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Inclex A Accumulator columns, 97, 10 7 Acute lethal bioassays, 6, 137-38, 163, 187, 193, 206, 372, 374 Adenosine tr iphosphate (ATP), 153, 160, 468 Advection, 270, 273-76, 289 Aerial monitor ing , 128, 134, 192 Aerobic biodegradation, 305 Africa, 80, 320, 321 Agar medium, 1S4, 161 Airborne Oil Surveillance Systems {AOSS) I and II, 128 AIREYE system, 128 Alaska, 52, 80, 203, 317, 319 Alboran Sea, 321, 323 Alcohols, pr imary, 292 Aldehydes , 2 9 2, 3 19 Algae. See Phytoplankton Algal lawn technique, 161 Alicyclic hydrocarbons, 292-93 Aliphatic hydrocarbons, 18, 28, 33, 83, 286, 477 biodegradation, 291-92, 296, 298, 303 See also Alkanes ~ . Aliphatic olefins, 31 Alkali digestion, 104-6 Alkaline phosphates, 160 Alkanes analytical methods, 105, 124 biodegradation, 291-92, 296 in biogenic hydrocarbons, 27, 31 in mar ine atmosphere, 67-72, 83 mar ine concentration, 318 '22 marine organism concentration, 331 in petroleum, 18, 31, 32 sorption of, 284-85 Alkenes, 25, 27, 31 Alkylaromatic hydrocarbons, 18, 28, 32, 293-94 Alkylated dibenzothiophene, 33, 36 Alkylated phenanthrene, 33, 36 Alkylbenzenes, 286, 319, 474, 477 Alkylnaphthalenes, 286, 319 Aluminum, 17 American Chemical Society (ACS), 103 Ames assay, 201-2 Ammonium exoretion, 163 Amoco Cadiz spill, 112, 133, 140, 203, 276, 282-83 J 289, 376, 377 r 3801 382, 383 r 391, 393, 398, 410, 411, 414, 417, 423 t 439, 440, 444-45 J 448, 476, 477 ~ 550 ~ 561-66, 573-75 Anaerobic biodegradation, 305 Analytical methods. See Biological analysis; Chemical analys is Aniline, 395, 398 Animals. See Benthic cowaunities; Fish; Invertebrates; Mar ine mamnals; Pelagic conununities; Seab irds; Ver tebrates; Zooplank ton Antarctica, 317 . environments Anthracene, 293 AOSS I, 128 AOSS lI, 128 587 See also Polar ~.

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588 Aqueous Volubility. See Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons Arabian (Persian) Gulf, 65, 80, 334 Arctic environment. See Polar environments Argo Merchant spill, 276, 320, 376, 384, 424, 550, 557-61, 573-75 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 331, 381, 477 analytical methods, 102, 110, 113, 116, 120, 1~2 biodegradation, 291, 293-94, 296, 298, 302, 303 biological effects, 384, 390, 423 in coal, 29 from combustion sources, 28 fates, 277, 286 in interstitial water, 469 marine concentrations, 318, 319, 321, 322 marine organism concentrations, 334 metabolism of, 308-15 in petroleum, 18, 33, 36 See also Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Arrow spill, 133, 287, 376, 379, 383, 409, 411, 414, 417, 42S, 448, 550, 553-57, 573-75 Arsenic, 384 Artificial substrate experiments, 168 Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 188, 472 Asphaltenes, 18, 22, 279, 290, 295 Atlantic Ocean, 68-71, 320, 322, 323, 325, 331, 335, 432, 435 Atmosphere atmospheric inputs of petroleum, 8, 66-72, 80, 82, 83 combustion sources of hydrocarbons, 28, 36, 95, 134, 330, 479 Auks, 434, 435. See also Seabirds Australia, 46 Autooxidation, 270, 284, 290 Avoidance response, 189, 400, 422, 427-28 B Bacter ia, 205, 290 exper imental methods, 153-55 petroleum effects, 398-99, 402 See also Microbial degradation Baff in Bay, 468, 470 Baffin Island oil spill (BIOS) program, 464, 466 Ballast discharges, 56-61, 64 Baltic Sea, 321. See also Tsesis spill "Beach test, 169 Beaufor t Sea, 4 88 Behavioral responses, 13, 398-401, 486, 490 avoidance response, 189, 400, 422, 427-28 feeding response, 163-64, 189, 396 , 401, 449, 450 , 476 locomotion changes, 164 Benthic communities, 290, 298, 381 Amoco Cadiz spill, 565-66 Argo Merchant spill, 561 Arrow spill, 555-57 Florida spill, 551-52 Ixtoc ~ blowout, 571 petroleum effects, 396, 397, 412-17, 443-46, 448, 468-72, 487, 574 PHC concentrations, 12, 331-35 sampling and data analysis, 97, 180-86, 205-6 Benzanthracene, 18, 36, 397 Benzene, 105, 277, 319, 423, 477 biological effects, 384, 390, 398, 417, 418, 474 microbial degradation, 293 Benzota~anthracene, 286, 293, 296, 384 Benzota~pyrene biodegradation, 293, 298, 299, 308-15 biological effects, 384, 397 carcinogenicity, 293, 315, 478-81 Benzote~pyrene, 384 Benzofluoranthene, 18, 384 Benzofluorene, 18 Benzoic acid, 294 Benzopyrene, 18, 36 Benzothiophenes, 283

