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Index ABS (see acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) absorption (see metabolism) acetonitrile, 202-206 health effects, 204-205 metabolism, 203-204 SNARL, 205-206 TWA standard, 203 see also nitrites A/C pipe (see asbestos-cement pipe) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene pipe, 4, 13 acute diseases, waterborne, 5 bacteria, protozoa, and viruses implicated in, 137 defined, 138 outbreaks of, 140-149 Aerobacter, 29 Aggressiveness Index, 19 A/C pipe and, 20-21, 49-S7, 61 A/C pipe degradation and, 44-45, 58 adjustment, 58 applications of, 20-23 algae growth in reservoirs, 98-99, 124, 141 polysaccharides produced by, 113 alicyclics, 247, 251 alkalies, 247, 251 alkalinity, A/C pipe effect on, 51 aluminum, 95, 15S-167 conclusions and recommendations per- taining to, 166-167 289 daily intake, 156 health effects, 158-166 metabolism, 157-158 SNARL, 166 sources in human diet, 156 uses, 156, 158 aluminum chloride, 164 aluminum nitrate, 164 aluminum salts, 156, 163 aluminum sulfate, 156, 164 Alzheimer's disease, 160, 167 amebiasis, 5, 138 American Water Works Association on chlorination, 130 specifications for A/C pipe, 46 study of asbestos in drinking water, 43 ammonia, chlorine interaction with, 96-97 anthracene, 4, 99 aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, 247, 248, 249, 252 arsenic, 95, 167 asbestos, 6 health effects, 3-4, 43, 150 asbestos-cement pipe, 2, 42-61 advantages of, 45 city water supplies with asbestos concen- tration from, 54 composition, 45~6 corrosion, 3, 22-23 deterioration control, 5~60

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290 Index dissolution reactions in, 23 EPA tests of, 48, 52 field tests on, 49-58 laboratory tests on, 47-49 mechanisms of deterioration of, 49 types of, 46 uses, 32, 44 vinyl-lined, 3-4 water quality and, 22, 46-47, 49 water quality indexes and, 22, 23, 49 asphalt, 12 linings of, 74-75 AWWA (see American Water Works As- sociation) back-flow, 1 health risk from, 16 prevention of, 15 back-siphonage, 1 biological material from, 126, 131 health risk from, 16, 147 occurrence, 15 bacteria biofilms and, 112 iron, 14, 29, 122-123 observed in water distribution system, 122-123 polysaccharide compounds produced by, 113 sulfate-reducing, 14, 28 sulfur-oxidizing, 29, 122-123 waterborne disease outbreak and, 137 barium, 95, 167-170 health effects, 168-169 maximum allowable concentration reeval uated, 167-168 recommendation pertaining to, 168 SNARL, 170 Beggiatoa (see sulfur-oxidizing bacteria) Bennington, Vermont, corrosion field study, 39 benzene, 250, 252 health effects, 253-254 metabolism, 253 recommendations relating to, 254 SNARL, 203, 254-255 benzo(a)pyrene (see polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) biofilms, 5, 109-123 chemical composition of, 118 chemical properties of, 115-117, 118 detachment of, 117, 129 fluid frictional resistance affected by, 119 fluid shear forces removal of, 129 formation, 112-114 fouling of, 109, 117, 118, 126-127 physical properties of, 115 reactions with chlorine, 126, 128 thermal conductivity of, 115 transport properties of, 115 water quality changes from, 112 biological material in water distribution sys- tem, 109 biofilm processes and, 109-112 contamination control from, 126-131 dispersal growth of, 129- 131 sources of, 124-126 biological quality of water, 4-5 "black" water, 5, 112, 122 blood, lead concentration in, 179 (see also methemoglobinemia) blood pressure, barium exposure and, 169, 170 Boston, Massachusetts, trace metal concen- tration in water supply, 40-41 butyl rubber, 12 cadmium, 95, 170-174 corrosion and, 2, 32, 35 health effects, 150, 171-172 SNARL, 172-174 calcium A/C pipe release of, 22 hardness, 51 calcium carbonate dissolution, 33, 43 saturation, 23-24, 30, 60-61 California Department of Health Services, PVC pipe testing, 65 cancer (see carcinogenic*y) carbon, biofilm, 118 carbon tetrachloride, in PVC pipe, 66 carcinogenicity acetonitrile, 205 acrylonitrile, 205 aluminum compounds, 165 arsenic, 167 cadmium, 172 chloroform, 207-209

