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Appendixes

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Appendix A Hazardous Waste Management Methodologies In Chapter 1 of this report, Figure 1.1 shows the relationships between the options a waste generator would consider in managing hazardous waste. This simplified hierarchy has three tiers: waste reduction; conversion of hazardous waste to less hazardous waste; and placement of residuals in the environment. The focus of this study is on the upper tier, which is divided into four categories: abatement, minimization, reuse, and recycling. These reduction categories are discussed in Chapter 1. Waste reduction methodologies are presented on an industry-by-industry basis in Campbell and Glenn (1982), Economic Commission for Europe (1981), and Ministere de ['Environment (1981). Although the report emphasizes the nontechnical aspects of waste reduction, this appendix is included to discuss techniques for the other two tiers and to provide a perspective on the role of waste reduction in the waste management hierarchy. The second tier (conversion) includes all forms of waste treatment. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act describes treatment as (42 USC 6903): Any method, technique, or process including neutralization, designed to change the physical, chemical, or biological character or composition of any hazardous waste so as to neutralize such waste or so as to render such waste nonhazardous, safer for transport, amendable for recovery, amenable for storage, or reduced in volume. Some kinds of treatment can have an effect similar to that of waste reduction in reducing the environmental burden of hazardous waste. Often the generator will evaluate a combination of reduction and treatment options 61

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62 in choosing a waste management scheme. A wide variety of generic technologies are included in each of the treatment categories (see Table A.1). Several reviews of these general processes are available (Governor's Office of Appropriate Technology 1981, Office of Technology Assessment 1983, National Research Council 1983). The third tier in the simplified waste management hierarchy includes options for placement of residuals in the environment. Table A.2 lists some generic classifications for these options. It is important to note that complete elimination of placement in the environment as an option for hazardous waste management TABLE A.1 Generic Treatment Technologies Physical/chemical Neutralization Hydrolysis Reduction Precipitation Evaporation Dechlor ination Oxidation Stripping Ion exchange Liquid ion exchange High-energy electron beam High-gradient magnetic separation Biological Activated sludge Aerated lagoons Anaerobic digestion Composting Enzyme treatment Trickling filter Rotating biological disc Thermal Rotary kiln Fluidized bed Molten salt Plasma arc Cement kiln Microwave plasma discharge Multiple hearth Pyrolysis Electrophoresis Freeze drying Freeze crystallization Chlorinalysis Catalysis Photolysis Electrolysis Dewatering Membrane technology Thickening Emulsion breaking Adsorption techniques Land treatment Solvent extraction Waste stabilization ponds Mutant bacteria Deep shaft aeration Fluidized bed bioreactor Powder-activated carbon Land treatment Municipal sewage treatment plants Liquid injection Vertical tube reactor Infrared furnace Co-incineration (industrial boilers) Ocean incineration Evaporation Calcination Wet air oxidation

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63 TABLE A. 2 Options for Placement of Residuals in the Environment Secure landf ill Eng ineered landf ill Structural landf ill Deep well injection Ocean disposal Geolog ic isolat ion Seabed Emplacement Above-ground storage Co-d isposal Land treatmen t is probably impractical. There will always be irreducible residuals created by many of the options in the first two tiers; therefore it is not feasible to prohibit all landfilling or use of other placement techniques. The committee has avoided the use of the term Ultimate disposal" for this category because some of the options actually are storage rather than disposal options. ~Disposal" also suggests that monitoring and continued responsibility for the material is not necessary and that it will cause no further concerns. Neither of these suggestions is true in all cases. REFERENCES Campbell, M.E., and W.M. Glenn (1982) Profit from Pollution Prevention. Toronto, Ont.: Pollution Probe Foundation. Economic Commission for Europe (1981) Compendium on Low- and Non-Waste Technology. Publication No. ECE/ENV/36, 2 volse Geneva: United Nations. Governor's Office of Appropriate Technology (1981) Alternatives to the Land Disposal of Hazardous Waste: An Assessment for California. Sacramento, Calif. Ministere de ['Environment (1981) Les Techniques Propres dans l'Industrie Francaise. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. National Research Council (1983) Management of Hazardous Industrial Wastes: Research and Development Needs. National Materials Advisory Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Office of Technology Assessment (1983) Technologies and Management Strategies for Hazardous Waste Control. Washington, D.C.