Click for next page ( 136


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 135
135 Remote sensing of dissolved fossil fuel compounds in seawater appears to be several years in the future and should naturally emerge from the more general basic research into reroute sensing of chemical and b iolog ical components of the oceans . Sampl ing Techniques The b ias introduced by var ious sampl ing protocols should be r ecogn ized explicitly. The mechanics of sampling needs close attention in order to maximize useful data. For example, many grab samples and gravity cores taken after oil spills did not contain the "flock ~ eye r at the sediment-water interface, thereby introducing severe doubt as to whether or not petroleum compounds had reached the benthic ecosystem. Large volume water samplers designed to avoid contamination during the sampling process have been developed and should be more extensively used to obtain useful samples. In situ, or on deck, water pumping systems capable of obtaining samples of water for analyses of dissolved and particulate compounds should be sub ject to further deployments in a variety of oceanic and coastal regions to further evaluate their usefulness. Initial tests are quite favorable and suggest that these systems will prove useful to studies of fossil fuel compounds in the water columns. PART B Biological Methods INTRODUCTION An impressive amount of research has been done during the past decade on uptake and effects of petroleum by single species of organisms under controlled laboratory conditions. In fact, the methods for exposing organisms are now technically sophisticated in some cases. However, relatively few experiments have been conducted in the field to validate laboratory findings. Because of the inadequate comparison of results of laboratory experiments and postspill f ield investigations, the specific knowledge needed for predicting the impact of acute petroleum pollution in the mar ine environment is not yet available. Fortunately, the study of marine mesocosms, i.e., scaled living models of natural ecosystems, is a promising new means for developing the needed comparisons. Physiological, Behavioral, Population, and Ecosystem Effects Fundamental to the study of populations, communities, and their habitats is the identification of species. Because species names are a key to the biological literature, it is important to know exactly which animals, plants, and microorganisms are involved in any given study.

OCR for page 135
136 In general, physiological data are meaningful only when associated with reliably identif fed species . Although costly and time consuming, identif ication is a pr imary ob jective for both f ield and laboratory studies. Specimen depositories permit verification of identifications made in f ield surveys, before and after spills, and are vital for physiological and biochemical analyses during and subsequent to spills . In fact, depositor ies may provide the only means of establishing validity of the data gathered at the time of a given event. Not only is it important to know the species involved in a given test system or event, the chemistry of the toxicant causing an impact has to be thoroughly understood. Changes in composition and concentra- tion during exposure need to be monitored to establish cause-and-effect relationships. After establishing the species and toxicant, the choice of methods for any biological study is determined by the goals of the investiga- tion, availability of instruments, familiarity of the investigators with those instruments and methods, and the cost of the overall project. The biological methods suounar ized in this report may be used in connection with the following objectives: to measure effects on physiology and behavior (a) on individual organisms, i.e., primarily acute (short term lethal or sublethal) effects, and (b) on the life cycles of organisms, including energy budgets, i.e., primarily chronic effects on growth, development, and reproduction; to assess population changes including (c) acute impacts and (d) subsequent changes in populations; and to obtain information at the ecosystem level (e) for experimental systems and (f) for natural systems. Items (a), (b), (c), (d), and (f) are usually investigated in connection with accidents or chronic discharges. Item (a) , but particularly (b) and (e), are pr Oedipal approaches for searching out causal and possible predictive relationships or explanations for the effects of crude oils or their constituents. Although goal (d) is an important environmental consideration, a more fundamental concern is to maintain marine ecosystems (f) in a condition that allows them to be utilized as society deems appropr late. Problems of Exposure ~ Type of Oil, Weather ing, and Exposure Medium Because of changes in composition that beg in as soon as oil is spilled on the sea (see Chemical Methods section), experiments using unweathered oils do not indicate those responses expected when the same organisms are exposed to a-ted oils. ExPer iments designed to assess the impact of , oil must take this dispar ity into account. The relative immiscibility of oil and seawater makes the quantita- tive monitor ing of petroleum in aqueous bioassay solutions cliff icult . As a result, several methods have been proposed and employed for the preparation of oil-water bioassay mixtures or for simulating the type of exposure to oil an organism might encounter in nature (also see Laboratory Exposure ~Qethods section) . Behavioral, bioassay, and bioaccumulation studies using organisms exposed to weathered petroleum in the laboratory are meaningful if they

OCR for page 135
137 improve or broaden our understanding of the biological responses of organisms in their natural habitats. The goal of such research should be to measure biological effects of a specific compound, or mixture of compounds of known concentration, on organisms under a prescribed set of environmental conditions. Often, however, assessment of laboratory results in terms of field situations is difficult because of the complexity of the environmental factors involved (G.V. Cox, 19741. Nevertheless, laboratory studies are important to explore potential damage caused by various concentrations and exposure times for pollutants and to assist in designing field studies. METHODS FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF PETROLEUM TO MARINE ORGANISMS Hi A full appreciation of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that might actually occur in a given water column, sediment, and/or food found in different oil-contaminated marine environments is valuable in designing effects studies. (See Chapter 4.) In the laboratory, test organisms are best exposed to petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations similar to those that might realistically be expected to occur in a contaminated marine environment. A wide range of exposure concentrations is used whenever possible, including environ- mentally realistic concentrations and concentrations up to about 10-20 times higher than the latter. Higher concentrations are helpful in eliciting obvious biological effects and are useful in estimating a safety factor (difference between lowest concentrations eliciting a response and expected environmental concentration), when environmentally realistic concentrations do not elicit a measurable response. Acute Lethal Toxicity Bioassay The usual first step in evaluating the toxicity of petroleum and specific petroleum hydrocarbons for marine organisms is the acute lethal bioassay (Sprague, 1978~. This is a rapid screening method, designed to provide an estimate of the relative toxicity of crude or refined oils or specific hydrocarbons, to different species and life stages of marine organisms. It is a rough predictor of the maximum concentration of pollutant material that can be present in the marine environment for an extended period of time without causing damage to sensitive organisms and/or ecosystems (Sprague, 1971; Wilson, 1975; Perkins, 1979~. Chronic bioassays, in which organisms are exposed for longer periods (most of their life cycle or even for several genera- tions), and studies of effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of pollutant materials on various biochemical, physiological, and behavioral parameters in the test organisms, are more useful for deriving maximum acceptable concentrations of pollutant materials. If results of acute lethal bioassays show that a given pollutant is toxic, studies of chronic, life-cycle, and sublethal effects are a useful follow-up, as well as mesocosm studies, as appropriate, to establish maximum acceptable concentrations.

OCR for page 135
138 As methods for acute lethal toxicity bioassay protocols are improved, eventually they will be standardized. At the present time, several manuals and reviews are available in which such protocols are described in sufficient detail to measure the toxicity of petroleum for mar ine organisms (Amer ican Publ ic Health Association, 1977; American Society for Testing and Materials, 1980; Environmental Protection Agency, 1975a,b; Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers, 1977 ~ . Flow-through, as opposed to static, petroleum bioassays are pre- ferred if resources and constraints peculiar to the organisms of choice allow. Several flow-through systems have been designed for use in petroleum bioassays (Hyland et al., 1977; Vanderhorst et al., 1977b). It is imperative in flow-through and static bioassays and in chronic effects studies that the petroleum hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase in contact with the test organisms be characterized and measured at regular intervals. The LC50 (median lethal concentration) is currently the term most often used to report results of acute mar ine bioassays. The LC50 and its error may be estimated by simple graphical methods (American Public Health Association, 1977; Lichtfield and Wilcoxon, 19491, more precise prob~t (Finney, 1971) , logit (Ashton, 1972; Hamilton et al., 1977), and nonparametric (Stephen, 1977) methods and by methods that make use of computer capabilities, e.g., BED 03S Fortran program (Dixon, 19701. H.J.W. Anderson et al. (1980) recommended use of the product of LCso and exposure time as a toxicity index, to compare toxicity of d ifferent oils or sensitivity of different species. This method is stil 1 under study. If log time is plotted versus log LC50, a straight line can be produced which can then be extrapolated to predict mortal ity for exposure intervals likely to be encountered dur ing an oil spill. Chronic and Sublethal Ef facts Studies To study chronic and sublethal effects, employment of full 1 if e-cycle assays are desirable but not always practical. In a life-cycle bio- assay, test organisms are exposed over a complete life cycle, or a major portion of it, to sublethal concentrations of a given pollutant. Biological parameters usually measured include mortality, growth rate, time to maturation, fecundity, offspring survival, and physiological or genetic adaptation. The most sensitive stages in the life cycle of an organism are detected and effects of the pollutant on sensitive and ecologically important parameters such as growth and reproduction are determined tHansen et al., 1978; Nimmo et al., 1977; Reish, 1980~. Life-cycle bioassays using petroleum have been performed with poly- chaete worms (Car r and Reish, 1977; Rossi and Anderson, 1978) and crustaceans (Laughlin et al., 1978; W.Y. Lee, 1978~. Besides the mentioned biological parameters, others have been measured in an effort to define sublethal concentrations of petroleum causing deleterious responses to marine organisms (J.W. Anderson, 1977a,b; Malins, 1977; Neff and Anderson, 1981~. The behavior of

