Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$56.25



View/Hide Left Panel

Appendix F
THE ROLE OF FOREIGN NATIONALS STUDYING OR WORKING IN U.S. UNIVERSITIES AND OTHER SECTORS

Mitchel B.Wallerstein

Staff Consultant



The number of foreign students in higher education in the United States increased substantially during the 1970s, especially at the graduate level. Underlying this trend were two major factors: (1) an increased demand for U.S. training to meet the needs of foreign nations for skilled scientific and engineering personnel, and (2) increased recruitment of foreign students by U.S. institutions to augment domestic enrollment. This trend is indicated clearly in Table 1. Enrollment of foreign students doubled during the 1970s at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, rising to almost 290,000 students in 1979.

GRADUATE TRAINING

The proportion of full-time graduate students in science and engineering (S&E) who were from foreign countries rose from 16 percent in 1974 to 20 percent in 1979. Although there was an increase in almost all S&E fields between 1974 and 1979, the growth was most dramatic in engineering and mathematical/computer sciences. Over 40 percent (16,200) of the 1979 graduate enrollment in engineering, and over 30 percent (4,300) of the enrollment in mathematical/computer sciences, consisted of foreign students (see Figure 1).

DOCTORATE PRODUCTION

Approximately 3,600 (or 1 out of every 5) S&E doctorates granted by U.S. universities in 1979 were awarded to foreign citizens. This is

The material in this appendix was derived primarily from two sources: (1) a National Science Foundation report, “Foreign participation in U.S. science and engineering higher education and labor markets” (NSF 81–316), and (2) data provided by the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Council. Due to general nature of the data, however, it was not possible to determine the number of foreign nationals from any particular country participating in U.S. scientific and technological enterprises.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security Appendix F THE ROLE OF FOREIGN NATIONALS STUDYING OR WORKING IN U.S. UNIVERSITIES AND OTHER SECTORS Mitchel B.Wallerstein Staff Consultant The number of foreign students in higher education in the United States increased substantially during the 1970s, especially at the graduate level. Underlying this trend were two major factors: (1) an increased demand for U.S. training to meet the needs of foreign nations for skilled scientific and engineering personnel, and (2) increased recruitment of foreign students by U.S. institutions to augment domestic enrollment. This trend is indicated clearly in Table 1. Enrollment of foreign students doubled during the 1970s at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, rising to almost 290,000 students in 1979. GRADUATE TRAINING The proportion of full-time graduate students in science and engineering (S&E) who were from foreign countries rose from 16 percent in 1974 to 20 percent in 1979. Although there was an increase in almost all S&E fields between 1974 and 1979, the growth was most dramatic in engineering and mathematical/computer sciences. Over 40 percent (16,200) of the 1979 graduate enrollment in engineering, and over 30 percent (4,300) of the enrollment in mathematical/computer sciences, consisted of foreign students (see Figure 1). DOCTORATE PRODUCTION Approximately 3,600 (or 1 out of every 5) S&E doctorates granted by U.S. universities in 1979 were awarded to foreign citizens. This is The material in this appendix was derived primarily from two sources: (1) a National Science Foundation report, “Foreign participation in U.S. science and engineering higher education and labor markets” (NSF 81–316), and (2) data provided by the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Council. Due to general nature of the data, however, it was not possible to determine the number of foreign nationals from any particular country participating in U.S. scientific and technological enterprises.

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security TABLE 1 Foreign Enrollment in US Institutions of Higher Education, Selected Years, 1954–1979 Selected Years All Institutions Total Enrollment Foreign Enrollment Foreign as a Percentage of Total 1954 2,499,800 34,200 1.4 1964 5,320,000 82,000 1.5 1970 8,649,400 144,700 1.7 1975 11,290,700 179,300 1.6 1976 11,121,400 203,100 1.8 1977 11,415,000 235,500 2.1 1978 11,392,000 263,900 2.3 1979 11,707,100 286,300a 2.4a aPreliminary. SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics and Institute of International Education. FIGURE 1 Foreign students as a percentage of full-time graduate science/engineering enrollment in doctorate-granting institutions within fields, 1974–1979. SOURCE: National Science Foundation.