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589 Betaoxidation, 292, 294 Bilge oil, 56, 63-64, 80, 82 Bioassays . Se Biolog ical analys i s Biochemical enzyme assays, 139 Biodegradation, 290-316 conclusions, 10-11, 316 factors affecting rate of, 303-6 invertebrates, 297-302 overview, 5-6, 270-71, 290-91 phytoplank ton, 296 research recommendations, 11, 316 vertebrates, 297-98, 302-3 See also Metabolic degradation; Microbial degradation Bioenergetics studies, 139, 206 Biogenic hydrocarbons, 26-27, 31, 32, 43, 4S, 67, 331, 334 marine concentrations, 319, 321, 322, 330 Biological analysis, 9, 135-260 acute lethal bioassays, 137-38, 372, 374 berths habitat sampling, 97, 180-82 biodegradation measurement, 155 chromosomal aberration studies, 195-200, 202 chronic bioassays, 138-40 data analys is, 183-86 ecosystem and mesocosm studies, 186, 203-4 f ield studies, 131-33, 140 f ish studies, 187-89 microorganisms, exposure methods, 164-79 marine mammal studies, 192-95 metabolic effects of oil on microorganisms, estimation methods, 154-55 microbial numbers and biomass, estimation methods, 153-54 mutagenic assays, 201-2 oil-contaminated food, 152 oil-contaminated sediments, 152-53 oil-in-water dispersions, 147, 149-51 overview, 89-93, 135-37 plankton studies, 156-64 recommendations, 204-6 seabird studies, 189-92 surface slicks, 151-52 test organisms, 140-41 water-soluble fractions, 141-47 Birds. See Seabirds Bokandretok Island, 68 Box corers, 96, 180 Brittany. See Amoco Cadiz spill ~ . Buccaneer Gas and Oil Field, 446-47 Buchan Gulf, 46 Bunker fuel oils, 23, 27n, 64, 287-88, 303 Bureau of Land Management, 11, 33S, 446 Burn point, 281 Butane, 67, 317 Buzzards Bay. See Flor Ida spill C Calcium, 17 California, 46, 72-73, 76, 80, 322, 425, 428, 468, 469, 471 Campeche Bay. See Ixtoc I blowout Canada, 46, 76, 286, 408, 468, 470 Cape Grim, 68-71 Carbon dioxide evolution measurement, 155 Carbon-14 uptake measurement, 155, 157-59 Carbon monoxide, 67 Carbon preference index (CPI), 31, 32 Carcinogenicity tests, 200 Carcinogens, 293, 315, 474, 477-82 Caribbean Sea, 317, 320, 321, 323, 325 Caspian Sea, 405 Cell transformation assays, 200 Cellular mechanisms, 159, 206, 316, 371, 395, 486 Census (bird) studies, 191-92 CEPEX mesocosm study, 286, 375, 408, 409 Chedabucto Bay, 487. See also Arrow spill Chemical analysis, 5, 9, 94-135 conclusions, 133 gas chromatography, 68' 101, 102, 107, 117-20, 122-23, 155, 161, 325

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590 gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 68, 102, 107, 120, 122, 161 gravimetry, 110-11 high pressure liquid chromatography, 101, 102, 110, 116-17, 155 hydrocarbons, high molecular weight, 110-22 hydrocarbons, low molecular weight, 122-23 nterlaboratory compar ison programs, 123-28 IR spectrometry, 111-12 measuring hydrocarbons in atmospheric samples, 68-69 monitoring programs, 131-33 overview, 89-95, 102-4 recommendations, 133-3 5 remote detection and measurement of oil spills, 128-31 sample cleanup and fractionation, 107-10 sampl ing and sample preservation, 9S-99 solvent extraction, 104-7 spilled oil characterizations, 99-102 stable isotope ratios, 23, 31, 32, 36, 102, 121-22 th in layer chromatography, 116, 201-2 UV/F spectrometry, 94, 101, 107, 110, 112-16, 129, 131, 155 Chemical cleanup, 380-83 Chemical composition. See Hydrocarbon sources Chemical transformations autooxidation, 270, 284, 290 See also Photochemical oxidation ~ . Chemoreception, 400-401 Chromosomal aberration studies, 195-200, 202, 383-89 Chronic bioassays, 137-40, 163, 206 Chronic oiling, 376-77' 445-48, 491. See also Oil seeps; ~ , Petroleum inputs Chrysene, 18, 36, 321, 384, 397 Clean ballast tanks (CBT), 57 Cleanup and control, 379-83 Clyde Estuary, 132 Coal, 29, 330 Coal 0~1 Point, 46, 428, 468, 469, 471 Coastal and offshore habitats, 440, 442-48, 465 Coast Guard, 128 Combustion sources of hydrocarbons, 5, 28, 36, 95, 134, 330, 479 Cometabolism, 291, 292, 293 Concentrations. See Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons Copper, 17 Coral reefs petroleum e ffects, 390, 391, 449-53, 488 sampling methods, 182 Corers, 96, 180, 182 Correspondence analysis, 184 Cresol s, 315 Crude oil, chemical composition 17-23, 31-32 Crude oil washing (COW) systems, 57, 59, 61, 62 Culture systems, 160-61, 205 Cumene, 281 Cycloalkanes, 331 biodegradation, 291, 292 in diagenetic hydrocarbons, 28 marine concentrations, 318, 321 in petroleum, 18, 32, 72 Cycloalkenes, 25 Cyclohexane, 3 2, 2 93 Cycloparaffins, 18 Cytochrome P4 50-dependent metabolism. See Metabolic degradation Cytogenic assays, 195-200, 202 D Dakar, 320 Damped corers, 96 Data analysis biological data, 183-86 interlaboratory comparisons, 123-28, 133 DDT, 314 Deemuls if ier s, 3 81 Denmark, 432

