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Disposal of nc~ustria~ arch Domestic Wastes Lance arch Sea A~:ernatives Boarc~ on Ocean Science arch Policy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, arch Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1984

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS ~ 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. ~ Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 84-61446 International Standard Book Number 0-309-03484-1 Printed in the United States of America

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Organizing Committee for the Workshop on Land, Sea, and Air Options for the Disposal of industrial and Domestic Wastes STANLEY I. AUERBACH, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Cochairman EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Cochairman NORMAN H. BROOKS, California Institute of Technology JUDITH M. CAPUZZO, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution JAMES A. CRUTCHFIELD, University of Washington DAVID A. DEESE, Boston College WILLIAM F. GARBER, Bureau of Sanitation, Los Angeles GEORGE A. JACKSON, Scripps Institution of Oceanography RICHARD F. SCHWER, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company MARY HOPE KATSOUROS, Senior Staff Officer ~

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Board on Ocean Science and Policy D. JAMES BAKER, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., Vice-Chairman (Acting Chairman) G. ROSS HEATH, Oregon State University (Chairman effective October 1, 1984) KIRK BRYAN, Princeton University JOHN P. CRAVEN, University of Hawaii CHARLES L. DRAKE, Dartmouth College PAUL M. FYE, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution of Oceanography JUDITH T. KILDOW, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN A. KNAUSS, University of Rhode Island JAMES J. McCARTHY, Harvard University H. WILLIAM MENARD, Scripps Institution of Oceanography C. BARRY RALEIGH, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory ROGER REVELLE, University of California, San Diego DAVID A. ROSS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution BRIAN J. ROTHSCHILD, University of Maryland WILLIAM M. SACKETT, University of South Florida JOHN H. STEELE, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution CARL I. WUNSCH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology NANCY G. MAYNARD, Executive Secretary iv

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Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources HERBERT FRIEDMAN, National Research Council, Chairman ELKAN R. BLOUT, Harvard Medical School WILLIAM BROADER, Princeton University BERNARD F. BURKE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology HERMAN CHERNOFF, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MILDRED S. DRESSELHAUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WALTER R. ECKELMANN, Sohio Petroleum Company JOSEPH L. FISHER, Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of Virginia JAMES C. FLETCHER, University of Pittsburgh WILLIAM A. FOULER, California Institute of Technology GERHART FRIEDLANDER, Brookhaven National Laboratory EDWARD A. FRIEMAN, Science Applications, Inc. EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, Scripps Institution of Oceanography CHARLES L. HOSLER, JR., Pennsylvania State University KONRAD B. KRAUSKOPF, Stanford University CHARLES J. MANKIN, Oklahoma Geological Survey WALTER H. MUNK, University of California, San Diego GEORGE E. PAKE, Xerox Research Center ROBERT E. SIEVERS, University of Colorado HOWARD E. SIMMONS, JR., E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc. JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard School of Public Health HATTEN S. YODER, JR., Carnegie Institution of Washington RAPHAEL G. KASPER, Executive Director v

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Contents INTRODUCTION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP REPORT 1. REPORT OF THE PANEL ON SLUDGE MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY 1.1 Definition of the Problem 1.2 Constraints on Policy Implementation 1.2.1 The Statutory Framework 1.2.2 The System of Public Administration 1.2.3 Economic Factors 1.3 Analytical Methods and Information Needs for Developing and Assessing Public Policy on Waste Management 1.3.1 The Assumptions 1.3.2 The Context for Waste-Management Decision Making 1.3.2.1 Weighting 1.3.2.2 Scale of Resolution 1.3.2.3 Boundaries of the Problem 1.3.3 Scientific Uncertainty and the Value of Information 1.3.4 The Effects of Concern from Decision Making Matrix Approaches to Multimedia Assessment Methodological Problems of Integrating Various Types of Information 1.3.7 Methods for Resolving Conflict in the Public Policy Process 1.4 Conclusions Notes and References vii 1 4 8 9 10 11 14 16 19 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 26 33 33 35 37

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2. REPORT OF THE PANEL ON MARINE SCIENCES 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Ocean Processes Determining Transport, Fate, and Effects 2.2.2 The Process-Oriented Approach 2.2.2.1 Physical Processes 2. 2.2.2 Chemical Processes 2.2.2.3 Biological Processes 2.2.3 Predictions of Concentrations and 39 39 41 41 43 48 51 Fluxes 55 2.2.3.1 Basis for Prediction 55 2.2.3.2 Information Needs for Prediction 56 2.3 Case Study: Proposed Deep-Ocean Discharge of Sewage Sludge 2.3.1 Suspended Solids 2.3.1.1 Synthetic Organics 2.3.1. 2 Dissolved Oxygen/Biochemical 57 59 60 Oxygen Demand 62 2.3.1.3 Nutrients 63 2.3.1.4 Metals 65 2.4 Ultimate Fate 68 2.5 Overview 69 2.5.1 Assessment of Capabilities 2.5.2 Information Needs Resulting from Prediction References 3. REPORT OF THE PANEL ON LAND DISPOSAL 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Waste Properties 3.2.1 Pathogen Content 3.2.2 Acute Toxicity 3.2.3 Chronic Toxicity 3.2.4 Toxicant Mobility 3.2.5 Biodegradability/Persistence 3.2.6 Bioaccumulation 3.2.7 Waste Component Interactions 3.2.8 Phytotoxicity 3.2.9 Incompatibility with Containment Systems 3.2.10 Volume . . . vain 70 70 70 73 73 75 77 77 78 78 79 80 80 80 81 81