OCR for page 135
139 mar ine animals has been shown to be highly sensitive to petroleum- induced perturbation. Methods are cited therein for monitor ing behavior, chemosensing, locomotory, and feeding responses, among others . Change in respiration (oxygen consumption) has been used frequently as a Or iter ion of sublethal response of mar ine organisms to oil pollu- tion. Results have been highly variable because a great many endogenous and exogenous factors, other than pollution, influence respiratory r ate . A fruitful approach is to combine respiration rate with other biological parameters (food consumption, growth, and excretions to construct an energy budget for the animal (Bayne et al ., 1976 , 1979 ; Widdows, 1978 ~ . Several indices of stress can be der ived from the energy budget, including scope for growth {energy available for growth and reproduction) and growth eff iciency. The ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen excreted (O: N ratio) can also be used as an index of pollutant stress, although there can be considerable variability arising from other environmental factors. Nevertheless, it provides an estimate of the proportion of metabolic energy derived from catabolism of proteins and amino acids. Bioener- getics methods, or variations of them, of which the O:N ratio is an example, have been used in several recent investigations of the effects of sublethal concentrations of petroleum on marine animals (Capuzzo and Lancaster, 1981; Edwards, 1978; Gilfillan and Vandermenlen, 1978; Johns and Pechenik, 1980; Stekoll et al., 1980~. Biochemical enzyme assays, pr imar fly of blood serum, are a powerful diagnostic tool in human clinical medicine. Many of these enzyme assays have been appl fed to t issue samples of mar ine an imals in an effort to detect changes in enzyme activity attributable to pollutant exposure, but such efforts have met with only limited success. This is a growing f ield and of fer s great promise . The activity of the microsomal cytochrome P450 mixed function oxygenase (MFO) system of fish and, possibly, marine polychaete worms is increased (induced) by exposure of the animal to petroleum and selected aromatic hydrocarbons {Neff, 1979; Stegeman, 1981; Varanas i and Malins, 1977~. Because it is induced by exposure to petroleum, the hepatic MFO in fish has been recommended as an index of petroleum contamination in the marine environment (J.F. Payne, 1976; Walton et al., 1978; J.F. Payne and Fancey, 19823. Several other pollutants, including heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons, as well as natural environmental and biological factors, may influence MFO activity. It must be used with caution as a specific index of petroleum pollution, because of the ef feats of other pollutants. Acute or chronic exposure to petroleum may cause a variety of tissue lesions, increased incidence of parasitism, or increased susceptibil ity to bacter ial or viral disease. These can be detected and evaluated by examination using the light or electron microscope tHodgins et al., 1977; Sinderman, 1979~. Some success has been achieved using the light and electron microscope for histopathology and h istochemistry to detect sublethal damage in laboratory and f ield populations of mar ine f ish (Blanton and Robinson , 1973; Hawkes , 1977; DiMichele and Taylor, 1978; Payne et al., 1978; Hawkes et al., 1980; Eurell and Haensly, 1981; Haensly et al., 1982) . These methods could,

OCR for page 135
140 indeed, be useful for diagnosing characteristics of damage in marine invertebrates and fish caused by pollutants, provided they can be related directly to the pollutant. Field Studies There is a growing interest in adapting physiological, biochemical, and h istopathological methods, such as those descr ibed above, for diagnosing the state of health of f ield populations of mar ine animals in the vicin- ity of oil spills or chronic oil inputs to the mar ine environment. Such methods, if validated and adapted for field use, could be useful for monitoring petroleum contamination of the marine environment. For example, two large interdisciplinary programs currently involve devel- oping and evaluating field monitoring methods. These include the Pollutant Responses in Marine Animals (PRIMA) Program suppor ted by the National Science Foundation and NOAA'S Ocean Pulse Program, now the Northeast Monitoring Program. Suites of biochemical, physiological, and histopathological tests provide a diagnostic profile of the health of the test animal. Such characterization may prove more useful than any single test for assessing pollutant stress in populations of marine animals (McIntyre and Pearce, 1980~. There are problems in such an approach, however, For example, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) from two estuaries heavily contaminated with oil from the Amoco Cadiz crude oil spill were examined for histopathology, and a wide variety of biochemical changes over a 2-year period were recorded. A progression of biochemical changes and pathological lesions was observed, which indicated an initial deal ine in the health of the f ish, followed by improvement in these indices 27 months after the spill (Haensly et al., 1982~. However, it is not clear that the effects were, in fact, due to the oil alone. Thus, one must be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established. Selection of Test Organisms Several criteria are important in selecting test organisms for labor- atory toxicity and accumulation/release studies. Because marine organisms vary widely in their sensitivity to oil and ability to metabolize and excrete petroleum hydrocarbons (Neff et al. , 1976; Craddock, 1977; Varanasi and Malins, 1977; Neff and Anderson, 1981), several species, representing different major taxonomic groups provide a more useful system. Most frequently used are microalgae, polychaete worms, bivalve mollusks, crustaceans, and fish. Ideally, test species should meet several criteria. However, the criteria for selection of a test species will depend on the question being asked. At the minimum, the test species ought to be available in large numbers, occur over an extended geographic range, represent important members of the ecosystem, and come from, or represent, marine habitats likely to be severely impacted by oil spills. Species used for hydrocarbon accumulation/release studies ought to include taxa

OCR for page 135
141 possessing different types of hydrocarbon metabolizing ability or response. Several lists of mar ine species have been descr ibed in the 1 itera- ture which fulfill some or all of these criteria, and several of these species have been recommended as standard bioassay/biological effects test organisms, including the microalga Skeletonema costatum, the copepod Acartia tonsa, the opossum shrimp Mysidopsis bahia and the cyprinodont fishes Fundulus heteroclitus and Cyprinodon variegates (Becker et al., 1973; Environmental Protection Agency, 1975a,b; American Public Health Association, 1977; Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers, 1977; Reish, 1980 ~ . In many cases, however, it is prefer- able to use species indigenous to, or representative of, habitats of particular concern, such as coral reefs, f ishing banks or continental shelves, estuar ies, and arctic reg imes . In the design of f ield studies, the choice of suitable exper imental species may be limited by what is available locally at a field site. Many of the Or iter ia used to select laboratory sub jects can be applied here also. In most cases, particular species are especially suitable for use in answering a particular environmental question; for example, bivalve mollusks are good subjects for studying petroleum contamination of biota because, in general, they accumulate hydrocarbons readily. Preparation of Oil-Water Solutions Test organisms can be exposed to petroleum in the laboratory in the form of water-soluble fractions, oil-in-water dispersions, surface slicks, oil-contaminated food, or oil-contaminated sediments. No single method of exposure to petroleum is applicable for all marine organisms. Exper iments using microorganisms require different approaches from uptake studies with mar ine macroorganisms. The latter, in turn, need different methods applied than those used with birds or marine mammals. The following discussion describes how petroleum and its components have been presented to a variety of marine organisms, recognizing, of course, that specif ic me~hods often are needed for different organisms or when different exper imental approaches are applied. Preparations of petroleum solutions should represent situations that can occur in the environment as a result of an accidental discharge of petroleum or from chronic inputs. Many methods used in preparing petroleum solutions for laboratory exposures can also be used for flow- through systems, particularly when larger organisms held in aquaria or tanks are to be exposed. Similarly, birds and mar ine manunals require different approaches for exposure studies; the former has been reviewed by Holmes and Cronshaw (1977) and the latter by Geraci and Smith (19777. See Chapter 5. Water-Soluble Fractions: Static When oil is mixed with seawater, the oil can form macroparticles (dro~ let dispersions), microparticles (collodial dispersions and oil-in-water