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591 Density, of spilled oil, 272 Detoxif ication mechanism, 397 . See also Metabolic changes ~ _ D iagenetic hydrocarbons, 28 Diatoms . See Phytoplank ton Diauxie, 291 Dibenzanthracene, 384, 478 Dibenzothiophene, 36, 295, 320 Diesel fuel, 4 76 Dihydrodiols, 293, 312, 315 7 ,12-Dimethylbenzo (a) anthracene, 384, 476, 478 D imethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 109 Direct aqueous in jection , 122, 12 3 Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, 316-35 aqueous Volubility, 273, 277, 376 dissolution process, 10, 270, 277-78, 289 h igh-molecular-we igh t compounds, 319-22 in interstitial water, 469 low-molecular-we ight compounds, 317-18 in marine organisms, 331-34 particulate residues (tar balls), 322-25 research recommendations, 33 5 in sediments, 326-30 summary, 11-12, 316-17, 335 in surface microlayer, 322 volatile liquid hydrocarbons, 318-19 Divers, 96, 97 Diversity indices, 183-84 n-Dodecane, 285 Dominant lethal gene mutation assays, 198-99 Dosage effects, 376-77 Dredge spoil, 29, 79, 330 Dredges, 97, 180 Drift velocity, 10, 275 Dry-docking oil discharges, S6, 62, 82 Ducks. See Seabirds Duwamish sediment studies, 124, 128 Dynamic headspace purge, 122 E ecosystems studies, 203-4, 206 petroleum effects, 14, 436-48, 491 See also Mesocosm (field enclosure ~ studies Effects. See Petroleum effects; and specific animal and plant species, biological processes, and environments Ekofisk blowout, 423 Ekofisk oil field, 445, 447 Electron microscope, 139, 159 Elemental analysis, 102 Elimination processes, 163, 188, 299, 302, 303 Emulsif ication, 10, 270, 279-81, 290 Enclosure exper iments . See Mesocosm ~ f ield enclosure studies Enewetak Atoll, 68-71 English Channel, 448 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 11 , 124 , 132, 335 Enzyme analysis, 159, 205 Epifluorescent techniques, 153 Eros tonal sources of petroleum, 43, 45, 49-50, 82 Ethane, 67, 317, 318 Evaporation, 10, 270, 276-77, 289, 415 Exposure methods, 141-53, 164-79 F Farnesane, 3 5 Fates, 5-6 autooxidation, 270, 284, 290 physical transformations, 9-10, 270, 273-81, 284-90 See also Biodegradation; ~ _ Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons; Metabolic degradation; Microbial deg r ada t ion; Pho tochemi ca l oxidation Fatty acids, 292