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Index 291 DBCP, 210, 212-213 dinitrophenol, 243 lead, 182 mononitrophenols, 243 nitrobenzene, 227 PAM's, 4, 257-258, 259-260, 261, 262 263 pipe and lining materials, 4, 72 silver, 186-187 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 267 vinyl chloride, 4, 63, 70 water treatment chemical compounds, 98 cardiovascular disease, barium and, 169, 170 cast iron corrosion, lS-16 mains of, 12 pipes of, 13 cataracts (see eye) cathodic protection, 27 CDC (see Centers for Disease Control) Centers for Disease Control, 5, 137 Chattanooga, Tennessee, chlordane concen tration in water system, 146-147 chemical contaminants, 6-8 (see also in organic chemical contaminants; or ganic chemical contaminants) chemical equilibrium models, 24, 61 chemical quality of water control, 16 factors influencing, 2-3 water treatment chemicals and, 3-4, 95 99 Chicago, Illinois, corrosion field study, 35, 36 Chlamydomonas, 99 chloramines, 130 health effects, 174-175 SNARL, 178 chlorammoniation process, 130 chlorate health effects, 174-175 SNARL, 177, 178 chlordane, back-siphonage of, 147 Chlorella, 99 chlorinated disinfectants, 174-178 conclusions and recommendations per taining to, 178 health effects, 174-177 metabolism, 174 SNARL, 177-178 (see also chloramines; chlorate; chlorine dioxide; chlorite) chlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipe, 4, 62 laboratory tests on, 65 (see also plastic pipe) chlorine, 3 control of biofilm fouling by, 126 disinfection pracess and, 109 distribution in water systems, 127 interaction with nitrogen compounds, 96 97 reactions in distribution systems, 96-98 residual, 12, 129, 130 transport of, 126, 128-131 chlorine dioxide health effects, 174-176 metabolism, 174 SNARL, 177, 178 chlonne-trihalomethane reactions, 96 chlorite health effects, 175 SNARL, 177, 178 chloroform, 206-209 concentration in CPVC pipe water, 66 health effects, 206-209 production in humic materials, 97 SNARL, 209 chromium, 95 health effects, 150 chrysotile, in A/C pipe, 46, 51, 60 coagulation process, 108 coal tar compounds PAM's in, 74, 78-79 pipe linings, 4, 72, 73-74 coatings (see linings) coliforms, 108, 131 Columbus, Ohio, heavy metal concentration in distribution system, 94-95 concentration cell, 27 Connecticut, A/C pipe effect on water sup ply, 51, 55 copper, 95 concentration in Boston area water, 40 corrosion and, 33, 35 health effects, 150 leaching of, 5 pipes, 13, 32-33 corrosion A/C pipe, 3, 22-23, 43 control, 27, 44

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292 Index dezincification reaction, 27 electrochemical, 26-27 erosion, 27 field studies of, 35-41 groundwater and surface water, 10 health effects of, 26, 35 inhibitors, 31-32, 34 microbial processes and, 5, 28-29 monitoring, 33-34 pitting, 27 prevention, 4 tuberculation from, 13-14, 28 uniform, 27 water quality effect on, 29-31 water quality indexes to predict, 2 corrosion products, 16, 35 CPVC (see chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) cross-connections, 1 biological material from, 126' 131 control, 17 direct and indirect, 