OCR for page 135
142 emulsions), and single-phase, homogeneous mixtures Water-soluble frac- tions) of hydrocarbons. There are no definitive demarcations between these states of dissolution, although arbitrarily, decisions have been made, such as using filters having 0.45- and 1.2-um pore size to differentiate between particulate oil (retained on the filter) from subparticulate and soluble oil (passing through the filter) (Gordon et al. 1973; Wells and Sprague, 19761. However, reaggregation may occur after filtering. Recent developments resulting in improved chemical analyses have permitted a more critical distinction between states of dissolution. Published accounts of laboratory exposure studies conducted through the mid-1970s frequently described a test solution as a Water-soluble fraction" (WSF). Unfortunately, many of the reports contain no descr iption of the exposure medium, whereas in others, an attempt was made to define the water-soluble fraction by reporting chemical analyses of only the major hydrocarbon compounds, providing limited data on oil particle sizes, and results only of visual examinations of the clarity of the fractions. Such information is inadequate because oil particles of 100 um diameter or less are not readily discernible to the human eye (Nelson-Smith, 1973), and oil droplets smaller than 1-2 um in diameter remain suspended in seawater for hours or days (Parker et al. 19713--much longer than the settling period used routinely in preparing water-soluble fractions. In addition to the problems cited above, it is difficult to determine whether water- soluble fractions used in the tests reported in the early literature were truly single-phase solutions, dispersions of fine droplets of oil in water, or a combination of these, described as "accommodated" by Gordon et al. (1973) and R.C. Clark and MacLeod (19771. Unfortunately, an additional difficulty is that most dispersions of oil and seawater are unstable over time. A water-soluble fraction is an artificial mixture and cannot be used to simulate precisely the conditions of hydrocarbon composition and concentration in a water column when oil is spilled in the marine environment. Equilibration conditions in nature may be quite different from those used to produce water-soluble fractions in the laboratory. The water-soluble fraction represents a compromise, a means of gener- ating a highly reproducible and relatively stable oil-in-water mixture and is, therefore, very useful when comparing the relative toxicity of different crude and refined petroleums for marine organisms. Laboratory studies have employed low-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbons because of their relatively high, short term toxicity for marine organisms; however, in the case of oil spills the partitioning of the simultaneously volatile and soluble low-molecular-weight hydro- carbons is a dynamic process, dependent upon a set of parameters unique to each spill {e.g., water and atmospheric mixing energies, temperature, salinity, presence of natural and human-contributed polar materials in the seawater, and type of petroleum. See Chapter 4 for details. Table 3-4 provides a summary of data for four American Petroleum Institute (APT) reference oils and Prudhoe Bay crude oil employed In many studies in recent years. The compositional analysis of the whole reference oils is compared to that of the water-soluble fraction,

OCR for page 135
143 prepared by mixing one part of oil with nine parts of seawater for 20 hours. Analyses of water from the Prudhoe Bay crude oil exposures are quite different, since a flowing exposure system was used in extracting the latter. The e-paraffin compounds, which range in carbon chain length from 12 to 24, represent a large amount of the total measured components in the oils, even though their contribution to the water extracts is relatively small. Measurements of monoaromatic compounds present in the oils and their extracts are not always quantitative, and in fact, low-bo~ling compo- nents frequently are not measured in the oil. However, the contribution of monoaromatics to the total concentrations of hydrocarbons in water- soluble fractions is significant if they occur in fresh oil; this is particularly true for crude oils that have not undergone any refining process. From an examination of the concentrations present in the water extract, the contribution of compounds higher in molecular weight than the alkylnaphthalenes is very small and may not be significant in producing acute toxicity. One could conclude that either the mono- aromatics or the diaromatics are the major contributors to the acute toxicity associated with these extracts. Table 3-5 was prepared to summarize the data in Table 3-4 as percent of the classes of compounds, relative to the total amounts of hydrocarbon actually measured. The percent composition of individual hydrocarbons routinely measured in the oil by environmental chemists is relatively low (5-15%) in compar ison with the numbers of compounds present (Mel ins, 1980 ~ . Water-soluble fractions have been prepared by stirring varying ratios of petroleum compounds and experimental media for varying per lads of time and allowing these to stand so as to err ive at a stabilized water-soluble fraction. Stirr ing times range from several hours to days, e.g., 12 hour stirring (Kauss and Hutchinson, 1975) and 72 hour stirring (}Mahoney and Haskin, 19801. Following an equilibrium period of several minutes (e.g., Winters et al., 1977; Pulich et al., 1974) to several hours (e.g., Kauss and Hutchinson, 1974 ~ for separation of the aromatic and aqueous phases, the aqueous phase may be f iltered through materials which range from glass wool to 0.45-pm Mill~pore(R) filters. Subsequent dilution with filtered or unfiltered seawater or media provides a range of concentrations. Soto et al. (197Sa,b) determined that the type of stirring affects the composition and, therefore, the biological effects of a petroleum extract, whereas Wells and Sprague (1976) determined that the type of stirring affected the concentration of the extractable organics measured by W and fluorescence (i.e., aromatics) and, hence, influenced the toxicity of the preparations. If mixing conditions are carefully standardized, highly reproducible results can be obtained in preparing water-soluble fractions (Linden et al., 1980~. However, chemical and physical characteristics of the petroleum will affect the actual composition and concentrations of hydrocarbons in the water-soluble fraction preparations (J.W. Anderson et al ., 1974 ; Neff and Anderson, 1981) . Inasmuch as the oil-water partition coefficients of hydrocarbons favor retention in the oil phase, and evaporation and solubilization are competing processes, the aqueous phase of a water-soluble fraction never becomes saturated with hydro