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592 Fecal matter, 287-88, 290 Feeding response. See Food and feeding response Fermentation studies, 306 Field studies. See Ecosystems; Mesocosm (f ield enclosure) studies; Monitor ing programs Films (slicks), 151 - 52, 274 - 76 , 289, 322 Fish Amoco Cadiz spill, 564-65 Argo Merchant spill, 561 chromosomal aberrations, 384, 3 89 experimental methods, 140, 141, 187-89, 196-97 Flor Ida spill, SS1 hydrocarbon metabolism, 139, 309, 312-15 hydrocarbon uptake, 291, 297-98 302-3 Ixtoc I blowout, 571 petroleum effects, 390, 392-94, 396-98, 400, 417-24, 443, 444 PHC concentratior~s, 3 3 1 Fishery stocks, 422-24 Flame ionization detector (FID) element specific detectors, 101 Flash point, 281 Floc, 96, 135 Flor Ida spill, 133, 288, 377, 378, 391, 550-53, 573-75 Flow bending, 10 5 Flow-through bioassays, 6, 138, 141, 146-47, 163, 187, 206, 3 75 Fluoranthrene, 36 Fly ash, 29 Food and feeding response contaminated f ish and seafood, 422-24, 472, 479-80, 482, 489 feeding experiments, 163-64, 189, 194 feeding response changes, 396, 401, 449, 450, 476 oil contamination methods, 1S2 Forth Estuary, 132 Foss il fuel combustion, 5, 28, 3 6, 95, 134, 330 Fractionation of samples, 107-10 Francee See Amoco Cadiz spill ~ . . Fuel oil sludge, 56, 64, 80, 82 Fuel oils, 23, 285-88, 303, 395, 475 Fungi, 205, 290 exper imental methods, lS3-S5 See alto Microbial degradation ~ . G Gas chromatography (GC), 68 , 101, 102, 107, 117-20, 122-23, 1S5, 161, 325 Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/M~;), 68 , 102, 107, 120, 122, 161 Gas seeps, 317 Gas str ipping, 122 Gasoline, 23, 25, 474 General M Meigs spill, 411 Geographic location effects, 376 Georges Bank, 320, 322, 331, 443 German Bight, 132 Glass capillary/gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC2/MS) computer systems, 94, 110, 124 Grab samplers, 96, 135, 180 Gravimetry, 110-11 Gravity corers, 96, 135 Growth changes in, 395, 396, 403, 407, 421 measurement, 163, 188, 189 Gulf of Alaska, 46 Gulf of Mexico, 51, 80, 287, 288, 468 chronic oiling, 402, 445-47 Ixtoc I blowout, 567-72 PHC concentrations, 318, 319, 321, 323, 325, 331, 335 spills in, 52, 55 Gulf of Saint Lawrence, 132, 42S H Habitat sampl ing, 180-82 Headspace gas str ipping, 104, 105, 122 Heneicosahexacne, 31 Heptadecane, 296, 319 Herders, 381

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593 Hexadecane, 298 n-Hexane, 476 High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), 101, 102, 110, 116-17, 155 High resolution glass capillary GC, 68, 118 High speed homogenization/ extraction, 10 6 Histochemical studies, 139-40 Histopathology studies, 139-40, 205, 206 Hudson-Rar itan Estuary, 74 Human health, 472-82, 489 Hydrocarbon inputs. See Oil seeps; Oil spills; Petroleum inputs; and specific spil 1 incidents Hydrocarbon sources, 17-42 ancient sediments, 26 anthropogenic hydrocarbons, 29 biogenic hydrocarbons, 26-27 coal, 29, 330 combustion sources, 28, 33 0 crude oil, 17-23 diagenetic compounds, 28 diagnosing sources, 29-37 oil seeps, 25 refined petroleum products, 23, 25 Hydrostatic pressure effects, 305 I Impact area effects, 376-77 Impacts. See Petroleum effects; and specif ic animal and Plant species, biological Processes, and environments Indian Ocean, 68-71, 322 Indonesia, 56, 80 Industrial wastes, 29, 72, 74, 80, 82 Infrared (JR) sensors, 129 Infrared ~ IR) spectrometry, 101, 102, 111-12, 155 Inputs. See Oil seeps; Oil spills; Petroleum inputs; and specific spill incidents Integrated Global Ocean Station Systems (IGOSS), 124, 325 International Association of Independent Tanker Owners, 58 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 1973/1978), 57-58 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil (OILPOL 1954/1969), 57-62 International Council for the Exploration of the Seas ~ ICES), 124, 128, 132 - 33 International Mar itime Organization ~ ~O), 57 , 58 Intertidal habitats, 437-40, 465, 466 Amoco Cadiz spill, 5 66 Flor Ida spill, 552-53 Ixtoc I blowout, 5 72 Intraperitoneal injection of hydrocarbons, 169 Introduction experiments, 165 Inver tebrates chromosome studies, 196 Florida spill, 552-53 hydrocarbon metabolism, 309, 3 12-14 hydrocarbon uptake, 290, 297, 302 Ixtoc I blowout, 572 petroleum ef feats, 3 83, 3 90, 392-94, 397-98, 400-401, 423 Zoe Colocotroni spill, 572-73 See also Benthic communities; ~ . Pelagic communities; Zooplank ton Ionian Sea, 323 I ranian Crude-Norway spill, 133 Ireland, 68-71 I r ish Sea, 132, 320 Iron, 17, 306 Isoalkanes, 285, 291, 292 Isooctane, 25 I soprenoid alkanes, 18, 31, 32, 33, 36, 331 Isotope ratio, 23, 31, 32, 36, 102, 121-22 Italy, 299 Ixtoc I blowout, 55, 102, 113, 276, 279, 283, 288, 318, 319, 550, 567-75