5, 146 health risk from, 16, 140 water quality and, 15 crude oils (see petroleum products) cyanide, 203-204 cyanomethane (see acetonitrile) cyclohexanone, 64, 66 Dallas, Texas, corrosion field study, 35 DBCP (see 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) Denver, Colorado, corrosion field study, 35 deposits, in distribution system, 3 encrustations in, 117, 120-121 iron and manganese, 93-94 Desulfavibrio desulfuricans (see sulfate-re- ducing bacteria) dezincification, 27 dialysis, aluminum effects in water for, 163, 167 diarrhea! disease, 124-125, 141, 147 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, 209-214 exposure standards, 210 health effects, 210-214 recommendations relating to, 214 SNARL, 214 uses, 209 dimethylfonnamide, 214-222 health effects, 218-222 metabolism, 215-218 SNARL, 222 uses, 214-215 dinitrophenols health effects, 236, 237-238, 240, 241 242, 245 isomeric forms of, 230-231, 234 metabolism, 233-235 SNARL, 203, 245 uses, 230-231 diseases, waterborne control measures, 146, 147, 149 defined, 138 limitations of data on, 138-140 municipal systems, 140, 142-144, 146, 147 nonmunicipal (semipublic and individual) systems, 140, 145 number of, 140, 148 recommendations for handling, 151 (see also acute diseases) disinfection process, chlorine and, 5, 12, 109, 130 distribution system biological effects on, 4-6 chemical effects on, 2-4 contamination sources for, 1 description of, 9 education program to preserve integrity of, 6 flow, 11 heavy metal concentration in, 94-95 mains, 12 maintenance, 16 metal concentration in, 35-41 microorganisms in, 4-5, 28-29, 113, 117, 119 municipal, 138, 142-144, 146, 147 PAM's in, 74, 76-77 PAM's leaching in, 82, 84-85, 91 pipes, 3-4, 13, 110-111 private, 138, 140, 145 semiprivate, 138, 140, 145 study approach to, 15-17 valves, 12 waste treatment chemicals, 3-4 DMF (see dimethylformamide) Duluth, Minnesota, asbestos in drinking water, 43 EDTA (see ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) electrochemical processes in corrosion, 26- 27

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Index 293 Environmental Protection Agency contaminants for review selected by, 6 corrosion control for A/C pipe, 44 criteria for evaluating contaminants, 155 laboratory tests on A/C pipe, 47, 48 PAH concentration studies, 83 research on linings, 72 survey of water systems with A/C pipe, 51, 52, 56 Tolt River study, 36-37 (see also Health Effects Research Labora tory; Municipal Environmental Re search Laboratory) EPA (see Environmental Protection Agency) epichlorohydrin, 210, 212, 213 epilepsy, aluminum and, 164 erosion corrosion, 27-28 ethanenitrile (see acetonitrile) ethanol, DMF and, 218 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, biofilm de-. tachment and, 117 exposure acute versus chronic, 153-154 DMF, 215 lead, 179 nitrite, 203, 204 (see also suggested no-adverse-response level) eye dinitrophenol and cataracts of, 238, 240 mononitrophenols and cataracts of, 241 silver effect on, 185-186 fiberglass-reinforced plastic pipe, 13, 62 (see also plastic pipe) finished water, 16, 95, 129-130 Florida, hydrogen sulfide in well water, 53 fluid frictional resistance, 119 fouling control processes, 109, 112 FRP (see fiberglass-reinforced plastic pipe) Gallionella (see iron bacteria) galvanic cell, 27 gas chromatography/mass spectromet~y, 65, 66, 67 gasoline, 248, 249, 251 gastrointestinal tract aluminum effect on, 157-158, 159, 163 barium absorption, 168 cancer incidence, 51 gastroenteritis, 137-138, 147, 149 silver effect on, 184-185 water system deficiencies and, 147, 149 (see also metabolism under individual contaminants) GC/MS (see gas chromatography/mass spec- trometry) glycolate excretion, 99 glycoproteins, 113 gravity systems, 11 groundwaters, 10 Gunite, 12 health effects asbestos, 43-44, 150 corrosion, 26, 150 corrosion inhibitors, 31-32 corrosion products, 35 data reporting system for, 6, 139-140 distribution system deficiencies and, 5, 14-16, 137. 