OCR for page 135
144 e ~ ~ e e ~e ~e e~ ~ | aD N (D ~ ~ _' N _' O O _d ~_' a' ~ Q. ~ u~ u, D 41) 3 C4 D I C)l [)l O1 ~_ m c 0 ~0 U) 0 .4 s ~1 tD ~r o o ~ ~ kD ~ ~ 0 0 cn N N ~ ~ ~. - 4J~ ~ - 4 oP e~ e e e ~ e ~ e ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~e ~; ~o. ~ O - o o o o o ~CJ1 o ~ o o o o ool cJ1 o o ~D o 3 oP 0 ~ c~ ~ 0 O e e e e e _ ~O O -~ _~ _I ~O O O O O O O O _1 _~ ~ _ ~0 0 01 D _ ~ 0 ~ _~ a~ O O O _~ r ~- O ~J dJJ ~C] _~ ~ _d N N S 3 ~1 _ ~0 ~c ~n n ~n ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ 0 tD O 0 r~ ~ a, ~ ~ ~ ~_. I~ ~ _1 ~ ~_~ _1 _~ _l _I N _1 O4 ed~ N 0 0 ~ _1 0 ~U) ~c O~ ~ e e ~ e ~ e e e e ~ e e ~ e e e e O 3 ~ ~ x ~O O O O O 1 vl O O O ~ O O O / O ~u ~a~ v ~c c O 0 00 0 ~-l ~e - ~e (IJ _I ~u" 0 kD ~1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CO O O ~t ~cn 0 _ q ~. ~D ~u~ ~r ~ ~ er ~ ~ ~ c ~o o ~o O ~ P. u~ O 01 cX) r ~c 0 _1 3 ~4 ~q. er 0 ~0` ~~ E ~a O ~ - C~ ~ O CO 0 0 0 N ~ _~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~- <= (D O D . O _~ _ 0 o N ~ ~ ~ 0 a~ _~ CO _d ~ u~ O _d ~_ ~J O s _ oP ~e e ~e ~e ~1 Z 3 0 ~ O _1 _~ O O t~ ol 0 0 _1 ~) ~O O O O ~c> c) ~_ O Ll a' c m >1 1~ L ~e ~ ~ :r ~ 0 0 0 c ~0 0 0 0 0 a, 0 1~ _1 ~ ~ _' ~O1 o C} D o o (D ~ r~ N C) ~ `:L v V ._l tlO Q. ~ e. ~ DJ 3_ ~) ~t~ '~ -0 82 O `: ~: , ~ ~ eq a ~0 ~0 ~ ~ ~ ~4 0 0 ~ ~r ~ ~r ~r ~ o o o 0 c~ ~ o 0 o o iD tD ~_ 3 O r~l ~e ~- c ~ ~ - t. O O O O O ~O O O O O O ~3 ~ ~X 3 0 ~ Ol v v O O tn ~t~QU O O c~ ~ ~ ~O O O O O O O 0 ~ ~ er ~co r ~O . - D ~ -~ ~0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ tD ~~) o O(U ~ 45 1~ Q. ~ ~/ r ~_' ~0 0 ~Q P4 U) Q. ~ ~Ql4,t 1 ~3 _ LSJ ~_. N ~S3 C ~V , ~ ~ .~. . C~ ~_ NE U] _~ O a.- ~ 1 S :, ~:- ~a' ~E ~O ~ 0 ~ ~ o 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ ~D ~C0 ~ _ ~-1 _ ~ ~ u~ ~ ~ a ~o o o ~ N O O O O ~O ~_ _1 ~ ~ e ~~4CJ~ V O. ~ - - dO O O O O O ~) O O O O O O O 0'0 0 ~4 ~C C 3 O- O1 V tt O ~O cU ~ tlJ a, ~C ~ 0 ~n ~ 0 ~g ~ U ~ ~ . - a, O U] C ~ C E C v o ~4)a1 0 c: ~0 - 0 0 t: ~ ~=1 ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~_ ~_ ~, 4~ P. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~n o: ~ c ~ ~ ~ _ ~1 s ~ s v =d ~ o Oc c ~o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U 0 tA ~ ~ ~ S S 0 S; D a) ~ 3 ~ C1' ~ ~: C t~ ~ S S S D~ ~ ~ U s" ~ ~ ~ ltl 1 O U) ~UQ ~ tJ ~ ~ 04 ~ C O - ~ ~ ~ V ~ 3 C ~ ~ ~ C) 3 ~C O ~ 45 ~ ~ =~1~;1 ~ - J~ U U ~ O U, ~ ~J ~ 3 _ 0 C~)-^ N ~ C C C -~ U2 U] ~ S ~ O O ~ ~ (U -/ ~ 0 er tn .= I ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ og I C ~ ~ _' ~ U C C ~ ~ ~ S' S V C ~ C N ~ :~ ~ :>~ C ~ ~ O ~ ~ O 0 ~ C: ~ ~ ~ ~ a, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C: ~ s ~ .c ~ 0 0 ~ ~ .. -. O ~ G1 ~ ~ N ~ :^ S O ~ O ~ S O C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ E V Q ~ er ~ ~ ~ = - ~ ~ C ~ ~ Q. ~ ~ E ~ Q4 :l ~ D ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . O O - - ~ C) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ES ~ O ~ ~ 1 1 - ~ ~ ~ S ~ ~ ~ Q) ~a ~ Ii3 c~ ~ v v ~r: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~C~ C)~= C O :o E- ~ Z:~ ~a E~m ~P4a v v ~ ~ ~, E~ 0 c 0 0 ~ ~; ~ ~ O 1 0 ~ O O O O `: ~ ~ Z E~ O E~ F~ Z ~ ~ E~ ~ E~ E" E" Z ~ ~IDI Ul~l U)

OCR for page 135
145 m o ~ l P' C) :' en as: m A o o ~4 A: a, CQ o s ED o In - ~q m u i: a, fir; o Cal A: 0 ~ -rl ~n 3 ,, 3 O :~: ,' ~q ._. o U] o CR . - o C) o .,, Q o C) 1 ~3 m ~Q1 3 a O S ~ 3 0 O ~ -1 3 0 o 3 U) 3 O S ~ 3 0 O ~ O o 3 3 O ~ O o .,, .,, U] o o . a~ o CD ~C~ ~D o o~ t- 1 m1 ~1 o . (D ~ ~a' In ~1 m1 U ~1 o o, o 1 a' m1 ~1 . 0 ~ _ ~1 ~1 ~1 ~n U1 ~ C.) U] - - O ~ C JJ ~ O .,. ~ ~0 ~ ~V 0 s~ ~ ~C O ~C ~ 0 ~a, c: ~ ~ O V 1 t) O C) C t) c: ~, ~a P4 . - o CO - O s 0 a ~ m a) o ~q 1 3 tn ~ ~0 u' cn 3 tu ~ ~n O ~: o . - C) s4 a, - y 3 - o lU o o - C) X C .. 3 O E ~O O Z n5~Q~ . a, o U] 3 . :D o cn

OCR for page 135
259 Smith, W. 1979 . An oil spill sampling strategy. In R.M. Cormack, G.P. Patil, and D . S . Robson, eds . Sampl ing Biological Populations . International Cooperative Publishing, Fairland, Md. Smith, W., V.R. Gibson, L.S. nsrown-Leger, and J.F. Grassle. 1979a. Diversity as an indicator of pollution: cautionary results from microcosm experiments, pp. 269-277. In J.F. Grassle, G.P. Patil, W. Smith, and O. Taillie, eds . Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice. International Cooperative Publishing, Fairland, Md. Smith, W., D. Kravitz, and J.F. Grassle. 1979b. Confidence intervals for similar ity measures using the two sample jackknife, pp. 253-262. In L. Orloci, C.R. Rao, and W.M. Stiteler, eds. Multivar late Methods in Ecological Work . International Cooperative Publishing, Fairland, Md. Smith, W., V.R. Gibson, and J.F. Grassle. 1981. Replication in controlled mar ine systems: presenting the evidence . In G.D. Or ice and M.R. Reeve, eds. Marine Mesocosms. Springer-Verlag, New York (in press). Sobels, F.~. 1977. Some problems associated with the testing for environmental mutagens and a perspective for studies i "comparative mutagenesis." Mut. Res. 46:245. Solbakken, J.E., and K.H. Palmork. 1980. Distribution of radioactivity in the Chondrichthyes Squalus acanthias and the Steichthyes Salmo gairdner i following ~ntragastr ic administration of (9-14C phenanthrene. Bull . Environ. Contam. Toxicol . 25: 902-908 . Solbakken, J.E., K.H. Palmork, T. Neppelberg, and R.R. Scheline. 1979. Distribution of radioactivity in coa-CIish {Pollachiu.c: vi r~n,:\ following intragastr ic administration of ~ 9-1 ~ phenanthrene . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 23 :100-103. Solorazano. L. 1969. Determination of a~onia in natural waters by the phenol-hypochlorite method. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14:799-801. Soto, C., J.A. Helleburst, T.C. Hutchinson, and T. Sawa. 1975a . Effect of naphthalene and aqueous crude oil extracts on the green flagellate Chlamydomonas angulosa. I. Growth. Can. J. Bot. 53:109-117. Soto, C., J.A. Helleburst, and T.C. Hutchinson. 1975b. Effect of naphthalene and aqueous crude oil extracts on the green flagellate Chlamydomonas angulosa. I. Growth. Can J. Bot. 53:109-117. Sournia, A., ed . 1978 . Phytoplank ton Manual. Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology 6 . tJNESCO, Par is . 337 pp. Sparrow, A.H., and G.M. Woodwell. 1963. Prediction of the sensitivity of plants to chronic gamma irradiation. In V. Schultz and A.W. Klement Jr., eds. Radioecology. Reinhold Publishers, New York. Spies, R.B., and P.H. Davis. 1979. The infaunal benthos of a natural oil seep in the Santa Barbara Channel. Mar. Biol. 50: 227-237 . Spies, R.B., P.H. Davis, and D.H. Stuermer. 1978. The infaunal benthos of petroleum-contaminated sediments: study of a community at a natural oil seep, pp. 735-755. In Proceed~ngs of the Conference on Assessment of Ecological Impacts of Oil Spills. Amer ican Institute of Biological Sciences, Arl ing ton, Va. Spies, R.B., P.H. Davis, and D.H. Stuermer. 1980. Ecology of a submarine petroleum seep off the California coast, pp. 229-263. In