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3.3 Site Properties 3.3.1 Hydrologic Considerations 3.3.1.1 Characterization of Loading 81 81 Rate 83 3.3.1.2 Overland Runoff 85 3.3.1.3 Water-Flow Velocity 87 3.3.1.4 Transport in the Groundwater System 88 Transport in Surface-water Systems 3.3.1.6 Summary of Hydrologic Considerations 3.3.1.7 Land-Use Considerations 3.3.2 Terrestrial Ecological Considerations 3.4 Facility Design Properties 3.4.1 Location 3.4.2 3.4.3 _ 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 References 3.3.1.5 Site Selection Barriers to Waste Migration Waste Segregation Maintainability Site Development Monitorina 4. REPORT OF THE PANEL ON BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS 4.1 Site Evaluation 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Marine Site Evaluation 4.1.2.1 Nearshore Disposal 4.1.2.2 Deep-Water Disposal 4.1.3 Terrestrial Site Evaluation Criteria for Evaluation of Ecosystem Effects 4.2.1 General Aspects of Ecosystem Evaluation Effects on Species Community Stability 4.2.3.1 Resistance 4.2.3.2 Recoverability 4.2.4 Productivity Changes 4.2.5 Transport of Waste Constituents 4.2.6 Habitat Types 4.2.6.1 Uniqueness 4.2.6.1 Recoverability 4.2.6.1 Nursery Grounds 4.2.7 Monitoring Ecosystem Effects 4.2.2 4.2.3 1X 91 92 93 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 96 97 98 101 101 101 102 102 106 107 109 109 112 113 113 114 115 116 117 117 118 119 120

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4.2.8 Health Effects--Pathogens 4.2.8.1 Pathogen Problems Associated with Marine Disposal 4.2.8.2 Pathogen Problems Associated with Land Disposal 120 122 126 4.2.9 Toxicological Effects--Toxicants 128 4.2.10 Summary 131 132 136 4.3 Information Needs References 5. CASE STUDY A: REPORT OF THE PANEL ON SEWAGE SLUDGE 5.1 Introduction 5.1.1 Why Must Wastewater Sludges Be Studied? 5 .1.2 Availability of Required Information 5.1. 3 Approach to the Problem 5 .2 The Material 5.2.1 Source 5 .2.2 Wastewater Treatment Processes 5. 2.3 Sludge Conversion 5. 2.4 Pathogens 5.2.5 Trace Metals 5. 2.5.1 Potentially Harmful Trace Elements 5.2.5.2 Phytotoxic Elements in Sludge 5.2.5. 3 Selection of Disposal/ Utilization Sites 146 146 146 148 149 150 151 151 154 155 157 158 161 162 163 163 163 164 165 165 166 167 5.3.4.1 Chemical Fixation 167 5 .3.4. 2 Thermal Fixation 168 5.4 Local Considerations 169 S. 4.1 Environmental Considerations 170 S.4. 1.1 Geography 170 5.4.1.2 Climate 170 5.4 .1. 3 Unique Environmental Features 170 ~ . 4 . 1. 4 Other Factors 171 5.3 Available Disposal and/or Reuse Options S.3.1 Thermal Processes 5.3.1.1 Incineration 5.3.1. 2 Pyrolysis 5.3.1.3 Wet Combustion 5.3.2 Land-Based Alternatives 5.3.3 Ocean-Based Alternatives 5.3.4 Other Processes

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5.4.2 Sociopolitical Factors 5.5 Evaluation Process 5.5.1 Introduction 5.5.2 Human Health Risk 5.5.3 Conclusions 5.5.4 Financial Assessment 5.6 Summary References 6. CASE STUDY B : REPORT OF THE PANEL ON INDUSTRIAL WASTES 6.1 Introduction 6 .2 Consideration of Alternatives 6.2.1 Screening of Alternatives 6 .2.2 Detailed Evaluation 6. 2.3 Cost Estimation for Alternatives 6.2.4 Final Listing of Alternatives 6.3 Impact Assessment 6.3.1 Environmental Impacts 6.3.2 Institutional Impacts 6.4 Decision Making 6.5 Case Study 6.5.1 Background 6.5 .1.1 Neutralization and Land Disposal 6.~.1.2 Ocean Disposal 6 . 5 . 1. 3 Conclusion 6 . 6 Conclusions and Information Needs References Appendix A: Participants X1 171 172 172 178 179 180 181 182 186 186 188 189 190 190 191 191 193 197 197 198 198 199 203 203 206 207 209

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Disposal of nc~ustria~ arch Domestic Wastes Lance arch Sea A~ternati\/es

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