138, 150 plastic pipe, 64-66 unpolymerized monomers, 63 (see also health effects, from inorganic contaminants; health effects, from organic contaminants) health effects, from inorganic contaminants aluminum, 158-166 arsenic, 167 barium, 168-169 cadmium, 171-172 chlorinated disinfectants, 174-177 lead, 179-182 silver, 185-187 strontium, 189-197 health effects, from organic contaminants acetonitrile, 204-205 benzene, 253 chloroform, 206-209 DBCP, 210-214 dinitrophenols, 236, 237-238, 240, 241 242, 243, 244 DMF, 218-222 mononitrophenols, 235, 237, 239-240, 241, 242, 243 nitrites, 204-205 nitrobenzene, 224-229 petroleum products, 251 trinitrophenols, 238-239, 244

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294 Index Health Effects Research Laboratory, 5, 43, 137 hepatitis, 5, 147 humic materials, 3, 97, 98 hydraulic problems, distribution system, 14, 112 hydrocarbons classes of, 247-248 solubility, 250 hydrogen sulfide, A/C pipe deterioration from, 53, 59 hypochlorite ion reactions, 97, 98 inorganic chemical contaminants exposure levels, 154 reasons for inclusion in study, 152 (see also aluminum; arsenic; barium; cadmium; chlorinated disinfectants; silver; strontium; sulfate) inorganic hydrated silicates, health effects, 150 iron, 5, 95 corrosion and, 32, 35 concentration in Boston area water, 40 deposits in distribution system, 3, 92-94 health effects, 150 iron bacteria, 29, 112 Isomers dinitrophenols, 230, 231, 234, 236 mononitrophenols, 230, 232-233, 242 trinitrophenols, 231 kinetics, 2, 8, 42 laboratory tests of pipe A/C pipe, 47-49 linings, 78-81 plastic pipe, 64-67 Langelier Index, 19-20 adjustment of, 58 measurement of calcium carbonate sat- uration, 23, 30, 61 leaching copper, 5, 146 defined, 2, 42 PAM's, 82, 83, 84-85, 88, 89, 91 pipe, 4, 5, 16, 33, 61 lead, 6, 95, 179-183 behavioral effect, 181 corrosion and, 2, 32, 35, 39, 41 health effects, 41, 150, 179-182 presence detected in water distribution systems, 35-41 recommendations relating to, 182-183 SNARL, 183 Leptothrix (see iron bacteria) leukemia, 253 lime, to control A/C pipe deterioration, 58 linings, 3-4, 13 asphalt in, 74-75 cement, 91 coal tar compounds in, 72, 73 field tests on, 82-90 health effects, 150 laboratory tests on, 78-81 materials used for, 72-75 vinyl, 90 water quality and, 3-4, 72 water taste and odor from, 90 Los Lunas, New Mexico, gastrointestinal dis- ease outbreak, 147, 149 lubricants, pipe, 63 lungs (see respirator system) mains, water distribution corrosion, 15-16 materials for, 12 manganese, 40, 95 deposits in distribution system, 3, 93 health effects, 150 maximum contaminant levels, 37 Bennington, Vermont, 39 Seattle, Washington, 37, 38 MCL's (see maximum contaminant levels) metabolism acetonitrile, 203-204 aluminum, 157-158 benzene, 253 chlorine dioxide, 174 dinitrophenols, 233-235 DMF, 215-218 mononitrophenol, 232-233 nitrites, 203-204 nitrobenzene, 223-224 PAM's, 257-259 silver, 184-185 strontium, 188-189 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 265 trinitrophenols, 235