OCR for page 135
260 R.A. Geyer, ed. Mar ine Environmental Pollution. Vol . I, Hydrocarbons. Elsevier, New York. Spooner, M.F., and C.J. Corkett. 1974. A method for testing the toxicity of suspended oil droplets on planktonic copepods used at Plymouth, pp. 69-74. In L.R. Benyon and E.8. Cowells, eds. Ecological Aspects of Toxicity Testing of Oils and Dispersants. Appl fed So fence Publ isher s, Bar k ing, Essex, England . 14 9 pp . Spooner, M.F., and C.J. Corkett. 1979. Effects of Kuwait oils on feeding rates of copepods. Mar . Pollut. Bull . 10 :197-202 . Spoor, W.A., T.W. Neiheisel, and R.A. Drununond. 1971. An electrode chamber for recording respiratory and other movements in free-swimming animals. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 1: 22-28 . Sprague, J . B . 1971 . Measurement of pollutant toxicity to f ish . I II . Sublethal effects and "safe~ concentrations. Water Res. 5:245-266. Stainken, D.M. 1975. Preliminary observations on the mode of accumulation of #2 fuel oil by the soft shell clam, Mya arenar ia, pp. 463-468. In Proceedings, 1975 Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Pollution. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C . Stainken, D.M. 1977. The accumulation and depuration of No. 2 fuel oil by the soft shell clam, ~y~ arenaria L., pp. 313-322. In D.A. Wolfe, ed. Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Organisms and Ecosystems, Pergamon, New York. Stainken, D.M. 1978. Effects of uptake and discharge of petroleum hydrocarbons on the respiration of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenar ia. J . FiSh . Res . Board Can . 35: 637-642 . Steedman , H.F ., ed . 1975 . Zooplankton f ixation and preservation . Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology 4. UNESCO, Paris. 350 pp. Stegeman, J.J. 1981. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their metabol ism in the mar ine env i ronment, pp. 1-60 . In H .V. Gelboin and P.O.P. Ts'O, eds. Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Cancer. Vol. 3. Academic Press, New York. Stegeman , J .J ., and D.J. Sabo . 1976 . Aspects of the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on ~ntermediary metabolism and xenobiotic metabolism in mar ine f ish, pp. 423-431. In Proceedings, Sources Effects and Sinks of Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment, ERDA, EPA, BLil, and API . Amer ican Institute of Biological Sciences, Ar 1 ington, Va . Stekoll, M.S., L.E. Clement, and D.G. Shawl 1980. Sublethal effects of chronic oil exposure on the intertidal clam Macoma balthica. Mar. Biol. 57:51-60. Stephan, C.E. 1977. Methods for calculating an LC50, pp. 65-84. In F.L. Mayer and J.L. Hamelink, eds. Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Evaluation. ASTM STP 634. American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, Pa. Stetka, D.G., and S. Wolff. 1976. Sister chromatic exchange as an assay for genetic damage induced by mutagen-carcinogens. II. In vitro test for compounds requir ing metabolic activation. Mut. Res . 41:343. Stich , H.F., and R.H.C . San, eds . 1981 Short-Term Tests for Chemical Carcinogenesis . Spr inger-Verlag, New York .

OCR for page 135
261 Stoddar t , D., and R. Johannes , eds . 1978 . Coral reef : research methods . Monograph on Oceanographic Methodology 5. UNESCO, Paris. 581 pp. Stoyel, C.J., and A.M. Clark. 1980. The transplacental micronucleus test. Mut. Res. 73:393. Straughan, D. 1971. Breeding and larval settlement of certain intertidal invertebrates in the Santa Barbara Channel following pollution by oil, pp. 223-244. In Biological and Oceanographical Survey of the Santa Barbara Channel Oil Spill 1969-1970. Vol. I. Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Straughan, D. 1972. Biological effects of oil pollution in the Santa Barbara Channel. In M. Ruivo, ed. Marine Pollution and Sea Life. Fishing News (Books), Surrey. 355 pp. Straughan, D. 1980. Analysis of mussel (Mytilus californianus) communities in areas chronically exposed to natural oil seepage. Publication 4319. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. 115 pp. Strickland, J.D.H., and T.R. Parsons. 1972. A practical handbook of seawater analysis. 2nd ed. Bulletin 167. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 310 pp. Sweeney, R.E., R.I. Haddad, and I.R. Kaplan. 1980. Tracing the dispersal of the Ixtoc I oil us ing C, H. S and N stable isotope ratios, pp. 89-118. In Proceedings, Symposium on the Preliminary Results from the Researcher/Pierce Cruise to the Ixtoc I Blowout. NOAA, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, Rockville, Md. Swinner ton, J.W., and V.J. Linnenbom. 1967. Determination of C1 to C4 hydrocarbons in sea water by gas chromatography. J. Gas Chromatogr. 5:570-573. Swinnerton, J.W., and V.J. Linnenbom. 1976. Gaseous hydrocarbons in sea water: determination. Science 156:1119-1120. Talmi, Y., D.C. Baker, J.R. Jadamec, and W.A. Saner. 1978. Fluorescence spectrometry with optoelectronic image detectors. Anal. Chem. 50:930A-952A. Tan, Y.L. 1979. Rapid simple sample preparation technique for analyzing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. 176:319-327. Tangen, K. 1978. Nets, pp. 50-58 . In A. Sour nia, ed. Phytoplankton Manual. Monograph on Oceanographic Methodology 6 . UNESCO, Par is . Tatem, H.E. 1977. Accumulation of naphthalenes by grass shrimp: effects on respiration, hatching, and larval growth, pp. 201-207 . In D.A. Wolfe, ed. Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Mar ine Organisms and Ecosystems . Pergamon, New York . Taylor, T.L., and J.F. Rar inen. 1977 . Response of the clam, Macoma balthica (Linnaeus), exposed to Prudhoe Bay crude oil as unmixed oil, water-soluble fraction, and oil-contaminated sediment in the laboratory, pp. 229-237. In D.A. Wolfe, ed. Fate and Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Marine Organisms and Ecosystems. Pergamon, New York. Teal, J.M., K. Burns, and J. Farrington. 1978. Analyses of aromatic hydrocarbons in intertidal sediments resulting from two spills of No. 2 fuel oil in Buzzards Bay, Mass. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 35:510-520.