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594 J Jet fuels, 23, 25 Joint Air/Sea Interaction (JAS IN) site, 68-71 Juliana spill, 423 Rattegat f jord, 13 2 Kerosene, 23, 4 76 Kurdistan spill, 272, 276, 404, 425, 550 Kuwait, 334 L Laboratory dust, 32 Lagoons, 380, 465 Laguna Veneta, 299 Laser backscatter sensors, 130-31 LC50 (median lethal concentration), 138, 187, 372, 374 Lead, 384 Libya, 321 Life~cycle bioassays, 138-40, 206 Light microscopes, 139 Liquid chromatography, 68 Liver function studies, 13 9 Load-on-top (LOT) procedures, 5 8, 59, 61 Lock Ewe, 375, 408, 409 Locomotion studies, 164 Long Island Sound, 442 Loop Head, 68-71 Los Angeles, 74, 79 Lower Cook Inlet, 52, 203 Lubr icating oils, 23 M Macrophytes . See Phytoplank ton; Plants Malaysia, 80 Mangroves, 182, 437-39, 4S3-58, 488, 573 Manual sediment collectors, 96 Mar ine Ecosystems Research Laboratory (MERL), 204, 286, 375, 408, 409, 442-44 Mar ine hydrocarbon concentrations. See Dissolved petroleum hydrocar bon s Mar ine mammals experimental methods, 192-95, 197 hydrocarbon metabolism, 309, 314 hydrocarbon uptake, 291, 298, 303 petroleum effects, 424-30 Marine organisms hydrocarbon concentrations in, 12, 331-34 monitoring programs, 124, 132 PAN accumulation, 479 petroleum effects on, 398-99, 401-2, 483-86 sampling, 97, 98 solvent extraction, 105-6, 122 See also specif ic an imal and Explant species Mar ine terminal spills, 5 6, 6 2-63, 82 Mar ine transportation losses, 56-65, 79-80, 82 MARPOL 1973/1978, 57 - 58 Marsh grass, 182, 439, 552, 56 6 Marshall Islands, 68 Marshes cleanup, 380 See also Salt marshes Mass spectrometry (MS), 101, 155 Massachusetts, 318, 319. See also Argo Merchant spill; Florida spill Mechanical cleanup, 3 79-80 Median lethal concentration {LC50), 138, 187, 372, 374 Mediterranean Sea, 321-23, 335 Mercury, 3 04 Mesocosm If ield enclosure) studies, 9, 135, 165, 168, 186, 203-4, 206, 286, 296, 370-71, 375, 405, 408-9, 442 Metabol ic changes in animals, 396-98, 40 7 incoral, 452 in f ish, 396-98, 420-21 in marine mamas, 428-29 in microorganisms, 154-55

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s9s in phytoplankton, 394-95, 403-4 in seabirds, 431 in seep organisms, 471-72 Metabolic degradation cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism (MED activity), 139, 188, 292, 302, 307-9, 313-14, 395, 397, 431 in metazoans, 5-6, 10-11, 307-16 of PAHs in humans, 480 toxicity of metabolites, 378-79, 486 See also Microbial degradation Metals biological effects, 384 metallic constituents of crude oil, 17, 23, 32 trace metal (Ni/V) measurement, 101 Meteorological condition effects, 377 Methane, 317, 318 3-Methylcholanthrene, 384, 478 Methylene chloride, 105 Me~ylnaphthalene, 312, 314, 315, 390-91 Metula spill, 383 Mexico, 46, 49, 468, 470. See also Ixtoc I blowout , Microbial degradation, 5, 11, 291, 316, 439 alicyclic hydrocarbons, 292-93 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 291-92 aromatic hydrocarbons, 293-94 asphaltenes, 295 Ixtoc I blowout effects, 570 measurement of, 155, 306-7 microbial population, measurement of, 153-54 petroleum effects on, 401-2, 439 in polar environments, 466 resins, 295-96 seep sediments, 468-70 tropical sediments, 458 Microbial oxidation, 33, 95, 279, 290 Micronucleus test, 197-98 Microwave systems, 129 Mineral nutrients, and biodegradation, 306 Mississippi River, 445-47 Mitotic assays, 198 Mixed function oxidase (MEO) activity. See Metabolic degradation Models, 275, 278, 289. See also Mesocosm {fief d enclosure studies Monitoring programs, 131-33, 140, 168-69, 206, 325 Most probable number (MPN) technique, 154 Mousse formation, 10, 279-81, 290, 304, 316 Multidimensional scaling, 184 Multiple discriminant analysis, 184 Multiple phase equilibrium, 122, 123 Multivar late analyses, 184 Municipal wastewater. See Wastewater Mussel Watch program, 124, 132, 168, 334 Mutagenic studies, 195-202, 383-89 Mutagens, 13, 315, 378-79, 421, 478, 486, 489, 490 N Nantucket Island. See Argo Merchant spill Naphthalene, 477 biological effects, 384, 390, 399, 404, 418, 423 marine concentrations, 319, 320 uptake and metabolism, 293, 296, 298, 303, 312, 314, 315, 395 Naphthenes, 18, 27, 33 Naphthenic acids, 423 Naphthenoaromatic compounds, 18, 32, 33 Naples Reef, 471 Narcotization, 164, 414, 4 70 Narragansett Bay, 287, 326, 330, 408 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 128 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 11, 12B, 132, 140, 335 National Science Foundation, 140

