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4 The Waste Repository Site: Charactenshcs and Socioeconomic Considerations There are a number of reasons for concern with the socioeconomic impacts of a waste repository. Social justice considerations, for example, would argue that we attempt to restore the status quo in locales that are subject to an imposed change. Distributive justice concerns would dictate that we try to avoid impact to communities already suffering some relative inequity (low-income populations, for example) or an uncompen- satable effect. Economics demands that we anticipate the costs of new facilities (planning and actual utilization) so as not to produce a Boom and bust n phenomenon. Finally, practical politics would argue that we should be sensitive to the needs of local areas, particularly if there is some likelihood that impacts (or potential impacts) will generate rancor and ill will. Recognizing the importance of socioeconomic impacts at repository sites does not mean that we can identify what the impacts are or know how we should deal with them (through mitigation, compensation, or override, for example). However, previous research indicates several steps that can be taken. First, we can summarize what we know and do not know about the effects of large-scale industrial facilities. This does not necessarily provide site-specific data, nor does it identify which impacts may be perceived as most important for a given locale. Second, we can involve local potentially impacted popu- lations in the identification and mitigation process. This form of iterative planning is increasingly common for public facilities, and nuclear facilities in par- ticular (NUREG/CR-2750). It is premised on increased awareness of the unique perspective of local citizens in defining key community characteristics (and, therefore, those characteristics that, if affected, will alter 83

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84 community life) and in establishing the costs or other mitigating structures that will satisfy the need to main- tain community integrity. Indeed, some have argued that the planning of facilities should be an opportunity to improve the quality of life for communities rather than simply to "make them whole" again (Seley 1983). The third, and final, step is to compare the results of several community-specific impact assessment procedures. Depending on the particular consideration (social jus- tice, distributive justice, economic, political) applied, it is then necessary to choose a site based on explicit reference to the consideration and the identified impacts. For example, it would be ideal to be able to devise an index of socioeconomic impact criteria for each potential host site and then compare these across sites in terms of social justice and other considerations. The resulting matrix (impact on one dimension, social or distributive justice criteria on another) would yield a least-cost approach from both sponsor and community perspective. Unfortunately, the state of the art of impact assess- ment is not sufficiently advanced to provide such a matrix. Thus, we are left with a research and policy void that must be filled to make socioeconomic impact assessment both possible and relevant. Nonetheless, we can identify a list of impacts to look for and review some of what is known about their measurement and iden- tification to guide further research. The rest of this chapter is devoted to this review. It will be seen that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and others have already initiated research relevant to effect identification. It is the first step of the three-step process outlined here. We recommend that the integration of socioeconomic criteria into the site- selection process for a high-level waste repository focus additional attention on the other two steps in the outline--design of an iterative assessment and mitigation process and identification and comparison of criteria for selection--before impact assessments are devised or utilized. In particular, we recommend study of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' program of citizen participation (Hanchey 1975, Ragan 1975) and a review of ongoing siting efforts in regard to hazardous chemical waste repositories that employ local boards of various types to elicit local attitudes and integrate local concerns (the laws in Massachusetts and Wisconsin merit particular attention). Repository sites for the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive wastes will be primarily in rural

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85 areas, and the planning, construction, and operation of the repositories will result in significant socioeconomic effects.* These effects will be of two kinds: those that occur when any large-scale industrial facility is located in a rural community (hereafter conventional effects) and those that arise as a result of the special characteris- tics of a repository for radioactive wastes (hereinafter special effects). Assessing either type of effect is difficult for a number of reasons (Finsterbusch and Wolf 1977, Peelle 1979, Finsterbusch 1980). In addition to the uncertainties inherent in predicting social attitudes and behavior, many reactions occur during actual construction and operation (Cluett et al. 1980). Hence, findings from surveys of opinion about anticipated projects are only loosely correlated with findings from later surveys conducted during construction and operation. The manner in which a facility is planned and introduced can have a significant influence on public perception of, and response to, its effects. In addition, a single accident at the site or along the transport corridor may generate psychological stress that will alter the scope and magnitude of some (or possibly all) other effects. Even a harmless accident incorrectly reported as poten- tially dangerous can result in stress and behavioral response owing to the volatility of the nuclear issue (see Chapter 2). The 1982 Court of Appeals ruling (People Against Nuclear Energy v. NRC, U.S. Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit, Intervenors #81-1131, May 14, 1982), despite its having subsequently been over- turned by the U.S. Supreme Court, underscores the significance of psychological factors in the aftermath of accidents. Adding to the difficulty is the lack of a common standard by which to compare effects once they are *Within social science and government, it has become common to use the term n impact" to refer to the effect (positive or negative) that a project or program has on people or environments. We produce environmental impact statements, social impact assessments (SIAs) and measure- ments of socioeconomic impact in what has been an expand- ing field of study. To avoid jargon and because it seems more neutral, the panel uses the word "effect" wherever possible in this report. Some may prefer to read in the work "impact" where we have used effect, which should not change the intended meaning.

