that, as described in Chapter 2, is strongly dependent on AMO science. A 1967 study (R.D. Huntoon, ''Concept of a National Measurement System," Science 158 (October 6), 67-71, 1967) found that approximately 6% of the GNP was generated by measurement-related activity. Value added to the output stream of manufactured products was estimated to be another 6%. Though this study was conducted 25 years ago, there is no reason to believe that industry is less dependent on measurement technology today.
As the global economy evolves, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the United States must rely on sophisticated products for its economic prosperity. The United States holds a competitive position in many high-technology areas, and those areas enabled by AMO science are generally those in which this country has excelled. The global economy is, however, intensely competitive, and being a world leader today does not ensure being an effective competitor tomorrow. The United States can retain a strong position in the global economy only if it maintains the infusion of new ideas and methods that research provides and can readily embody these ideas and methods in economically viable products. Clearly, future challenges will not be met by AMO (or any other) science alone, but progress in AMO science will be a central element in the configuration of our economic future.