OCR for page 135
262 Templeton, G.D., III, and N.D. Chasteen. 1980. Evaluation of extraction schemes for organic matter in anoxic estuarine sediments. Mar. Chem. 10:31-46. Terrell, R.E. 1981. Petroleum. Anal. Chem. 53:88R-142R. Thomas, P., and S.D. Rice. 1979. The effect of exposure temperatures on oxygen consumption and opercular breathing rates of pink salmon fry exposed to toluene, naphthalene, and water-soluble fractions of Cook Inlet crude oil and No. 2 fuel oil, pp. 39-52. In W.B. Vernberg, A. Calabrese, F.P. Thurberg, and F.J. Vernberg, eds. Marine Pollution: Functional Responses. Academic Press, New York. Thomas, R.E., and S.E. Rice. 1981. Excretion of aromatic hydrocarbons and their metabolites by freshwater and seawater Dolly var den char, pp. 425-448. In F.J. Vernberg, A. Calabrese, F.P. Thurberg, and W.B. Vernberg, eds. Biological Monitoring of Marine Pollutants Academic Press, New York. Thomas, P., B.R. Woodin, and J.M. Neff. 1980. Biochemical responses of the striped mullet Mugil dephalus to oil exposure. I. Acute responses-interrenal activations and secondary stress responses. Mar . Biol . 59 :141-149 . Thompson, S., and G. Eglinton. 1978a. Composition and sources of pollutant hydrocarbons in the Severn Estuary. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 9: 133-136. Thompson , S ., and G . Egl inton . 1978b. The fractionation of a r ecent sediment for organic geochemical analysis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 4 2: 199-207 . Tietjen, G.L., and R.J. Beckman. 1974. On duplicate measurements in the chemical laboratory. Technometrics 16:53-56. Topham, J.C. 1980a. The detection of carcinogen-induced sperm head abnormalities in mice. Mut. Res. 69:149. Topham, J .C . 1980b. Chemically-induced transmissible abnormalities in sperm-head shape. Mut. Res. 70:109 . Torgrimson, G.M. 1981. A comprehensive model for oil spill simulation, pp. 423-428. In Proceedings, 1981 Oil Spill Conference. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. Tripp, B.W., J.W. Far ring ton, and J.~. Teal. 1981. Unburned coal as a source of hydrocarbons in surface sediments. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 12:122-126. Troy, B., Jr., and J. Hollinger. 1977. The measurement of oil spill volume by a passive microwave imager. NRL Memorandum Report 3515. Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. Trudel, B.R. 1978. The effect of crude oil and crude oil/Corexit 9527 suspensions on carbon fixation by a natural marine phytoplankton community. Spill Tech. Newsletter 3~2~:56-64. Tsoi, R.M. 1969. Effect of nitrosomethyl urea and dimethyl sulfate on sperm of rainbow trout (Salmo irideus Gibb.) and peled (Coregonus peled Gmel. ~ . Dokl. Biol. Sci. 189:849 . Tsoi, R.M., A.I. Men 'shova, and Y.V.F. Golodov . 1974 . Soviet Genetics. Translated from Genetika 10:68. Turner, G. 1979. Fluorometry and mar ine environmental monitoring. Sea Technology (July 1979~:30-33.

OCR for page 135
263 Ury, G.B. 1981. Automated gas chromatographic analysis of gasolines for hydrocarbon types . Anal . Chem. 53: 481-485 . U.S. Coast Guard. 1977. Oil spill identification system. U.S. Depar tment of Transpor tation Repor t CG-D-52-77 . Access ion No . ADA044750 . National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. ustach, J .F. 1977. Effects of sub-lethal oil levels on the reproduction of a copepod, Nitocra affinis. Sea Grant Publication UNC-SG 76-10. Valentine, L.C., and W.E. Bishop. 1980. Use of the central mudminnow, Umbia limi, in the development and evaluation of the s ister-chromatid exchange test for detecting mutagens in v ivo. Paper presented at Fifth Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. Amer ican society of Testing and Mater ials, Philadelphia, Pa. Vanderhorst, J.R., C.I. Gibson, and L.J. Moore. 1976. Toxicity of No. 2 fuel oil to coon str ipe shr imp. Mar . Pollut. Bull . 7 :106-108 . Vanderhorst, J.R., R.M. Bean, L.J. Moore, P. Wilkinson, C.I. Gibson, and J.W. Blaylock. 1977a. Effects of a continuous low-level No. 2 fuel dispersion on laboratory held intertidal colonies, pp. 557-561. In Proceedings, 1977 Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control, Cleanup). American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. Vanderhorst, J.R., C.I. Gibson, L.J. Moore, and P. Wilkinson. 1977b. Continuous-flow apparatus for use in petroleum bioassay. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol . 17: 577-584 . Vanderhorst, J.R., J.W. Blaylock , P. Wilkinson, M. Wilkinson, and G. Fellingham. 1981. Effects of exper imental oiling on recovery of Strait of Juan de Fuca intertidal habitats. NOAA-MESA/EPA Repor t EPA-600/7-81-088. Off ice of Environmental Engineer ing and Technology, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 129 PP. Vandermoulen, J.H., and T.P. Ahern. 1976. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algal physiology: review and progress report, pp. 107-125 . In A.P. Lochwood, ed. Effects of Pollutants on Aquatic Organisms. Cambridge University Press, New York. Vandermoulen, J.H., and R.W. Lee. 1977. Absence of mutagenic~ty due to crude and refined oils ~n the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. ICES CM 1977/E:69. International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, Charlottenlund, Denmark. Van Overbeek, J., and R. Blondeau. 1954. Mode of action of phytotoxic oils. Weeds 3:55-65. Van Vleet, E.S., an J.G. Quinn. 1978. Contribution of chronic petroleum inputs to Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound sediments. J. FiSh. Res. Board Can. 35:536-543. Varanasi, U., and D.J. Gmur. 1980. In vivo metabolism of naphthalene and benzo~aipyrene by flatfish. In A.J. Dennis and M. Cook, eds. Proceedings, Fifth International Symposium on Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio. (in press). Varanasi, U., and D.J. Gmur. 1981a. In vivo metabolism of naphthalene and benzo~a~pyrene by flatfish, pp. 367-376. In M. Cooke and A.J. Dennis, eds. Chemical Analysis and Biological Fate: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio.

OCR for page 135
264 Varanasi, U., and D.J. Gmur. 1981b. Hydrocarbons and metabolites in English sole (Parophrl~s vetulus) exposed simultaneously to (3H) benzo (a) pyrene and ~ C) napthalene in oil-contaminated sediment. Aquat. Toxicol . 1: 49-67 . Varanasi, U., and D.O. Malins. 1977. Metabolism of petroleum hydrocarbons: accumulation and biotransformation in mar ine organisms, pp. 175-270. In D.C. Malins, ed. Effects of Petroleum on Arctic and Subarctic Tar ine Environments and Organisms. Vol . II, Biological Effects. Academic Press, New York. Varanasi, U., D.J. Gmur, and P.A. Treseler. 1979. Influence of time and mode of exposure on biotransportation of naphthalene by juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata) . Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol . 8: 673-692 . Var go, G.A., M. Hutchins, and G. Alm~uist. 1981. The effect of low, chronic levels of No. 2 fuel oil on natural phytoplankton assemblages in microcosms. I. Species composition and seasonal succession. Mar. Environ. Res. 6:245-264. Var go, S. 1981. The effects of chronic low concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil on the physiology of a temperate estuarine zooplankton community in the MERL microcosms, pp. 295-322. In F.J. Vernberg, A. Calabrese, F.P. Thurberg, and W.B. Vernberg, eds. Biological Monitoring of Marine Pollutants. Academic Press, New York. Vargo, S., and K. Force. 1981. A simple photometer for precise determination of dissolved oxygen concentr ation by the Winkler method with recommendations for impro~ring respiration rate measurements in aguatic organisms. Estuaries 4 (1~ :70-74. Veith , G.D., and L.M. KiwuS. 1977 . An exhaustive steam distillation and solvent extraction unit for pesticides and industr ial chemicals . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol . 17: 631-636 . Venkatesan, M.I., P. Mankiewicz, W.K. Ho, R.E. Sweeney, and I.R. Kaplan. 1980. Determination of petroleum contamination in marine sediments by organic geochemical and stable sulfur isotope analyses. In G.W. Ernst, ed. Ruby Colloquium on Marine Processes (in press). Venrick, E.L. 1971. Recurrent groups of diatoms in the North Pac~fic . Ecology 52~4~:614-625. Venr ick, E.L. 1978a. Systematic sampling in a planktonic ecosystem. Fishery Bull. 76 (3} :617-627. Venr ick , E.L. 1978b. Sampling strategies , pp. 7-16. In A. Sour nia, ed. Phytoplankton Manual. Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology 6. UNESCO, Paris. Venrick, E.L., J.R. Seers, and J.F. Heinbokel. 1977. Possible consequences of containing microplankton for physiological rate measurements. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 26:58-76. Virnstein, R.W. 1977. The importance of predation by crabs and fishes on benthic infauna in Chesapeake Bay. Ecology 58:1199-1217. Vo-Dinh, T. 1978. Multicomponent analysis by synchronous luminescence spectrometry. Anal . Chem. 50: 396-401 . Von Borstel, R.C. 1981. The yeast Saccharomyces cervesiae: an assay organism for environmental mutagens, p. 161. In H.F. Stich and R.H.C. San, eds. Short-Term Tests for Chemical Carcinogenesis. Spr~nger-Ver lag, New Yor k .