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Index 295 metallic ions, 6 metal precipitation models, 24 metals, concentrations in finished versus red waters, 94, 95 methemoglobinemia chlorinated disinfectants and, 175, 178 mononitrophenol toxicity and, 239-240 nitrobenzene and, 223, 225 methemoglobin formation, 223, 240 methylcyanide (see acetonitrile) methyl ethyl ketone, 64, 66 N-methylformamide DMF exposure and, 215-218 in plastic pipe joints, 64, 66 microorganisms, distribution system, 4 attached, 113 corrosion and, 14, 28-29 encrustations of, 117, 120-121 filter-red sand, 125 growth rate of, 119 pipe network and, 125 water quality and, 122-123, 124 models chemical equilibrium, 24, 61 extrapolation, 8 metal precipitation, 24 monomers, unpolymerized, 63, 70 (see also vinyl chloride) mononitrophenols health effects, 235, 237, 239-240, 241 isomeric forms of, 230 metabolism, 232-233 production, 230 properties of, 231 SNARL, 203, 244-245 uses, 230 Municipal Environmental Research Labo ratory, asbestos control research, 43 mutagenicity acetonitrile, 205 aluminum, 165 analysis of water samples for, 83 benzene, 254 cadmium, 172 chloroform, 206-207 DBCP, 211-212 dinitrophenols, 242-243 DMF, 220-221 lead, 182 mononitrophenols, 242 nitrobenzene, 227 PAM's, 261-262 silver, 186 strontium, 191 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 267 Mycobacterium, 29 NACE (see National Association of Corro- sion Engineers) National Academy of Sciences/National Re- search Council, on residual chlorine concentration, 130 National Association of Corrosion Engi- neers, corrosion monitoring tests, 34 National Heart and Lung Institute, MCL study, 37 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health DBCP exposure standard, 210 nitrile TWA standard, 203 National Sanitation Foundation, plastic pipe studies, 65, 69 nervous system aliphatic hydrocarbons effect on, 251-252 aluminum toxicity to, 160, 163 trinitrophenols effect on, 239 New Jersey, corrosion in water supply sys- tem, 34 NHLI (see National Heart and Lung Insti- tute) nickel, health effects, 150 NIOSH (see National Institute for Occupa- tional Safety and Health) nitrites cyanide release by, 203 health effects, 204-205 metabolism, 203-204 TWA, 203 uses, 202-203 (see also acetonitrile) nitrobenzene, 222-229 health effects, 224-229 metabolism, 223-224 SNARL, 203, 229 uses, 222 nitrogen biofilm, 118 compounds reaction with chlorine, 96-97 nitrophenols, 229-247 conclusions relating to, 244

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296 Index production, 232 (see also dinitrophenols; mononitrophe- nols; trin*rophenols) nonthreshold effect of chemical contami- nants, 7 obesity, din*rophenols for treatment of, 237 Occupational Safety and Health Adminis- tration, DBCP exposure standard, 210 odor, water biofilms and. 112 chlorination and, 130 olefins, 251, 252 Ontario, Canada, asbestos concentration in distribution system, 50 organic chemical contaminants reasons for inclusion in study, 202 (see also acetonit~ile; benzene; chloroform; 1,2~romo 3-chloropropane; dimeth- ylformamide; nitriles; nitrobenzene; nitrophenols; petroleum products; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons; 2, 4, 6-trich lorophenol) OSHA (see Occupational Safety and Health Administration) PAM's (see polynuclear aromatic hydro- carbons) parathyroid hormone, 158, 166 PB (see polybutylene plastic pipe) PE (see polyethylene pipe) pesticides, DBCP in, 210, 214 petroleum asphalt, 4 petroleum products, crude and refined, 247-255 drinking water contamination by, 247, 249 health effects, 251-252, 253-254 hydrocarbon classes in, 247-248 (see also benzene; toluene) pH, of water A/C pipe effect on, 51, 57 adjustment of, 58 phenanthrene/anthracene, 4, 88, 99 phosphates, 159 health effects, 150 phosphorus in bioBllm, 