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86 defined. How should social change be weighed against economic change? How should social change in one locale be compared with social change in another if the nature of the change is different? The panel cannot provide answers for these thorny questions, nor can it provide assurance that answers will be provided by others; it does, however, identify them as major socioeconomic con- siderations in the repository decision-making process. While there are important impediments to any attempt to weigh and compare socioeconomic effects, enough knowl edge does exist to categorize them. In this chapter the panel provides a description of a repository site and explores the nature and magnitude of the effects that are likely to occur and the adequacy of our knowledge about them. THE REPOS ITORY S ITE: A DESCRIPTION - The DOE's standard design for a repository includes surface facilities for receiving and handling radioactive wastes and a subsurface area of approximately 2000 acres for waste emplacement. The surface facilities will consist of a fenced area of about 400 acres and include unloading areas, water and sewage treatment plants, and a number of buildings (Figure 4.1). After the 30-40 years postulated for repository operation, only a small monitor- ing building is expected to be required at the site (Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation 1981). The size of the repository will vary according to the degree of centralization of the waste management system, the total amount of waste involved, temperature considera- tions, and the size of the buffer zone. Spent fuel will arrive in shipping casks by rail, truck, or possibly barge, in amounts dependent on the waste system design. Once at the site, the shipping casks will be removed from the carrier by crane and moved to shielded transfer cells. The remainder of the above-ground operation con- sists of moving the canisters to a shaft through which they will be lowered into the repository. Construction of the repository, the shafts, and the surface facilities will take an estimated 7 years after the site has been selected and will require an estimated 1700 construction workers if the repository is located in salt and an estimated 4200 workers if the repository is located in hard rock. Maintenance workers--those who would be needed for the 30-40-year operation phase--are

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88 projected to number between 870 and 1100 (Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation 1981). The site will also likely require monitoring for a lengthy (50-100 years) period of time. DOE's socioeconomic characterization of repository sites in southeastern, Midwestern, and southwestern locations provides general descriptions of population, employment, education, and housing at the sites (Table 4.1). While such data can be useful, particularly in determining economic effects, they are inadequate indicators of the range of a repository's socioeconomic effects. The following section discusses a number of economic and noneconomic effects that depend on more than the size of the in-migrant worker population. CONVENTIONAL EFFECTS The magnitude and distribution of the conventional effects of a large industrial facility in a rural area are a function of three primary variables: the character- istics of the project; the characteristics of the site area and population; and the characteristics of workers, their families, and others attracted to the area by the project (Leistritz and Murdock 1979, 1981; Thomas et al. 1982b). The major conventional effects to be expected are shown in Table 4.2. Economic Effects Construction and operation of a radioactive waste reposi- tory will have direct and indirect effects, including changes in employment patterns, property values, the costs of goods and services, and the level of economic activity, that can be expressed in marketplace terms. Many of these effects can be projected on the basis of the expected number and characteristics of new workers or the requirements for building and maintaining the reposi- tory (Greene and Hunter 1978). The rates of change, however, are more difficult to anticipate but are perhaps even of greater importance to the host community. Some economic effects would be the result of voluntary reac- tions (e.g., growth, speculation in land prices, and new investment patterns) to the local economy. The U.S. Department of Energy (1981) has estimated the sizes of in-migrant populations for repositories in