OCR for page 135
265 Wade, T.L., and J.G. Quinn. 1980. Incorporation, distribution and fate of saturated petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from a controlled marine ecosystem. Mar. Environ. Res. 3:15-33. Wade, T.L., J.G. Quinn, W.T. Lee, and C.W. Brown. 1976. Source and distribution of hydrocarbons in surface waters of the Sargasso Sea, pp. 271-286 . In Proceedings, Symposium on Sources, Effects, and Sinks of Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment. American Institute of Biological Sciences, Arlington, Va. Wakeham, S.G. 1977. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and its application to indigenous and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in lacustr ine sediments e Environ. Sci . Technol . 11: 272-276 . Wakeham, S.G., and Re Carpenter. 1976. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments of Lake Washington. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21~51:711-723. Wakeham, S.G., and J.W. Farr ington . 1980 . Hydrocarbons in contemporary aquatic sediments, pp. 3-32 . In R.A. Baker, ed. Contaminants and Sediments. Vol. 1. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Mich. Wakeham, S.G., J.~. Farrington, R.B. Gagosian, C. Lee, H. DeBaar, G.E. Nigrelli, B.W. Crimp, S.O. Smith, and N.M. Frew. 1980 . Organic matter fluxes from sediment traps in the Equator ial Atlantic C>cean. Nature 286 (5775) :798-800. Wakeham, S.G., C. Schaffner, and W. Giger. 1981. Diagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in recent sediments: structural information obtained by high performance liquid chromatography, pp. 353-363. In J. Maxwell and A. Douglas, eds. Advances in Organic Geochemistry. Macmillan, New York. Waldon, D.E ., W. R. Penrose, and S .M. Greene . 1978 . The petroleum-induced mixed function oxidase of cunner (Dautogloabrus adspirus), some character istics relevant to hydroxization monitor ing. J. FiSh. Res. Board Can. 35: 1847-1582 . Walker, C.H., and G.C. Knight. 1981. The hepatic microsomal enzyme of seabirds and their interaction with lipo soluble pollutants. Aquat. Toxicol . 1: 343-354 . Walker, J.D., and R.R. Colwell. 1973. Microbial ecology of petroleum util ization in Chesapeake Bay, pp. 605-691 . In Proceedings, Joint Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills. Amer ican Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. Walker, J.D., and R.R. Colwell. 1975a. Factors affecting enumeration and isolation of actinomycetes from Chesapeake Bay and Southeastern Atlantic Ocean sediments. Mar. Biol. 30:193-201. Walker, J.D., and R.R. Colwell. 1975b. Degradation of hydrocarbons and mixed hydrocarbon substrate by microorganisms from Chesapeake Bay. Proceedings of the 1973 International Conference on wate~ Pollution. Progress Water Technol . 7: 781-783 . Walker, J.D., and R.R. Colwell. 1976a. Enumeration of petroleum-degrading microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 31: 188-207 . Walker, J.D., and R.R. Colwell. 1976b. Measuring potential activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacter ia. Appl . Environ. Microbiol . 31: 189-197 .

OCR for page 135
266 Walker, J.D., R.R. Colwell, and L. Petrakis. 1975. Microbial petroleum degradation: application of computerized mass spectrometry. Can. J. Microbial. 21:1760-1767. Walters, J.M, R.B. Cain, I.J. Higgins, and E.D.S. Corner. 1979. Cell-free benzo~alpyrene hydroxylase activity in marine zooplankton. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 59:553-563. Walton, D.G., W.R. Penrose, and J.M. Green. 1978. The petroleum- inducible mixed-function oxidase of canner (Tautogolabrus adspersus Walbaum 1972 ): - - - -'~ - ~ monitor ins. J. some cnaraccer~st~cs relevant to hydrocarbon Fish. Res. Board Canada 35:1547-1552. Wang, R.T., and J.A.C. NiCol. 1977. Effects of fuel oil on sea catf ish: feeding activity and cardiac responses . Bull . Environ . Contam. Toxicol. 18:170-176. Ward, D.M., R.M. Atlas, P.D. Boehm, and J.A. Calder. 1980. Microbial biodegradation and chemical evolution of oil from the Amoco spill. Ambio 9: 277-283 . Wardhaugh, A.A. 1981. Dominant lethal mutations in Tilapia mossambica (Peters) elicited by Myleran. Mut. Res. 88:191. Warner, J . S. 1976 . Determination of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in marine organisms. Anal. Chem. 48:578-583. Warner, J.S. 1978. Chemical characterization of marine samples. Publication 4307. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. Warner, J.S., R.M. Rigqin, and T.M. Engel. 1980. Recent advances in the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons In zooplankton and macrofauna, pp. 87-104. In L. Petrakis and F.T. Weiss, eds. Petroleum in the Marine Environment. Advances in Chemistry Series 185. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. Weber, D., D.J. Maynard, W.D. Gronlund, and V. Konchin. 1981. Avoidance reactions of migrating adult salmon to petroleum hydrocarbons. Can. J . Fish . Aquat. Sai . ~ in press ~ . Wells, P.G. 1982. Background Papers/Petroleum in the Mar ine Environment Update NAS/NRC Ocean Sciences Board Workshop, November 9-13, 1981. Wells, P.G., and J.B. Sprague. 1976. Effects of crude oil on American lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae in the laboratory. J. Fish. . Res. Board Can. 33:1604-1614. Whipple, J.A., T.G. Yocom, D.R. Smart, and M.H. Cohen. 1978. Effects of chronic concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons on gonadal maturation in starry flounder {Platichthys stellatus [Pallas]), pp. 756-806. American Institute of Biological Sciences, Arlington,. Va. Whipple, J.A., M.B. Eldridge, and P. Benville, Jr . 1981. An ecological perspective of the effects of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fishes, pp. 483-551. In F.J. Vernberg, A. Calabrese, F.P. Thurberg, and W.B. Vernberg, eds. Biological Monitoring of Marine Pollutants. Academic Press, New York. White, G.P ., and A.V. Arecchi. 1975. Local area pollution surveillance systems: a summary of the Coast Guard's research and development activities, pp. 123-128 . In Proceedings, 1975 Oil Spill Conference. Amer loan Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. White, J.R. , R.E. Schmidt, and W.E. Plage. 1979. The AIREYE remote sensing system for oil spill surveillance, pp. 301-304. In Proceedings, 1979 Oil Spill Conference (Prevention, Behavior, Control, Cleanup). American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