118 . . . plcr~c acid dinitrophenol poisoning from, 237, 239 drinking water affected by, 238 properties of, 232 skin sensitivity to, 239 toxicity, 240 Pierce County, Washington, gastrointestinal disease outbreak, 149 pigments, plastic pipe, 63 pipes, distribution, 12, 13, 110-111 cast-iron, 13, 15 concrete, 16 corrosion, 3, 32-33 leaching, 4, 5, 16, 33 microorganisms from, 125 predicting performance of, 24-25 unlined, 32 (see also asbestos/cement pipe; linings; plastic pipe) pitting, 27 plastic pipe, 16 advantages and disadvantages, 62 composition, 62-63 control measures for, 69-71 health effects, 65 leaching, 4, 61 solvents for joints of, 63-64, 66 tests of, 64-69 uses, 13, 16, 61-62 pneumoconiosis, 159 polybutylene plastic pipe, 13, 62 (see also plastic pipe) polyelectrolytes, 113 polyethylene pipe, 4, 13, 62 (see also plastic pipe) polymers biofilm, 109, 117 extracellular, 113 organic compounds, 70 PVC, 63 polyneuropathy, aliphatic hydrocarbons and, 251 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 255-264 chlorination products of, 99 concentration in distribution system, 77 78, 82-92 health effects, 150, 259-263 lining materials, relation to, 4, 72-100 metabolism, 257-259

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Index 297 Pascagoula, Mississippi, water system, 87- reservoirs, 11-12 89 Portland, Oregon, water system, 82, 88, 90 recommendations relating to, 263-264 SNARL, 264 solubility, 256 water distribution process effect on level of, 86 polyphosphates, 3 health effects, 31-32 iron deposition control with, 94 polysaccharides, in biofilm, 113, 117 polyvinyl chloride pipe, 4, 13 field tests on, 67, 69 laboratory tests on, 64-67 metal concentrations in, 67 restrictions on use of, 70 stabilizers to reduce decomposition of, 63 uses, 62 vinyl chloride concentration in, 68 Portland, Oregon, PAH concentration in water system, 82, 88, 90 potash aluminum, 156 pressure systems, 11 Pseudomonas, 29 PTH (see parathyroid hormone) PVC (see polyvinyl chloride) raw water, 5, 9 biological materials in, 124 organic compounds in, 113 PAH contamination of, 75 "red" water, 5 heavy metal concentration in, 94, 95 microorganisms and, 112, 122-123 Seattle, Washington, water system, 35- 36 refined petroleum (see petroleum products) renal effects aluminum, 159, 160-161 cadmium, 172 chloroform, 208-209 nitrobenzene, 226 reproductive system DBCP effect on, 213-214 DMF effect on, 221 lead effect on, 181 nitrobenzene effect on, 227 algae in, 98, 124, 141 biological material in, 124-126 open, 113, 124-125, 141, 146 respiratory system aluminum effect on, 159 arsenic effect on, 167 DMF effect on, 217 nitrites effect on, 205 nitrobenzene effect on, 224 risk, estimates of drinking water, 7-8 Safe Drinking Water Act, 138 amendments, 154 Safe Drinking Water Committee, 7-8, 152 sand filtration process, 108 San Francisco Bay area, A/C pipe effect on water supply, 54 Saturation Index, 19, 23-24, 25, 53 Seattle, Washington A/C pipe effect on water, 51 Tolt River studies, 35-37, 38 zinc effectiveness in corrosion control, 59 Seattle Water Metals Survey Committee, 37 sedimentation process, 108 selenium, 95 senile dementia, 160 Sewickley, Pennsylvania, diarrhea! disease outbreak, 141 silicates, iron deposition prevention with, 93 (see inorganic hydrated silicates) silicosis, 159 silver, 95, 183-187 health effects, 185-187 metabolism, 184-185 recommendations relating to, 187 SNARL, 187 water purification with, 184 skin arsenic effect on, 167 DMF effect on, 215, 217, 218 dinitrophenols effect on, 238 nitrites effect on, 204 nitrobenzene effect on, 224 silver effect on, 186 trinitrophenols effect on, 239 SNARL (see suggested no-adverse-response level) sodium aluminate, 156

