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CONCLUS I ONS The most striking change that has taken place since 1977 is the growth in numbers of doctoral women scientists. In just four years, the total supply of women Ph.D.s in science and engineering increased by 50 percent. Ten percent of the present supply is from the 1980 cohort. We also see that among the new doctorates, men and women have very similar characteristics, including the age at which they complete the Ph.D., the type of Ph.D.-granting department, and what their plans are for the immediate future. Males and females in the same field are about equally likely to opt for a postdoctoral appointment, or if they plan to be employed, will go into industry or academe at similar rates. Once in the academic sector as an employee, however, doctoral women scientists are still far more likely than their male counterparts to be in off-ladder positions. Those who receive appointments as assistant professors appear to have to wait longer to be promoted, on the average. There are, however, signs that the increases in numbers of women scientists among junior faculty that took place between 1973 and 1977 are now being reflected at the associate professor rank. In many fields, sex differences in faculty salaries persist. are iarqest In tne medical sciences, chemistry, The salary gaps and economics, amounting to up to $6,000 for full professors. However, for female assistant professors the salary deficits in several fields have diminished or essentially disappeared since 1977. Turning to industrial employment, doctoral women scientists and engineers have made numerical gains here as well, more than doubling their numbers from 1,700 to 3,500 in a four-year period. Still, they account for only 5 percent of all Ph.D.-level personnel in industry. They remain less likely to hold managerial jobs, and have lower median salaries than men, even among the most recent Ph.D.s. That recent women graduates are planning industrial employment at the same rate as men is a new phenomenon. By all indications, these younger women scientists believe that their place in the business and industry sector is both wanted and appropriate. 6.1