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89 different geological media. In general, the smaller th community and the more remote the site, the larger the anticipated effects (Cole and Smith 1979). The avail- ability of a construction labor force, the distance to the nearest metropolitan center, and the degree of advance site planning all affect the ability of a host community to absorb new economic activity with minimal disruption. Economists estimate that population growth in excess e of lO to 15 percent annually creates serious problems for a given locale (Gilmore 1976, Greene and Hunter 1978). Smaller growth rates can induce less serious but long-term effects; Peelle et al. (1979) conclude that a 5 percent increase plus or minus 2 to 2-1/2 percent in the popula- tion of Cherokee County, South Carolina, as a result of the construction of the Cherokee Nuclear Station, "will be sufficient to have a continuing impact" (p. 63). Mountain West Research has analyzed the total direct population influx for each lOO incoming construction workers for 14 energy-related construction projects. The average was 228 per 100, but the range was large--from 145 to 288 (Mountain West Research 1978). In-migrant population levels are highly dependent on the marital and family status of workers and on whether they decide to bring their families (Dixon 1978). In general, spending by construction and operations personnel and their families in the community near a repository benefits retail, commercial, and service businesses. A recent review of socioeconomic impacts at 12 nuclear power stations, however, found few economic benefits to localities (Chalmers et al. 1982). The initiation of most large-scale construction projects in small communities also is followed by rising prices, particularly for housing and retail goods and services (Susskind and O'Hare 1977, Dixon 1978). Local industrial and professional employers are often forced to compete for skilled workers~and must heed demands from their employees for increased pay to keep pace with that of the in-migrants (Leistritz and Murdock 1979). Pressure to expand or compete may, however, force small businesses with inadequate capital into bankruptcy (Howard et al., as cited in Finsterbusch 1980). The Site Selection program outlined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 calls for identification of five candidate repository sites before a final selection is made. This procedure can be expected to have long-term effects on some local economies. During the decision

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92 TABLE 4.2 Conventional Site Effects of a Large Industr ial Facility 1.0 Economic Effects 1.1 Change in property value 1.2 Change in rental costs 1.3 Change in cost of goods and services 1.4 Higher property taxes 1.5 Change in employment 1.6 Change in provision of jobs 1.7 Change in travel costs 1.8 Change in market areas and competitive position of economic activities 2.0 Environmental and Health Effects 2.1 Noise 2.2 Air pollution 2.3 Damage to soil quality 2.4 Water drainage damage 2.5 Vibration 2.6 Congestion and access 2.7 Accidents 2.8 Aesthetic changes 3.0 Social Change Effects 3.1 Social Pathologies (alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, divorce, juvenile delinquency) 3.2 Crime 3.3 Personality adjustment 3.4 Affectual relations 3.5 Use of community facilities 3.6 Intergroup conflict 3.7 Quality of public services 3.8 Sense of community (includes sense of attachment, support networks) 4.0 Location Transfer Costs and New Location Effects 4.1 Searching 4.2 Moving 4.3 Capital Financing Costs 4.4 Start-up and operating costs (businesses) 4.5 Personality adjustment 5.0 Institutional Adaptations 5.1 Land-use functions 5.2 Development planning 5.3 Negotiations with contractors, government agencies 5.4 Conflict resolution 5 5 Jurisdictional issues 5.6 Public service bureaucracies; direct-service agencies 5.7 Division of responsibilities

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93 making period, residents in the vicinity of the candidate sites are likely to place less emphasis on property maintenance (Miller 1971), properties will be hard to sell (Corrigan 1976), and economic development is often hampered. The effects of uncertainty will be felt most strongly by residents with fixed incomes. There may be a significant trade-off, however, between the economic costs of a large number of potential sites and the political costs of a small number of sites (Ghovanlou et al. 1980). As noted in the previous chapter, while multiple repositories would generate adverse socioeconomic effects at more sites, they have potential for reducing overall regional inequities, transport system costs, and state emergency response burdens. Several conclusions can be drawn about the likely economic effects of a radioactive waste repository: 1. The effects are potentially large, involve uncertain rates of change, and are sufficiently complex that they cannot be projected from population increases alone. 2. Some effects will not be apparent until the construction process actually begins, thereby implying that some means of monitoring and responding to effects at site are needed (Wolf 1974, Cluett et al. 1980). 3. The site-selection procedure mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 will impose adverse effects (e.g., community conflict, speculation) on the candidate host sites as well as on the site finally selected. A decentralized waste system could well add to these site effects, although compensating with advantages in overall socioeconomic and institutional effects. Environmental and Health Effects Nonradiological environmental and health effects arising from the construction and operation of a repository should be no more severe than those of most large con- struction projects. This appears also to be true for nuclear power plants (Chalmers et al. 1982). The measurement of environmental and health effects requires two kinds of standards: (1) professionally established norms for such effects as noise and air pollution and (2) standards established by the community on how much noise and pollution residents are willing to tolerate. Professional standards are useful in providing