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596 Natural seeps. See Oil seeps Nets, 97, 157, 161-62 New York Bight, 78, 132, 489 Nickel, 17, 23, 32, 384 Nitrogen, 109, 306. See also NSO compounds Nitrogen fixation. 402, 404 Nitrogen-15 isotope dilution, 163 Nonpersistent oil, 61-62 North Sea, 80, 132, 320, 432, 435, 489 Northeast (U. S . ~ Monitor ing Program, 132, 140 Nor ton Sound, 317 Norway, 334 Nova Scotia, 321. See also Arrow spill; Kurdistan spill NSO compounds, 1, 17, 18, 22' 32 36 J 72, 289, 290, 295 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, 102, 122 o Ocean dumping, 72, 78-79, 82 Ocean Pulse Program, 140 Oceanographic condition effects, 377 Offshore Ecology Investigation by the Gulf Universities Research Consortium {OEI/GURC), 446 Oil seeps, 25, 43, 45, 80, 82, 320, 325, 375, 464, 488, 549-50 biological effects, 468-72 mar ine terminals, 56, 62-63 nontankers, 56, 65, 82 offshore production, 50, 52-53, 55-56 seepage rates, 45-49 tankers, 56, 65, 80, 82, 549-50, 573-76 See also specif ic spill incidents Oil type effects, 378 Oil-agar medium, 154 Oil-in-water dispersions, 147, 149-51 Oil-water solutions, 14 ~ -53 OILPOL 1954/1962, 57 OILPOL 1954/1969, 57 - 62 Olefins, 2S, 31, 292, 321, 331, 423 Omegaoxidation, 292, 294 Ordination techniques, 184 Organic solvent extraction, 104-7 Organosulfur compounds, 423 Oslo f jord, 132 Oxygen and biodegradation, 3 05 See also NSO compounds Oyster watch, 132, 168 p Pacific Ocean, 68-71, 319, 321-22 Paraff inic tar, 32 Paraffins, 18, 331 Peck Sh ip spill, 203 Pelagic communities, 12, 97, 287, 298, 331, 3 35, 3 81 , 396 Pentacyclic triterpanes, 28, 33, 3 6 Pentadecane, 319 Pentane, 67 Persian (Arabian) Gulf, 65, 80, 334 Persistent oil, 61-62 Peru, 319 Perylene, 18, 28, 299 Pesticides, 304, 314 Petroleum composition, 1-2 combustion sources compared to, 28, 29, 36 crude oil, 17-23, 31-32 physical properties, 271-73 ref ined products, 23, 25, 31-32 seep oil, 25 weathered petroleum, 3 2-36 Petroleum effects factors affecting, 375-78 f indings and recommendations, 6-7, 12-16, 483-91 remedial measures, 379-83, 436, 466 research advances, 4-6, 369-75, 482-83 See also sE>ecific animal and ~?lant species, biological processes, and environments Petroleum inputs, 4, 43-83, 326 atmospheric inputs, 8, 66-72 b~lge oil, 56, 63-64

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597 dry-docking, 56, 62 erosional sources, 43, 45, 49-50 fuel oil sludge, 56, 64 geographical distribution, 79-80 industrial wastes, 29, 72, 74 international oil flow, 43 marine transportation, 56-58 municipal wastewaters, 72-74, 287, 326, 330 ocean dumping, 72, 78-79 offshore production, 50-56 oily ballast, nontankers, 64 production water, offshore, 51-52 refinery wastes, 75-76 research recommendations, 81-83 river discharges, 72, 78 source identification, 134 sugary, 3-4, 81 tanker discharges, 56, S8-62 total annual input, 7-8 urban runoff, 72, 76-78 See also Oil seeps; Oil spills; and specific spill incidents . Petroleum production international flow, 43, 63 offshore discharges, 50-56, 80, 82 production water, 51-52 U. S. daily use, 74 worldwide offshore, 51 Phenanthrene, 36, 293, 312, 320, 384, 390 Phenols, 312, 315, 384, 398 Phenylacetic acid, 294 Phenylalkanes, 293-94 Phosphodiesterase activity, 160 Phosphorus, 306 Photochemical oxidation, 10, 67, 95, 134, 270, 296 effects, 33, 279, 289-90, 304, 378 mechanism, 281-84 Photosynthesis changes in, 394-95, 403-4 measurement, 157-59, 161 Physical properties, spilled oil 271-73 Physical transformation, 9-10, 270, 273-81, 289-90 sedimentation, 284-89, 437, 443 Phys illogical changes, 371, 486 in fish, 421-22 in seabirds, 431-32 See also Growth; Reproduction processes; Respiration Phytane, 18, 31, 35, 321, 334 Phytoplank ton Amoco Cadiz spill, 564 analytical methods, 156-61, 205 biodegradation, 290, 296 petroleum effects on, 390, 394-95, 399, 403-4, 409-12, 442, 466 PHC concentrations, 331 Plank ton . See Phytoplank ton; Zooplank ton Plants alkane production, 27 Amoco Cadiz spill, 566 chromosome studies, 196 green plants, biodegradation by, 290, 316 macrophytes, petroleum effects on, 40 9-12 mangroves, 182, 437-39, 453-58, 488 See also Phytoplank ton Pleasure craft, 81 Polar bears. See Marine mammals Polar environments, 13, 382, 407, 414-15, 424-25, 435, 458-68, 488, 490-91 Polar ity fractionation, 109 Pollutant Responses in Mar ine Animals (PRIMA) Program, 140 Pollution assessment indices, 491 Polybrominated biphenyls, 313 Polychlor inated biphenyls, 304, 313 Polycyclic aliphatic compounds, 333 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. See Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Polyouclear aromatic hydrocarbons ~ PARS ~ analytical methods, 105, 106, 109, 117, 124, 161 biodegradation, 293, 296 biological effects, 384, 395, 397, 484-86 biosynthesis of, 27 diagenetic sources, 28