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security broken down by field of study in Table 2. In engineering alone, foreign nationals obtained about 1,200—or almost half—of the doctorates received by graduate students. The share of all S&E doctorates awarded to foreign nationals increased from about 15 percent in 1960 to 21 percent in 1979. Since then, it has remained relatively stable. The large number of foreign citizens obtaining doctorates in the United States indicates the large amount of foreign interest in the high technology work underway in U.S. institutions. Foreign nationals with temporary visas received at least 20 percent of the S&E doctorates awarded in 1979 in each of more than 40 subspecialties. The largest percentages were in fuel technology/petroleum engineering (76 percent) and agricultural engineering (50 percent). Table 3 lists the ten leading U.S. institutions that granted doctorates to foreign full-time graduate students. The University of California-Berkeley and M.I.T. were first and second, respectively, in both 1974 and 1979, but the other institutions on the list varied substantially during the five-year period. The top ten institutions (by size) accounted for 21 percent of all foreign graduate students in 1979, compared with 23 percent in 1974. POSTDOCTORATES Foreigners constituted about one-third (or almost 6,500) of the S&E postdoctorates employed in doctorate-granting institutions in 1979, down from almost one-half in 1977. Figure 2 shows that two of every three postdoctorate engineers in 1979 were foreign nationals. Similarly, about 50 percent of the postdoctorate positions in the physical sciences were held by persons with foreign citizenship. Likewise, foreign nationals held about 45 percent of the postdoctorate positions in mathematical/computer sciences. Table 4 presents a summary of the ten leading institutions for foreign S&E postdoctorate employment in 1979. These universities accounted for 27 percent of the foreigners with postdoctorates working in U.S. institutions. CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION Data from annual surveys conducted by the National Research Council’s Commission on Human Resources paints a more detailed picture of the fields of interest and types of employment of “science/engineering Ph.D.s with foreign citizenship in the United States in 1981.” The figures presented here vary somewhat from the preceding data because they are more recent. They are also particularly noteworthy in that they encompass foreign Ph.D.s in noneducational areas of S&E employment. Table 5 indicates, for example, that while about 55 percent of the foreign Ph.D.s were employed in U.S. educational institutions of all types, about 37 percent (391 of those replying to the survey) were working in business and industry, another 2.3 percent (42 of those replying) were working for nonprofit organizations, and 1.6 percent (22 of those replying) were working for the U.S. government. Foreign

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security TABLE 2 Number and Percent Distribution of Ph.D. Recipients by Type of Citizenship for Selected Years Field 1960 1965 1970 1975 1979 Total Science/Engineering   Number of Ph.D.s Awarded 6,300 10,500 17,800 18,500 17,200   Percent US 85 83 82 78 79   Percent Foreign 15 17 18 22 21     Permanent Residents (immigrants) (3) (3) (6) (7) (6)     Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants) (12) (14) (12) (15) (15) Physical Sciences   Number of Ph.D.s Awarded 1,900 2,900 4,400 3,600 3,300   Percent US 88 86 84 77 79   Percent Foreign 13 15 16 23 21     Permanent Residents (immigrants) (3) (3) (6) (8) (6)     Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants) (10) (12) (10) (15) (15) Mathematical Sciences   Number of Ph.D.s Awarded 300 700 1,200 1,100 1,000   Percent US 81 86 84 76 74   Percent Foreign 19 14 16 24 26     Permanent Residents (immigrants) (4) (3) (5) (7) (7)     Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants) (15) (11) (11) (17) (19) Engineering   Number of Ph.D.s Awarded 800 2,100 3,400 3,000 2,500   Percent US 77 79 75 58 53   Percent Foreign 23 22 26 42 47     Permanent Residents (immigrants) (7) (6) (12) (14) (13)     Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants) (16) (16) (14) (28) (34) Agriculture   Number of Ph.D.s Awarded 400 600 800 900 900   Percent US 74 67 70 63 65   Percent Foreign 26 33 30 37 35     Permanent Residents (immigrants) (4) (3) (5) (8) (3)     Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants) (22) (30) (25) (29) (32) Life Sciences (excl. Agric.)   Number of Ph.D.s Awarded 1,200 2,000 3,400 3,600 3,600   Percent US 85 81 84 85 88   Percent Foreign 15 19 16 15 12     Permanent Residents (immigrants) (3) (3) (4) (6) (4)     Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants) (12) (16) (12) (9) (8) Social Sciences   Number of Ph.D.s Awarded 1,700 2,400 4,600 6,200 5,900   Percent US 88 87 86 86 87   Percent Foreign 12 13 14 14 13     Permanent Residents (immigrants) (3) (3) (5) (4) (3)     Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants) (9) (10) (9) (10) (10) Note: Percents calculated from unrounded numbers. Detail may not add to total due to rounding. SOURCE: National Science Foundation and National Research Council, unpublished tabulations.