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101 able to protect the community. The handling of the accidents that would inevitably occur will do much to determine local confidence in the responsible institutions (and the degree of behavioral reactions to stress). If institutional credibility is found wanting, then demands for intervention by local institutions are likely. The way in which spent-fuel casks are transported, for exam- ple, could well affect public acceptance, particularly if the flow of waste at and near the repository site becomes particularly heavy. Finally, the host locality will undoubtedly be affected by the adequacy of its partici- pation in decision making. These special effects may prove to be resistant to formal assessment and particularly to quantitative mea- surement and expression. It must be recognized, however, that they could well exceed the more conventional effects of a repository and also prove resistant to mitigation or elimination. Methods for assessing these effects, which note both advantages and disadvantages, have recently been carefully appraised (Thomas et al. 1982a). Further, recognition is needed that system design choices will interact with site effects, in ways sometimes predictable and sometimes not. INFLUENCE OF TIME AND DISTANCE ON WASTE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES Different effects will occur at different stages in the siting and development of a repository. The first rumors of planning for such a facility will cause changes in property values, depending on site location and existing land use. Values will change again after construction is finished if the effects, or perceptions of the effects, are different from those anticipated. Since the selection of a particular site may not occur until after the site has been acquired (and "qualified"), rumors will sometimes coincide with planning. Psychological, health, and social changes, on the other hand, will become evident only after the facility has been operating for a number of years. Effects are also related to distance from a facility, but this relationship is not always unilinear. Some people in the immediate vicinity of a repository may not be perturbed and choose to remain where they are, whereas others further away may leave the area. The extent of most effects will depend on the shape and slope of their distance-decay curves (Massam 1975). Health effects, for

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102 example, will likely be highly sensitive to proximity to the facility--the closer one's home to the site, the greater the effects of noise and air pollution. Economic effects, on the other hand, are generally more evenly spread over a wider area. Disturbances resulting from in-migration will tend to be unevenly distributed. If all effects were equal in weight or uniformly diffused, their measurement would be relatively simple, and choosing one site instead of another would alter equities in ore- dictable ways. complex. _ _ , _ ~. Unfortunately, the situation is more LOCAL EFFECTS ALONG TRANSPORT CORRIDORS As indicated in Chapter 3, a substantial amount of truck or rail traffic can be anticipated in the delivery to away-from-reactor storage facilities (if built) a reposi tory for repositories) or both. Special problems may occur for locales located at nodes along transport cor- ridors. Truck stops will be created, and certain roads or intersections will experience unusually heavy traffic. Depending on the size of the locale and the number of trucks traveling through, some of the same effects-- increased stress or greater anxiety for local populations, reduced property values, pressures on the local economy, and disruptions of social fabric--that would occur at site during repository operation should be anticipated. Whether these problems will assume sufficient magni- tude to require governmental intervention is uncertain and depends, in part, on overall waste system design. But the study and mitigation of socioeconomic effects should certainly include increased attention to these potential problems. The panel recognizes that the assessment and mitigation of transport corridor effects could present planning and organizational problems. To what extent (if any) should adverse socioeconomic effects in the many communities along transport corridors be included in impact mitigation programs? The panel notes that adverse effect mitigation is generally not under- taken for the movement of other enerav Or. Ah as a _ _ _ ,, ~ _ ~ coal). Scent information and analysis does not exist at this time for the panel to take a position on this question. What is essential is that such prospective problems at nodes along transport corridors be antici- pated, that means be instituted to identify and assess such effects, and that the possibility that mitigation of