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598 in at''~ospher ic petroleum sources, 67, 72, 83, 94-95 in foss il fuel combustion products, 36 invertebrate uptake, 299 mar ine concentrations, 320 mar ine input, total annual, 479 mutagenicity/toxicity, 379, 4 76-82 in petroleum, 18, 36 photooxidation of, 281-82 sorption of, 284, 286 Polyolefins, 31 Porphyrins, 18, 22, 290 Port Valdez, 319 Pour point, 272 Pregnancy. See Reproduction processes Pristane, 18, 26, 31, 35, 319, 321, 331 Propane, 67, 317, 318 Providence River, 287, 330 Puerto Rico, 203, 572 Puget Sound, 168, 384, 489 Pumping systems, 98, 135 Pyrene, 18, 36, 285 Q Quinone, 312, 315 R Radar sensing systems, 129 Reciprocal averaging, 184 Red Sea, 80, 391 Refined petroleum products, 23, 25, 31-32 Refinery wastes, 75-76, 80, 82 Regal Sword spill, 428 - Remedial measures J 379-83, 436, 466 Remote sensing of oil spills, 128-31, 134-35 Reproduction processes, 206 changes in, 385-92, 422, 449, 476, 484 measurement, 163, 189 in seabirds, 435 Resins, 295-96 Respiration changes in, 396 measurement, 139, 159, 163, 188 oxygen uptake measurement, 139, 155, 157-59 Retene, 28 Reversed phase HPLC precolumns, 107 Rhine Estuary, 132 Rhode I stand Sound, 326, 330 Rice Univers ity, 446 River discharges, 72, 78, 80, 82 S Saanich Inlet, 286, 40 8 Sahara dust plume, 70 Salt marshes, 380, 391, 437-40, 447-48 Sampling and sample preservation, 5, 95-99, 135 coral reefs, 182 intertidal habitats, 181 plankton, 156-58, 161-62 sample cleanup and fractionation, 107-10 spilled oil, 99-100 subtidal habitats, 180-81 vegetated habitats, 182 San Francisco Bay, 287, 288 San Pablo Bay, 2 8 8 Santa Barbara Channel, 46, 49, 425, 468 Santa Barbara spill, 112, 3 76, 383, 425 Santa Monica Bay, 46 Saponification, 105, 106, 109 Sargosso Sea, 12, 320, 322, 323, 331 Satellite monitor ing, 128 Saturated hydrocarbons analytical methods, 120, 122 fates, 2 86 mar ine concentrations, 3 21 sources, 18, 28, 29, 33, 35, 36 Saudi Arabia, 51, 52 Scheldt Estuary, 132 Scotland, 320, 408, 409 Scott Inlet, 46, 468, 470 Sea grass, 182, 411, 573 "Sea" test, 169

