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Index acceptable daily intake (ADI) aldicarb, 12 arsenic, 123 p-dichlorobenzene, 27 aldicarb, 9, 10-12 acute effects, 11 ADI, 12 anticholinesterase activity, 10-12 carcinogenicity, 11 chronic effects, 11 human health effects. 10-11 metabolism, 10 mutagenicity, 11, 99 SNARL, 12, 98 teratogenicity, 11 anticholinesterase compounds (see aldicarb; carbofuran; methomyl) arrhythmias, cardiac, 75 arsenic, viii. 1, 7, 118-123 carcinogenic risk estimate, 122 essentiality, 121, 123 lung canecr, 118 maximum contaminant level, 121 asbestos, viii, 1, 7. 123-144 amosite, 127,130-131, 142 animal e~cpenments, 141-143 asbestosis, 127 aspect ratio, 125 carcinogenic risk estimate, 126-144 |51 chrysotile, 130-131,137,141, 142 Connecticut, 135-136 Duluth, 124, 134-135 endometrial cancer, 137 exposures, 123, 124-125 lung cancer, 123, 126-127, 129, 137 mesothelioma, 123,125,127, 140-141, 143-144 gastrointestinal cancer, 7, 123, 126-138, 140-141, 144 laryngeal cancer, 127 oral cancer, 127 Puget Sound area, 137-139 renal cancer, 127 San I:rancisco Bay area, 125, 13~137 serpentine rock, 125, 136 atropine treatment for aldicarb toxicity, 11 treatment for carbofuran toxicity, 13 "blackfoot" disease, 119, 121 blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 35, 47~8 Canadian asbestos workers and GI cancer, 128 cancer endometrium, 137

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1 52 INDEX gastrointestinal tract, 7, 123, 126-144 kidney, 127 lung, 118, 123, 126-127, 129, 137 larynx, 127 mesothelioma, 123, 125, 127, 140-141, 143-144 oral cavity, 127 skin. 118-122 (see also carcinogenic risk estimates; carcinogenicity; and individual compounds) carbofuran, 9, 12-15 acute effects. 14 anticholinesterase activity, 12-14 carcinogenicity, 15 chronic effects, 14 human health effects, 13-14 metabolism, 13 mutagenicity, 14-15, 99 SNARL, 15 teratogenicity, 15 carbon tetrachloride, 9, 15-18 acute effects, 16- 17 carcinogenicity, 17 chronic effects, 17 human health effects, 16 metabolism, 16 mutagenicity, 17, 99 teratogenicity, 17-18 , . carclnogenesls somatic mutation theory, 5 carcinogenic risk estimates, vii, 2 arsenic, 122 asbestos, 126-145 chlorobenzene, 21-22, 98 hexachlorobenzene, 55-56, 98 1,1,1 -trichloroethane, 77-78, 98 trichloroethylene, 83-84, 98 vinyl chloride, 89-90 (see ado cancer; carcinogenicity) . . . carc~nogen~c~ty aldicarb, 11 arsenic, 118-123 asbestos, 125-141 carbofuran, 15 carbon tetrachloride, 17 chlorobenzene, 20-21 o-dichlorobenzene, 24 p-dichlorobenzene, 27 1,2-dichloroethane, 31 1,1-dichloroethvlene, 37-39 1,2-dichloroethylene, 43 dichloromethane. 45 dinoseb, 48 hexachlorobenzene. 54-56 methomyl. 59 picloram. 62 risk assessment procedures, 4 rotenone, 68-69 sufficient evidence for, 3-4 tetrachloroethylene, 73 1,1.1 -trichloroethane. 76-77 trichloroethylene. 82-83 uranium, 94-95 vinyl chloride. 88-89 (see also cancer; carcinogenic risk estimates; models, mathematical; tumor incidence data) cardiac arrhy~hmias. 75 cardiovascular d~ sfunctions. 119 chlorinated ethylenes (see 1,1 - dichloroethylene; tetrachJoroethylene; trichloroethylene) chlorobenzene. 9, 18-22 acute effects, 19-20 carcinogenic risk estimates, 21-22. 98 carcinogenicity, 20-21 chronic effects, 20 human heatth effects. 19 metabolism, 18- 19 mutagenicity, 20. 99 SNARL, 22.98 teratogenicit>, 22 TLV, 20 tumor incidence, 21 chronic toxicity, 97-98 aldicarb, 12 o-dichlorobenzene, 24 p-dichlorobenzene, 26-27 1,1-dichloroethylene, 39-40 dinoseb, 49 methomyl, S9-60 picloram, 62-63 rotenone, 70 uranium, 96-97 Connecticut, GI cancers and asbestos exposure, 135-136 cube powder, 66-67. 69 cytochrome P450, role in metabolism of carbon tetrachloride, 16, 17