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security TABLE 3 Ten Leading Doctorate-Granting Institutions in Foreign Full-Time Graduate Science/Engineering Enrollment, 1979 and 1974 Institution Rank Number Percent Change 1979 1974 1979 1974 1974–79 Total, all institutions – – 44,800 31,700 41 Total, leading 10 institutions – – 9,170 7,090 29 University of California-Berkeley 1 1 1,239 1,201 3 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2 2 1,101 881 25 Ohio State University 3 8 1,002 610 64 University of Wisconsin-Madison 4 3 904 750 21 University of Michigan 5 9 874 600 46 University of Illinois-Urbana 6 7 864 686 26 Stanford University 7 4 861 725 19 University of California-Los Angeles 8 13 830 467 78 University of Southern California 9 15 774 451 72 Cornell University 10 5 722 711 2 All other institutions     35,620 24,610 45 SOURCE: National Science Foundation. FIGURE 2 Foreign students as a percentage of total science/engineering postdoctorates in doctorate-grating institutions within fields: 1979. SOURCE: National Science Foundation.

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security TABLE 4 Ten Leading Institutions in Foreign Science/Engineering Postdoctorate Employment, 1979 Institution Rank Number Percent Distribution Total, all institutions – 6,080 100 Total, leading 10 institutions   1,649 27 Harvard University 1 297 5 University of California-Berkeley 2 189 3 Stanford University 3 171 3 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4 160 3 University of Wisconsin-Madison 5 158 3 University of California-Los Angeles 6 145 2 University of Southern California 7 143 2 Cornell University 8 139 2 University of California-San Francisco 9 127 2 Yale University 10 120 2 All other institutions   4,430 73   SOURCE: National Science Foundation. TABLE 5 Number of Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Field of Doctorate and Type of Employer 1982 Type of Employer   All Fields Field of Doctorate Mathematics Computer Science Physics Chemistry Engineering Bioscience Employed Populationa N 1,328 107 25 146 187 181 208   V%b 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Educational Institution N 800 84 13 84 91 57 160   V% 54.5 78.3 43.5 58.7 45.5 24.5 76.2 4-Year College/University/Medical School N 789 82 13 83 91 57 159 V% 54.0 76.1 43.5 58.6 45.5 24.5 76.0 Business/Industryc N 391 19 12 47 85 116 26   V% 36.8 18.2 56.5 32.0 51.7 71.6 10.1 U.S. Government N 22 1 – 3 1 – 4   V% 1.6 0.3 – 2.6 0.9 – 4.1 Other Nonprofit Organization N 42 3 – 8 4 4 4   V% 2.3 3.2 – 4.8 1.1 1.8 2.5 NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated. aIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments. bV%=Vertical percentage. cIncludes those self-employed. SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council.