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298 Ibex sodium chloride, 176 sodium hexametaphosphate, 32 soft water, 33, 43 solubility, 2 constants in pipe, 24 corrosion and, 23 leaching governed by, 42 solvents, in plastic pipe joints, 63-64 used for PVC cement and primers, 66 warnings on, 70 Sphaerotilus (see iron bacteria) stabilizers, plastic pipe, 63 stabilizing agents, from iron and manga- nese, 3, 93-94 standpipe, 12 strontium, 6, 187-192 abundance of, 1% health effects, 189-191 metabolism, 1~-189 SNARL, 192 uses, 187 Suffolk County, New York, diarrhea! dis- ease outbreak, 141, 146 suggested no-adverse-response level, 7, 1S3- 154 acetonitrile, 205-206 aluminum, 166 barium, 170 benzene, 203, 254-255 cadmium, 172-174 chlorinated disinfectants (chlorine diox- ide, chlorate, chlorite, and chlora- mines), 177-178 chloroform, 209 DBCP, 214 dinitrophenol, 203, 245 DMF, 222 lead, 183 mononitrophenol, 203, 244-245 nitrobenzene, 203, 229 PAM's, 264 silver, 187 strontium, 192 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 203, 268 trinitrophenol, 203, 245, 247 toluene, 254 sulfate, 192 collusion promotion, 30 sulfate-reducing bacteria, 14, 28 sulfide, 5 sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, 29, 122-123 surface waters, 10 SWMS (see Seattle Water Metals Survey Committee) taste, water biofilms and, 112 chlorination and, 130 teratogenicity aluminum, 165-166 dinitrophenol, 243-244 DMF, 221 lead, 181, 182 nitrobenzene, 227 PAM's, 263 tetrachloroethylene, 4 health effects, 150 tetrahydrofuran, in plastic pipe joints, 64, 66 thermoplastic pipe, 13, 63 Thiabacillus (see sulfur-oxidizing bacteria) THM (see trihalomethanes) threshold limit value barium, 167, 168 DMF, 215, 216 time-weighted average standard, nitrites, 203 TLV (see threshold limit value) toluene, 250, 252, 254 trace metal content Boston, Massachusetts, awe, 39-40, 41 Chicago, Illinois, water treatment system, 35, 36 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 264-268 health effects, 266-267 metabolism, 265 SNARL, 203, 268 uses, 264 trihalomethanes, 3 concentration, 97 in CPVC pipe water, 67 instantaneous, 97 reactions, 96 total, 97 ~ trinitrophenols health effects, 238-239, 240 isomeric forms of, 231 metabolism, 235 properties of, 232

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Index 299 SNARL, 203, 245, 247 uses, 231 TTHM (see trihalomethanes, total) tuberculation, corrosion and, 13-14, 28 TWA (see time-weighted average standard) uniform corrosion, 27 University of Michigan School of Public Health, plastic pipe studies, 64 unplasticized PVC pipe, 63, 65 uPVC (see unplasticized PVC pipe) U.S. Public Health Service, drinking water standards, 64 valves, distribution system, 12 vinyl chloride carcinogenicity, 4, 70 health effects, 150 in plastic pipe, 63, 67 vinyl epoxy, 4 waterborne diseases (see diseases, water- borne) water quality A/C pipe effect on, 49-58 biofilm effect on, 112 biological effects on, 4-5 chemical effects on, 2-3 corrosion and, 29-30 effect on A/C pipe performance, 46-47, 49 indexes (see Aggressiveness Index; Lang- elier Index; Saturation Index) linings and, 3-4, 32-33, 71-92 microorganisms effect on, 122-123 plastic pipe effect on, 64 (see also biological quality of water; chemical quality of water) water supply system disinfection, 12, 15 reliability, 16 source of, 9 treatment, 3, 10 (see also distribution system) well water, 53 zinc concentration in Boston area water, 50 corrosion and, 2, 32, 34, 59, 95 health effects, 150