OCR for page 135
267 Whittaker, R.H., ed. 1978. Ordination of Plant Communities. Junk, The Hague . Whittle, K.J., J. Murray, P.R. Mackie, R. Hardy, and J. Farmer. 1977a. Fate of hydrocarbons in f ish. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons . Int. Explor . Mer 171: 139-142 . Whittle, K.J., P.R. Mackie, R. Hardy, A.D. McIntyre, and R.A.A. Blackman. 1977b. The alkanes of mar ine organisms from the United Kingdom and surrounding waters. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons. Int. ~xplor . Mer 171: 72-78 . Whittle, K.J., P.R. Mackie, J. Farmer, and R. Hardy. 1978. The effects of the Ekof isk blowout on hydrocarbon residues in f ish and shellf ish, pp. 540-559 . In Proceedings of the Conference on Assessment of Ecological Impacts of Oil Spills . Amer ican Institute of Biological Sciences, Arlington, Va. Widdows, J . 1978a. Contained effects of body size, food concentration and season on the physiology of Mytilus edulis. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 58:109-124. Widdows, J. 1978b. Physiological indices of stress in Mytilus edulis. J. Mar . Biol . ASSOC. U.K. 58 :125 - 142 . Plebe, P .H., G .D. Gr ice, and E . Hoagland. 1973 . Acid-iron waste as a factor affecting the distr ibution and abundance of zooplankton in the New York Bight. II. Spatial variations in the field and impl ications for monitor ing studies . Estuar ine Coastal Mar . Sci . 1:51-64 . Wilhm, J .L., and T.C. Dorr is. 1966 . Species diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a stream receiving domestic and oil refinery effluents. Am. Midland Naturalist 76: 427-449 . Wilhm, J.L., and T.C. Dorris. 1968. Biological parameters for water quality criteria. Bioscience 18:477-481. Willey, C., M. Iwso, R.N. Castle, and M.L. Lee. 1981. Determination of sulfur heterocyclics in coal 1 iquids and shale oils. Anal . Chem. 53: 400-407 . Wilson, K.W. 1975. The laboratory estimation of the biological effects of organic pollutants. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 189:459-477. Wilson, K.W., E.B. Cowell, and L.R. Beynon. 1974. The toxicity testing of oils and dispersants: a European view, pp. 129-141. In L.R. Beynon and E.B. Cowell, eds. Ecological Aspects of Toxicity Testing of Oils and Dispersants. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Windsor, J.G., Jr., and R.A. Hites. 1979. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Maine sediments and Nova Scotia soils. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43:27-33. Winters, K., C. Van Baalen, and J.A.C. Nicol. 1977. Water soluble extractives from petroleum oils: chemical characterization and ef feats on microalgae and mar ine animals . Rapp. P .-v . Reun . Cons . Int. Explor . Mer 171 :166-174 . Wise, S.A., S.N. Chester, H.S. Hertz, L.R. Hilpert, Chemically-bonded aminosilane stationary phase for the high per formance 1 iquid chromatography separation of polynuclear aromatic compounds. Anal. Chem. 49: 2306-2310 . Wise, S.A., S.N. Chester, H.S. Hertz, L.R. Hilpert, Methods for polynuclear hydrocarbon analysis in and W.E. May. 1977. and W.E. May. 1978. the mar ine

OCR for page 135
268 environment. In P.W. Jones and R.I. Freudenthal, eds. Carcinogenesis. Vol. 3, Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Raven Press, New York. Wise' S.A., S.N. Chester, F.R. Guenther, H.S. Hertz, L.R. Hilpert, W.E. May, and R.M. Parris. 1980. Interlaboratory comparison of determination of trace level hydrocarbons in mussels. Anal. Chem. 52: 1828-1833 . Wolf, K., and M.C. Quimby. 1969. Fish cell and tissue culture. In W.S. Hoar and D.J . Randall, eds . Fish Phys iology . Vol. . 3 . Academic Press, New York. Wolfe, N.A., R.C. Clark, Jr., C.A. Foster, J.W. Hawkes, and W.D. acLeod, Jr. 1981. Hydrocarbon accumulation and histopathology in bivalve molluscs transplanted to the Baie de Morlaix and the Rade de Brest, pp. 599-616. In Amoco Cadiz: Fates and Effects of the Oil Spill. CNEXO, Par is. Wong, C.R., F.R. Englehardt, and J.R. Strickler. 1981. Survival and fecundity of Daphnza pulex on exposure to particulate oil. Bull. Environ . Contam. Toxicol . 36: 606-612 . Wong, M.K., and P.J. leB. Williams. 1980. A study of three extraction methods for hydrocarbons in marine sediment. Mar. Chem. 9:183-190. Wong, W.C. ~ 976 . Uptake and retentzon of Kuwait crude oil and its effect on oxygen uptake by the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33:2774-2780. Woodhead, D.S. 1977. The effect of chronic irradiation on the breeding performance of the guppy, Poecilia reticulate (Osteichthyes: Teleostei) . Int. J. Radiat. Biol . 32:1. Woodin, S.A., C.F. Nyblade, and F.S. Chia. 1972. Effect of diesel oil spill on invertebrates. Mar . Pollut. 8ull . 3 :139-143 . Woot ton , T .A., G . R. Grau , and T .E . Roundybush . 1979 . Reproductive responses of quail to Bunker C oil fractions. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol . 8: 457-463 . Wormald, A.P. 1976 . Effects of a spill of mar ine diesel oil on the meiofauna of a sandy beach at Picnic Bay, Hong Kong. Environ. Pollut. 11: 117-130 . Wyrobek, A.J., and W.R. Bruce. 1978. The induction of sperm-shape abnormalities in mice and humans. In A. Hollaender, A. and F.J. de S-rres, eds. Chemical Mutagens, Principles and Methods for Their Detection. Vol. 5. Plenum, New York. Yang, W.C., and H. Wang. 1977. Modeling of oil evaporation in aqueous environment. Water Res. 11:879-887. Yevich, P.P., and C.A. Barsacz. 1977. Neoplasms in soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, collected from oil-impacted sites. Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 298:409-426. Yost, R.W., L.S. Ettre, and R.D. Conlon. 1980. Practical liquid chromatography: an introduction. Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, Conn. 255 PPe Young, R.H., and A.J. Sethi. 1975. Compositional changes of a fuel oil from an oil spill due to natural exposure. Water Air Soil Pollut. S: 195-205. Youngblood, W.W., and M. Blumer . 1973 . Alkanes and alkenes in mar ine benthic algae . Mar . Biol . 21: 163-172 .

OCR for page 135
269 Youngblood, W.W., and 14. Blumer. 1975. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment: homologous series in soils and recent marine sediments . Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39 :1303-1314 . Youngblood, W.W., M. Blumer, R.L. Guillard, and F. Fiore. 1971. Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons in marine benthic algae. Mar . Biol. 8 :190-201. z Underman, R., and L.A. Meyer-Reil. 1974 . A new method for fluorescence staining of bacterial populations on membrane filters. Kiel. Meereeforsch. 30:24-27. Z itco, V. 1975. Aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic fauna. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14 :621-631. Zitko, V., and W.V. Carson. 1970. The characterization of petroleum oils and their determination in the aquatic environment. Fish. Res. Board Can. Tech. Rep. 217:29. Zsolnay, A. 1978a. Caution in the use of Niskin bottles for hydrocarbon samples . Mar . Pollut. Bull . 9: 23-24 . Zsolnay, A. 1978b. Lack of correlation between gas-liquid chromatographic and W absorption indicators of petroleum pollution in organisms. Water Air and Soil Pollut. 9 :45-51. Zurcher, F., and M. Thuer. 1978. Rapid weathering processes of fuel oil in natural waters: analyses and interpretations. Environ. Sci. Technol . 12: 838-843 .