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599 Sea turtles, 571 Seabirds Amoco Cadiz spill, 564, 574 Argo Merchant spill, 560 census studies, 191-92 experimental methods, 189-91, 197 hydrocarbon metabolism, 309, 314 hydrocarbon uptake, 291, 303 petroleum e f feats, 3 90, 3 91, 430-36 Seals. See Marine mammals Seasonal change effects, 377-78 Seawater sampling, 97-98, 135 solvent extraction, 106-7, 122 Sedimentation, 10, 270, 284-90, 437, 443 Sediments anaerobic sediment, and biodegradation, 305 ancient sediments, 26 diagenetic hydrocarbons, 28 experimental contamination, 152-53 interlaboratory comparison programs, 124-28 monitoring program, 132-33 in natural seep areas, 468-69 PHC concentrations, 12, 326-30, 335 removal of oiled sediments, 379-80 sampling, 96, 98 self -cleaning, 466 solvent extraction, 104-5, 122 tarry layers, 383 tray exper iments, 165 See also Benthic communities ~ . Sediment traps, 96-97 Seep oil. See Oil seeps Segregated ballast tanks (SBT), 57, 60, 64 Seines, 182 Sewage. See Was tewater Sieves, 180-81 Silica gel-oil (SGO) medium, 154 Sinkants, 381 Sister-chromatid exchanges, 199, 384 S ize fractionation, 109 Skagerrak f jord, 132, 432 Tar, 295 SLAR (side-look ing airborne radar ), 128 , 129 Sludge fuel oil, 56, 64, 80, 82 sewage, 29, 78-79 tar balls, 323, 325 Smother ing, 414, 416 Sodium, 17 Solub il. ity . See Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons Solvent extraction, 104-7 Solvent reflex, 106 South Amer ice, 80, 83 South China Sea, 80 Southampton , U. K., 447 Southern Bight of North Sea, 132 Southwest Research Institute, 446 Soxhlet extractor, 104-6 Specific gravity, 280 Spec tr 0 f 1 uor ome tr y . Se e Ultraviolet fluorescence (W/F) spectrometry Sperm mutation tests, 199-200 Spills. See Oil spills; and speck ic spill incidents Spreading, 270, 273-76, 289 Squalene, 31 Static bioassays, 138, 141-46, 163 Static headspace sampl ing, 12 2 Steam distillation, 104, 106 Steranes, 32 Sterenes, 28 Sublethal bioassays, 6, 138-40, 163, 188-89, 206 Sulfur, 109. See also NSQ compounds Surface slicks, 151-52, 274-76, 289 Synergistic toxicity, 14, 489, 491 Synthetic oils, 478 T Tamiahua Lagoon, 46, 49, 468, 470 Tampico Maru spill, 376 Tanio spill, 448 Tanker discharges, 56-65 t 79-80, 82 Tanker spills, 56, 65, 80, 82, 549~50 ~ 573-76 e See also specif ic spill incidents

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600 Tar balls, 12, 322-25, 331, 335 Tarry layers, 383, 437 Tasman ia, 6 8-71 Teleosts. See Fish Temperature effects, 280, 304, 314, 376, 418, 466 Terpenes, 3 9 9 Test organisms, 132, 140-41 Thames Estuary, 132 Thermoregulation, 428-29 Thin layer chromatography (TLC), 116, 201-2 Tissue extraction, 105-6, 122 Toluene, 105, 277, 293, 303, 319, 418, 477 p-Tolu id ine, 3 9 5 Torrey Canyon spill, 3 69, 3 81, 423, 425, 448, 550 Toxic effects, 372, 378-79, 472-82, 489 Toxicity studies, 13, 490, 491. See also Biolog ical analys is Transportation losses, 56-65, 79-80, 82 Traps, 182 Trawls, 97, 180 Triterpanes, 28, 32, 33, 36 Tr iterprenoid (hopane ~ hydrocarbons, 27, 36 Tropical environments, 13-14, 434, 449-58, 488, 491 Tsesis spill, 133, 181, 287, 404, 417, 442-45, 550 Tumbler method, 10 S Turtles, 571 Tyrrhe fan Sea, 32 3 U Ultrasonic solvent extraction, 105 Ultraviolet absorption, 110, 113 Ultraviolet collectors, 129 Ultraviolet fluorescence (W/F) spectrometry, 94, 101, 107, 110, 112-16, 129, 131, 155 United Kingdom, 49, 51, 52, 56, 381, 447 United States daily petroleum usage, 74 offshore petroleum production, 51 Unresolved complex mixtures (UCM), 320, 326, 331, 334 Uranium, 17 Urban air, 32 Urban runoff, 72, 76-78, 80, 82 V Vacuum degassing, 122, 123 Vacuum stripping, 122, 123 Vanadium, 17, 23, 32, 384 Vancouver Island, 321 Vapor pressure, 272 Vehicle exhaust emissions, 66 Venezuela, 51, 320 Vertebrates hydrocarbon uptake, 290, 297-98, 316 See also Fish; Marine mammals; Seabirds Vertical dispersion, 270, 278-79, 289 Vineyard Sound r 318 Viscosity, 272, 280 W Wales, 425 Washington, 411 Wastewater, 72-74, 78, 80, 82, 287, 326, 330 Wastewater sludge, 29, 78-79 Water of fshore production, 51-52 See also Seawater Water fowl. See Seabirds Water-soluble fractions, 141-47 Waxes, 295-96 West Falmouth. See Flor Ida spill Wetlands, 437-40 Whales . See Mar ine manuals Wild Harbor, 288, 417. See also Flor Ida spill Wind ef fects r 275 Woods Hole ~ 319

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601 X Xylene, 277, 390 y Yeasts, 290 exper imental methods, 153-55 See also Microbial degradation Yucatan Shelf, 317 z Zoe Colocotroni spill, 572-75 ~ , Zooplank ton Amoco Cadiz spill, 564 - analytical methods, 156-57, 161-64, 205 Argo Merchant spill Arrow spill, S55 petroleum effects on, 396, 398, 404-7, 409, 442-43, 470 PHC concentrations, 331 sedimentation of oil droplets, 287-88, 290

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