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103 effects may be required be included management program. MITIGATION AND COMPENSATION part of the waste The potential adverse effects to a community hosting a radioactive waste repository should be avoided where it is feasible to do so and, for those adverse effects that cannot be avoided, mitigated to the fullest extent reason- ably achievable. A sound program to this end does not now exist. The Council on Environmental Quality's regulations to federal agencies for implementation of the National Environmental Protection Act require environmental impact statements to include provisions for mitigating adverse impacts (Peelle 1979). The panel's view is that a sound program for anticipating and responding to the socioeco- nomic effects of siting a radioactive waste repository would comprise the following: 1. Analysis of socioeconomic effects, with par- ticipation by the residents; 2. Development of plans and policies to avoid and to mitigate adverse effects, with participation by the residents; 3. Capital, provided by the beneficiaries of nuclear power, to fund the mitigation of expected adverse conventional effects; 4. Compensation for adverse effects, conventional and special, that cannot reasonably be avoided or further mitigated; and 5. Means of redress for effects resulting directly from the siting of a radioactive waste repository or from overall changes in the radioactive waste program that alter site characteristics. Although the occurrence of specific effects is diffi- cult to predict, a substantial number of conventional adverse effects that will occur can be avoided or miti- gated through advance planning and effective management. The process by which planning and management can be successfully implemented calls for interaction between residents of the community and representatives of state and federal agencies. The involvement of local residents in identifying and assessing local effects, in evaluating planning alternatives, and in contributing to the defini- tion and evaluation of management options can increase the effectiveness of the siting process.

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104 The panel's review of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the siting programs of DOE suggest that an appro- priate mechanism or process for assuring the active involvement of local residents in assessing site effects and in monitoring mitigation and compensation programs does not now exist. There is need, therefore, for prompt attention to redressing this deficiency in institutional arrangements for site selection and development. Consid- eration should be given to the appropriate role and powers of such a mechanism, budgetary needs, and capacity for independent technical review. One useful model at the state level may be the Environmental Evaluation Group, which has advised the governor of New Mexico on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project. A number of federal programs exist that are aimed at mitigating the conventional impacts that stem from the location of energy or other industrial facilities. The applicability and timeliness of each, however, are limited. The Education Act of 1950, for example, pro- vides federal financial assistance to school districts experiencing financial burdens as a result of federal project development, but there are serious time lags in the flow of assistance funds. Small communities that need technical planning expertise can obtain help through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program, but there are numerous eligibility restrictions and a cumbersome application process. The Community Facilities Loan and Grant Program of Federal Housing Administration is another source of assistance for fire-fighting and transportation needs, but inflexible funding formulas have hampered its application (Leistritz and Murdock 1979, pp. 322-324). The recently passed Energy Impact Assistance Act may improve the situation, although administrative complexities, fragmented sources of aid, and the "prohibition of delay" stipulation (Section 608) may reduce its potential effectiveness (Peelle 1980, pp. 120-121). Even prompt and ambitious mitigation of adverse socio- economic effects will not always suffice to provide adequate protection for the host community and host region. Past experience suggests that many adverse effects will be underestimated, will not be quantifiable, or will not become apparent until the siting process actually begins. Other effects, such as those described above as comprising social change, will be essentially irreversible and not subject to mitigation. The community

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105 is also vulnerable to policy or program changes that could alter expected benefits or add new (and perhaps unforeseen) effects. The conversion of a demonstration facility to a permanent repository, for example, would introduce a new array of beneficial and adverse effects. Meanwhile, the research base to support mitigation efforts is limited and uneven: studies of impact mitigation have been largely limited to a few selected types of manage- ment processes or only a few cases relevant to a given process (Halstead and Leistritz 1982). As a result, an adequate conceptual basis for designing mitigation pro- grams does not now exist (but see Murdock et al. 1982, Chapters 10-12 for a noteworthy effort to fill this void). To prevent the community from bearing unfair burdens and harm, an ambitious program of technical and financial support for the mitigation of adverse effects at the site will be needed. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 recognizes this need in providing for funds to be used for impact mitigation (see Section 116). Grants may be made to states to develop a request for impact assistance which must be submitted to the Secretary following the site characterization activities and before the recom- mendation of a repository site by the Secretary to the President. Since no limit to such mitigation funds is specified, the scale of the program is potentially adequate. There are, however, several potential problems which will need to be addressed by DOE in implementation. First, the goals and levels of funds are set in a binding agreement following the granting of construction authori- zation. But, as the panel has noted, many adverse impacts cannot be identified at this time and will become apparent only as the site is developed and undertakes operation. Second, the agreement is between the federal government and the state, with no assurance that the state will adequately assess the needs of the host locality or allocate the funds delivered in an effective manner. FINDINGS From its analysis of likely socioeconomic effects at the waste disposal site, the panel finds the following: 1. The research base that exists to support the selection of sites for a nuclear waste repository and the formulation of programs for impact mitigation is limited and uneven. The underdeveloped state of theory in social