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security TABLE 6 Number of Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Selected Field of Doctorate and Primary Work Activity Primary Work Activity   All Fieldsa Field of Doctorate Mathematics Computer Science Physics Chemistry Engineering Bioscience Totalb N 1,328 107 25 146 187 181 208   V%c 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Research and Development N 675 33 14 99 121 99 130   V% 52.8 29.2 62.5 65.1 72.0 58.6 66.9 Basic Research N 364 21 6 55 62 10 114   V% 24.6 20.2 32.9 35.8 33.7 6.0 59.7 Applied Research N 226 8 5 25 49 55 13   V% 18.7 6.6 16.3 16.0 32.1 28.4 6.4 Development/Design N 85 4 3 19 10 34 3   V% 9.4 2.4 14.4 13.4 6.2 24.2 0.8 Management/Administration N 115 4 4 10 19 20 15   V% 10.3 3.5 8.8 6.3 9.6 12.7 6.7 Management of R&D N 74 1 4 8 14 17 10   V% 6.7 0.3 8.8 6.1 6.7 12.0 4.9 Teaching N 375 59 7 30 31 34 41   V% 25.3 54.3 28.7 22.3 10.9 14.5 17.4 Consulting/Professional Services N 84 7 – 4 3 19 12 V% 6.3 7.5 – 3.9 1.3 11.1 5.0 NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated. aThese figures represent more than the totals presented in the table. bIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments. cV%=Vertical percentage. SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council. nationals in business and industry were heavily represented in the fields of engineering, chemistry, and physics, but were found in other fields as well. Most of those working for the U.S. government were employed in bioscience, physics, or chemistry. In Table 6 the doctoral fields of foreign national Ph.D.s and their primary work activity are shown. Approximately 53 percent were engaged in R&D, with lesser numbers in R&D management, consulting, or teaching. The heaviest concentration of foreign national Ph.D.s working in R&D was in chemistry, followed closely by bioscience, physics, computer science, and engineering. With the exception of engineering, a larger proportion of the researchers were engaged in basic research than in applied science or development/design. Table 7 shows foreign national Ph.D.s by type of employer and primary work activity. Here again the majority (52.8 percent, or 678, of those replying to the survey) were engaged in R&D, primarily within educational institutions (45.6 percent, or 356, of those replying) and business/industry (45.5 percent, or 250, of those replying). A majority of the foreign nationals involved in R&D in educational institutions were working in basic research, while those employed by business/industry tended to be in applied research or development/design. The table also reveals that the federal government was

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security TABLE 7 Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Selected Type of Employer and Primary Work Activity Primary Work Activity   Total Employeda 1981 Type of Employer Educational Institution Total College/University/MedicalSchool Business/Industryb U.S. Government Other Nonprofit Organization Totalc N 1,328 800 789 391 22 42   H%d 100.0 54.0 54.0 36.8 1.6 2.3   V%d 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Research and Development N 675 356 355 250 16 24 H% 100.0 45.6 45.6 45.5 2.3 2.8   V% 52.8 44.2 44.5 65.2 77.4 64.7 Basic Research N 364 280 280 37 13 18   H% 100.0 77.1 77.1 11.7 3.9 4.4   V% 24.6 34.9 35.2 7.9 62.1 46.4 Applied Research N 226 71 70 136 3 5   H% 100.0 26.7 26.6 63.7 1.3 2.1   V% 18.7 9.2 9.2 32.4 15.3 16.8 Development Design N 85 5 5 77 – 1   H% 100.0 0.8 0.8 97.4 – 0.4   V% 9.4 0.1 0.1 25.0 – 1.4 Management/Administration N 115 33 33 60 3 9 H% 100.0 31.8 31.8 56.2 2.9 4.3   V% 10.3 6.0 6.0 15.7 19.3 19.1 Management of R&D N 74 12 12 51 2 6   H% 100.0 10.9 10.9 78.6 4.4 4.6   V% 6.7 1.3 1.3 14.2 18.7 13.3 Consulting/Professional Services N 84 12 11 48 1 5 H% 100.0 9.6 8.9 71.2 0.5 1.9   V% 6.3 1.1 1.0 12.2 2.1 5.1 NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated. aThese figures may represent more than the totals presented in the table. bIncludes those self-employed. cIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments. dH%=Horizontal percentage. V%=Vertical percentage. SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council. design. The table also reveals that the federal government was relatively insignificant as an employer of foreign national Ph.D.s, either in R&D or in the management of science and technology. The data in Tables 8 and 9 provide a very limited indication of the involvement of foreign nationals in some of the sectors of the U.S. economy that are considered vital to U.S. national security—i.e., defense, space, and energy. In Table 8 the individual’s generic area of interest is arrayed against his/her type of employment. Those working in the defense sector accounted for only 2.9 percent (29 of those replying to the survey) of the total foreign national workforce of Ph.D.s. This was similar to the percentage of those employed in space science (2.8 percent of those replying). Within the defense sector, Ph.D.s with foreign citizenship were found exclusively in

