greenbelt, MD John K. Buckner, Vice President, Special Projects, Lockheed Fort Worth Company, Fort Worth, TX Raymond S. Colladay, Vice President, Strategic Defense Systems, Martin Marietta Corporation, Denver, CO Ruth M. Davis, President and Chief Executive Officer, Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, VA Wolfgang H. Demisch, Managing Director, Bankers Trust, New York, NY Steven M. Dorfman, President, Telecommunications and Space Sector, General Motors Hughes Electronics, Los Angeles, CA John M. Hedgepeth, President, Digisim Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA Takeo Kanade, Director, The Robotics Institute, U.A. and Helen Whitaker, Professor of Computer Science and Robotics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Jack L. Kerrebrock, R.C. Maclaurin Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Donald J. Kutyna, Corporate Vice President, Advanced Space Systems, Loral Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO John M. Logsdon, Director, Space Policy Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC Robert R. Lynn, Bell Helicopter Textron, Euless, TX Frank E. Marble, Richard L. Hayman and Dorothy M. Hayman Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Professor of Jet Propulsion, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA C. Julian May, Executive Vice President, Tech/Ops International, Inc., Kennesaw, GA Earll M. Murman, Professor and Department Head, Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Bradford W. Parkinson, Professor, Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA Alfred Schock, Director, Energy System Department, Fairchild Industries, Germantown, MD John D. Warner, President, Boeing Computer Services, Seattle, WA Staff JoAnn Clayton, Director Alan C. Angleman, Senior Program Officer Thomas C. Mahoney, Senior Program Officer Allison C. Sandlin, Senior Program Officer Noel E. Eldridge, Program Officer Paul J. Shawcross, Program Officer v Anna L. Farrar, Administrative Associate Susan K. Coppinger, Administrative Assistant William E. Campbell, Senior Project Assistant Beth A. Henry, Project Assistant Maria M. Kneas, Project Assistant Ted W. Morrison, Program Assistant

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Preface This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Pane! on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The pane! found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide a substantial improvement in canabilitv and cost over those technologies used for current NASA - - . ^. __a ~ . small spacecraft. these technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies; Department of Defense agencies; and, to a lesser degree, NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. This report provides recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum. Those that hold the promise of offering major improvements in capability or cost are identified as highest priority. However, all of the recommendations have the potential to bring significant benefits to future small spacecraft programs. The pane! did not make specific cost estimates for each of its recommendations or recommend future management strategy for NASA's technology program, since it was considered beyond the scope of the panel's statement of task. The panel's technology survey was extensive, but not all inclusive. The panel believes that this report is representative of the current state of technology and of projections into the relatively short-term future. All of the evaluations contained in this report represent the judgment of this pane! of experts and are based on considerable review of the technologies by the pane! members and on the members' individual expertise and knowledge of the subject matter. In conducting this study, the Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology visited many facilities and requested numerous briefings from government agencies and companies regarding their technology programs for small spacecraft, launch vehicles, and ground operations. The pane! wishes to thank all of the individuals, companies, and agencies listed in Appendix E for their cooperation and contributions during this study. Laurence I. Adams, Chair Pane! on Small Spacecraft Technology ~ V11

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TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables List of Acronyms Executive Summary 1. Introduction The Task, 6 Background and Status, 7 Approach, 11 Systems Engineering and Operations Background and Status, 12 Small Spacecraft Systems Engineering, 13 Small Spacecraft Launch Operations, 15 Small Spacecraft Mission Operations, 18 Prioritized Recommendations, 21 Spacecraft Propulsion Technology Background and Status, 23 Chemical Propulsion, 24 Solar Propulsion, 26 Nuclear Propulsion, 29 Findings and Prioritized Recommendations, 29 Spacecraft Electric Power Background and Status, 31 Power Sources, 31 Battery Technology for Energy Storage, 37 Findings and Prioritized Recommendations, 39 5. Spacecraft Structures and Materials Background and Status, 42 IX X11 ~ X111 1 6 12 23 31 42

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x Technology for Small Spacecraft Structures, 42 Materials, 44 Structure/Materials Systems, 48 Findings and Prioritized Recommendations, 48 6. Small Spacecraft Communications Technology Background and Status, 50 NASA Programs, 52 DoD Programs, 53 Industry Programs, 53 Spacecraft-to-Spacecraft Communications, 54 Multiple Access, 54 Communications Component Technology, 55 Spectrum Utilization, 55 Findings and Prioritized Recommendations, 56 7. Guidance and Control Technology Background and Status, 57 Guidance and Control Components, 58 Autonomous Systems, 62 Radiation Hardening, 62 Electronics Packaging, 62 Interfaces, 63 Findings and Prioritized Recommendations, 63 8. Sensors for Small Spacecraft Background and Status, 66 NASA Programs, 66 DoD Programs, 67 Findings and Prioritized Recommendations, 68 9. Robotics, Automation, and Artificial intelligence Background and Status, 70 Small Robotic Planetary Explorers, 71 Small Robots in Low Earth Orbit, 72 Other Agency Programs, 73 Findings and Prioritized Recommendations, 73 10. Launch Vehicle Technology for Small Spacecraft Background and Status, 75 Small Launch Vehicles, 75 Lowering Cost of Launching Small Spacecraft, 77 Environmental Considerations, 80 Prioritized Recommendations, 81 50 57 66 70 75

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Contents 11. Overall Findings and Recommendations Current Emphasis and Justification, 83 Small Spacecraft Capabilities, 83 Response to Task Statement, 84 List of References Appendix A: Title ~ of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as Amended (Public Law 85-568) Appendix B: Small Spacecraft Applications Appendix C: Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Appendix D: Current NASA and DoD Small Spacecraft Programs Appendix E: Study Participants Appendix F: NASA Earth-Observing Instruments Xl 83 1 n~ 111 116 121 124 128 133 i

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List of Tables TABLE 2-1 Examples of Current Small Spacecraft and Launch 13 Vehicle Activities TABLE 6-1 Some Recently Proposed Mobile Satellite Systems 51 TABLE 10-1 Representative U.S. Launch Vehicles 76 TABLE 11-1 Currently Available Technologies for Small 88 Spacecraft within NASA, Other Government Agencies, and Industry TABLE 11-2 Technologies Under Development within NASA, 90 Other Government Agencies, and Industry TABLE 11-3 Prioritized Technology Recommendations 97 xii

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List of Acronyms ACTS APSA ARPA BMDO CPV DoD DOE GPS GSFC IPD IPV JPL LeRC MSTI NASA OACT RTG Advanced Communications Technology Satellite Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array Advanced Research Projects Agency Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Common pressure vessel Department of Defense Department of Energy Global Positioning System Goddard Space Flight Center Integrated product development Individual pressure vessel let Propulsion Laboratory Lewis Research Center Miniature Sensor Technology Integration National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Advanced Concepts ant! Technology Radioisotope thermoelectric generator xiii

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XlV Technology for Small Spacecraft TIMED TDRSS Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System