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Appendix C: Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Goals The Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology's (OACT) Spacecraft and Remote Sensing Division has established a Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative. This initiative is designed to (~) demonstrate a new approach to technology integration which will result in two technology demonstration flights within three years; (2) envelope a range of mission requirements; and (3) develop standard hardware and software interfaces for various applications. The major goals of the initiative are . to reduce the cost and development time of space missions for science and commercial applications, while achieving mass fractions up to 70 percent and demonstrating development times-to-flight within two years; to demonstrate new design and qualification methods for small spacecraft using commercial and performance-based specifications and integration of small instrumentation technology into bus design; and to proactively promote commercial technology applications (Venneri, 19931. The Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative will emphasize a highly integrated spacecraft bus design for the next generation of small spacecraft concepts by incorporating advanced micro-instruments, sensors, en c! computers; innovative concepts for components and mechanisms; simplified qualification and verification procedures; and advanced on-board data processing. ~7 APPROACH Integrated Product Development Teams The Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative will be implemented through establishment of industry-led integrated product development (IPD) teams. Each team 121

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122 Technology for Small Spacecraft will design, develop, ant! launch a small spacecraft within two years. The IPD teams will be composed of industry; small. ~ ~ , disadvantaged businesses; universities; and possibly NA5A researchers. The team leaders will assess the technology development capabilities, skills, and facilities that exist in the government and can ask government technologists to serve as members of the team as appropriate. The industry-led {PD teams will be provided with a simple objective statement and a set of NASA mission priorities. The teams will lead all aspects of program definition including member selection, organization, concept innovation, and commercial technology transfer requirements. The IPD teams will be free to define all processes user! to develop concepts, inclu(ling analyses, ground tests, and flight tests. They will also be allowed to select from several launch vehicle options. Use of DoD and Industry Technologies Critical, enabling technologies for small spacecraft were identified at an OACT- sponsored workshop in Pasadena, California, on September 21-24, 1993. At the workshop, technologies were clefineci as either state of the practice or state of the art. State-of-the-practice technologies are those which have flown or have been selectee! to fly. State-of-the-art technologies were defined as those which are over and above the state of the practice and that stretch the technology. In most cases, state-of-the-art technologies identified at the workshop were not developed at NASA. In the past, most of the advances in miniaturized space technology have been made by industry and DoD, specifically through BMDO en cl ARPA for military applications. The technologies categorized at the workshop will serve as the performance basis to evaluate new ideas and technology innovation during the proposal evaluation process. Some of the advanced technology areas for small spacecraft iclentified at the workshop were power, attitude control, thermal management, payload instruments, communications, software, structures, operations, computers and data handling, and integration and producibility. Nonaerospace Applications As stated above, one objective of the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative is to pro-actively pursue joint ventures and partnerships for the use, development, and spin- off of technology for nonspace applications. In the past, NASA identified spin-off, nonaerospace technology, but usually after the technology was developed. With the Small Spacecraft Initiative approach, the {PD teams will be required to (lirect a percentage (8 to 15 percent) of contract funds to commercial product development. This commercial development activity will identify potential applications, develop specific implementation plans, and establish partnerships to achieve technology transfer to products. This phase of the program may include cost sharing by the IPD team participants. Targeted nonaerospace sectors for advanced space technology include transportation, medical,

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Apperulix C manufacturing, and consumer products. Examples of nonaerospace applications of advanced space technology include high-resolution miniature sensing and imaging medical instruments; advanced data processing; improved structural materials; and lightweight, efficient power systems. Management The TED teams will define, plan, and implement the detailed program content. The programs will be managed by a small, eight-to-ten-person team at NASA Headquarters, which will include a headquarters procurement representative. Over 95 percent of the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative funds will go directly to the IPD teams. Evaluation Procedure and Selection The proposals will be evaluated by criteria established at the NASA/OACT Small Spacecraft Technology Workshop held in Pasadena, California, on September 21-24, 1993. Important features of any proposal are the use of advanced, innovative, high- risk;/high-payofftechnology; clearly defined and substantiated roles for all team members; and specific processes for technology transfer to and from NASA. Evaluation of the proposals will be made by a team established by NASA Headquarters. After the written proposals are submitted, the IPD teams will be asked to provide specific information in an oral presentation. A Request for Proposal for the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative was released February 28, 1994, with award dates scheduled for the second quarter of 1994. OACT SPACECRAFT AND REMOTE SENSING DIVISION: 1994 ACTIVITIES AND BUDGET Fiscal year 1994 activities of the Spacecraft and Remote Sensing Division include establishment of the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative at a level of $12.5 million. The projects of one or two IPD teams will be selected in 1994, with the first technology demonstration flight scheduled for 1996. OACT SPACECRAFT AND REMOTE SENSING DIVISION: I99S ACTIVITIES AND BUDGET At the time of this report, the President's fiscal year 1995 budget included $47.9 million for the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative. 123