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106 impact assessment theory and methodology and the cursory efforts thus far in comparative analysis of impact mitiga- tion are particularly problematic. The limited research program sponsored by the DOE has not sufficed to fill this void. As a result, no authoritative statements can be made at this time about the magnitude, types, or rates of adverse socioeconomic effects to be expected at a repository site nor criteria that should be formulated for site suitability or appropriate program of impact mitigation. 2. Adverse socioeconomic effects will likely be strongly site-specific and will be related in particular to the population size and rural qualities of the host region as well as to the overall waste system design. These effects will be difficult to predict on the basis of experience with other types of facilities at other sites. These effects have the potential, however, for substantial harm to the host community and region and should, therefore, receive more thorough assessment than has been accomplished to date. 3. The special effects associated with the radio- logical mission of the repository will interact with, and may well exceed, the more conventional effects resulting from the location of large industrial facilities in rural communities. 4. A number of significant effects will not become evident until the siting process begins. Accordingly, careful monitoring of socioeconomic effects at the site and a Program for timely and flexible provision of _ resources to reduce or mitigate adverse impacts are required. The panel finds that an appropriate mechanism for assuring the active involvement of local residents in assessing site effects and in monitoring mitigation and compensation programs does not now exist and should receive attention by the DOE. A sound program to anticipate and respond to the effects of siting a radioactive waste repository should, in the panel's view, comprise (a) analysis of socioeco- nomic effects, with participation by the residents; (b) development of plans and policies to avoid and to miti- gate adverse effects, with participation by the residents; (c) capital, provided by the beneficiaries of nuclear power, to fund mitigation of expected adverse conventional effects; (d) compensation for adverse effects, conven- tional and special, that cannot reasonably be avoided or further mitigated; and (e) means of redress for effects resulting directly from the siting of a repository or

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107 from overall changes in the radioactive waste program that alter site characteristics. 6. An ambitious program of technical and financial support to mitigate adverse effects at repository sites will be needed. While the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provides for this need, problems may be expected in implementation. mitigation, for example, are set at an early stage in site development, yet many effects cannot be anticipated and will become apparent with the development of the site and the beginning of operations. A1SO, no assurance exists that the states will adequately assess the needs of this host locality and allocate funds in an effective manner. The goals and levels of funds for impact . REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 4 Altshuler, A. 1965. The City Planning Process. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Burkhardt, J. 1971. Impact of Highways on Urban Neighborhoods: A Model of Social Change. No. 356. Highway Research Board. Chalmers, J., D. Pijawka, K. Branch, P. Bergmann, J. Flynn, and C. Flynn. 1982. Socioeconomic Impacts of Nuclear Generating Stations. Summary Report. NUREG/CR-2750. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Clemente, F., J. Cole, E. Kloman, J. McCabe, P. Sawicke, J. Schumaker, and J. Spencer. 1977. Public Participation in Energy Related Decisionmaking: Six Case Studies. M76-53. McLean, Va.: The Mitre Corporation and National Academy of Public Administration, December. Cluett, C., M. Greene, and L. Radford. 1980. Individual and Community Response to Energy Facility Siting: An Annotated Bibliography. No. P-493. Montacello, I1: Vance Bibliographies, May. Coates, V. 1975. Community Level Impacts of Expanded Underground Coal Mining. Readings in Technology Assessment. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University Program of Policy Studies in Science and Technology, June. Cole, R., and T. Smith. 1979. Compensation for the Adverse Impacts of Nuclear Waste Management Facilities: Application of an Analytical Framework to Consideration of Eleven Potential Impacts. Summary

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