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security TABLE 8 Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Selected Type of Employer and Area of National Interest Area of Interest   Total Employeda 1981 Type of Employer Educational Institution Total College/University/Medical School Business/Industryb U.S. Government Other Nonprofit Organization Total Employedc N 1,328 800 789 391 22 42   H%d 100.0 54.5 54.0 36.8 1.6 2.3   V%d 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Education (Not Teaching) N 64 53 49 5 1 4 H% 100.0 86.0 80.6 6.2 2.8 4.5   V% 4.3 6.8 6.4 0.7 7.6 8.4 Health N 273 193 193 37 5 7   H% 100.0 69.0 69.0 16.8 2.8 1.3   V% 16.0 20.3 20.4 7.3 28.7 9.2 Defense N 29 12 12 17 – –   H% 100.0 38.3 38.3 61.7 – –   V% 2.9 2.0 2.0 4.8 – – Space N 33 17 17 10 5 1   H% 100.0 53.6 53.6 31.9 14.2 0.3   V% 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.4 25.4 0.4 Energy or Fuel N 119 49 49 63 – 4   H% 100.0 36.7 36.7 57.7 – 3.2   V% 12.5 8.4 8.5 19.6 – 17.2 NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated. aThese figures may represent more than the totals presented in the table. bIncludes those self-employed. cIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments. dH%=Horizontal percentage. V%=Vertical percentage. SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council. educational institutions or business/industry, similar to the pattern in space research. Finally, Table 9 shows that a majority (58.4 percent or 18) of the foreign nationals working in the defense sector were involved in R&D, primarily applied research and development/design. More than one-third were working in educational areas that are related in some way to national defense. In sum, the data on foreign national Ph.D.s in science and engineering contain few surprises. Within certain fields, foreign citizens do constitute a significant percentage of those engaged in R&D activities in both the university and industrial sectors. At the same time, however, their presence remains inconsequential in generic areas, such as defense, which are directly related to U.S. national security. It is unfortunate that more specific data, indicating country or national origin, remain unavailable, since they would probably reveal that most foreign scientists and engineers are citizens of nonadversary countries. On the basis of the evidence presented here, however, it is apparent that the total number of foreign nationals presently in the United States is significant and, most likely, still increasing.

OCR for page 126
Scientific Communication and National Security TABLE 9 Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Selected Primary Work Activity and Area of National Interest Area of Interest   Totala Research and Development Management Area Total Basic Research Applied Research Development/Design Area Total of R&D Teaching Consulting/Professional Services Total Employedb N 1,328 675 364 226 85 115 74 375 84   H%c 100.0 52.8 24.6 18.7 9.4 10.3 67 25.3 6.3   V%c 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Education (Not Teaching) N 64 17 12 3 2 7 1 30 5 H% 100.0 26.6 24.1 1.7 0.9 18.6 1.0 42.9 7.3   V% 4.3 2.2 4.2 0.4 0.4 7.8 0.6 7.3 5.0 Health N 273 171 126 39 6 23 14 49 19   H% 100.0 68.2 50.4 12.5 5.3 7.5 5.3 15.6 5.9   V% 16.0 20.7 32.7 10.7 9.0 11.8 12.9 9.8 15.1 Defense N 29 18 3 10 5 1 1 8 2   H% 100.0 58.4 6.9 24.4 27.1 1.3 1.3 36.0 4.3   V% 2.9 3.2 0.8 3.8 8.3 0.4 0.6 4.1 2.0 Space N 33 27 17 7 3 2 2 4 –   H% 100.0 85.7 47.8 21.0 16.9 8.2 8.2 6.1 –   V% 2.8 4.5 5.4 3.1 5.0 2.2 3.4 0.7 – Energy or Fuel N 119 75 22 38 15 6 6 25 10   H% 100.0 56.6 11.7 24.0 20.9 6.6 6.6 22.7 12.6   V% 12.5 13.4 5.9 16.0 27.7 8.0 12.4 11.2 24.9 NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated. aThese figures may represent more than the totals presented in the table. bIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments. cH%=Horizontal percentage. V%=Vertical percentage. SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council.