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Index 153 ehlorobenzene, 20 1,2-diehloroethane, 29 1,2-diehloroethylene, 41 diehloromethane, 44 hexaehlorobenzene, 52 1,1,1 -triehloroethane, 75-76 triehloroethylene, 79, 82 vinyl chloride, 86 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and mutagenicity, 5, 15 derris root (see rotenone) diabetes carbon tetraehloride toxicity, 17 uranium treatment effects, 93 diehloroaeetic acid, 41, 80 o-diehlorobenzene, 9, 22-27 acute effcets, 23-24 eareinogenieity, 24 chronic effects, 24 human health effects, 23 metabolism, 23 mutagenicity, 24, 99 SNARL, 24-25, 98 teratogenieity, 24 p-diehlorobenzene, 9, 25-27 acute effects, 26 ADI, 27 eareinogenieity, 27 chronic effects, 26-27 human health effects, 26 metabolism, 25-26 mutagenicity, 27, 99 SNARL, 27, 98 teratogenieity, 27 1,2-diehloroethane, 9, 28-32 eareinogenieity, 31 human health effects, 30 metabolism, 28-30 mutagenicity, 30-31, 99 teratogenieity, 31 1,1,1 -triehloroethane and, 28 Vinyl chloride, 28 diehloroethanol, 41 1,1-diehloroethylene, 9, 32-40 acute effcets, 34-35 eareinogenieity, 37-39 chronic effcets, 35-36 human health effects, 33-34 hepatotoxieity, 34-35, 40 mean daily consumption, 40 metabolism, 32-33 mutagenicity, 36-37, 99 SNARL, 39-40, 98 teratogenieity, 39 nv 32 1,2-diehloroethylene, 9, 40-43 acute effcets, 41-42 eareinogenieity, 43 chronic effcets, 42 human health effcets, 41 metabolism, 40-41 mutagenicity, 42-43, 99 SNARL. 98 teratogenieity, 43 dichloromethane, 9, 43-46 eareinogenieity 45 human health effects, 44 metabolism, 43-44 mutagenicity, 44-45, 99 teratogenieity, 45-46 nv 44 dinoseb, 9, 46-49 acute effcets, 47 careinogenieity, 48 chronic effcets, 47-48 human health effects, 47 metabolism, 46-47 mutagenicity, 48, 99 SNARL, 49, 98 teratogenieity, 49, 98 DNA (see deoxyribonuleie acid) Duluth, Minnesota, asbestos in water supply, 124, 134-135 Environmental Protection Agency Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document, 139 arsenic drinking water standard, 120-122 asbestos in drinking water survey, 124 Carcinogen Assessment Group, 122 Safe Drinking Water Act, ',ii epidemiologieal studies arsenic, 1, 7, 118-123 asbestos and Gl eaneer, 123, 126-141 (see ado human health effcets under individual chen~icals)

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54 INDEX Fairbanks, Alaska, arsenic levels in drinking waler, 120-121 Furadan O~ ca~uran) ga~esdnal (G1) caners and asbestos exposure, 7, 123, 126-144 health Is in humans aldi=~, 10-11 Ionic, 118-123 asbestos, 123- 144 cajun, 13- 14 capon tel~chloride, 16 chlorobenzene, 19 o-dichiorobenzene, 23 p-dichlom~n~ne. 26 1,2-di~l~hane, 30 1,1-di~l~hy~ne, 33-~ 1,2-di~l~hylene, 41 dichlo~hane, ding, 47 hexachlorobenzene, S1-52 methomyl, 57 p~l~, 61 rotenona, 1~mchlo~thylene, 1,1,1 -trichlor~thane, thchlo~thylene, 80-81 viny1 chloride, 86 uranium, 93 health ^us in ~her s~cies aldi=~, 11 carb~uran, 14-15 ce~on teuachlodde, 16-18 chlombenzene, 19-22 o-dichlorobenzene, ~-24 p-dichlombenzene, 26-27 1,2-di~l~-e, 30-31 1,1-dichlo~thylene, 34-39 1,2-dichlo~thylene 41-43 dichlommetbane, =-46 dino~b, 47-49 hexachlombenzene, 52-56 methomyl, 58-59 pklomm, 61-62 mtenone, ~-69 t~chlo~thylene, ~-~ 1,1,1 -trichlo~thane, ~-78 thchlo~thylene, 81-~ vinyl chlodde, 86-~ uranium, 94-96 hepalotoxicity =-n t~mch~, 16- 18 ~l~n~ed ~hy~nes, 71 chlorobenzene, 19, 22 ~-dichlorobenzene, 26-27 1,1-di~e, ~-36, 1,1,1 -trichlor~thane, 76 td~lo~thylene, 81 hexachlombenzene, 9, 49-56 acule ~us, 52 carcin~enic Msk e~imale, 55-56. 98 ca~in~nid~, ~-55 chronic e~s, 52-53 human heakh effec1s, 51-52 metabolism, 50-51 m~i-, ~, ~ po~hyrinogenic eHecls, S2-53, 56 SNA^, 98 1e~enid~, 56, 98 tumor incidence, 54-55 Lake Superior, asbestos in drinking water, 124, 125, 134-135 ~ne County, Oregon, arsenic in drinking water, 120 liquid peroxidation (LPO), carbon etrachloride eSu, 16-18 ~ndon asbeslos workers and GI cancer, 128 lung cancer asenicoxposure, 118 asbe~os exposure, 123, 126-127, 129, 137 me~hehoma, "be~os-0ber~ndu~d, 123, 1~, 127, 140-141, 143-144 metabolism aldi~, 10 carbefuran, 13 ~, 16 chlorobenzene, 18-19 o-di~lomben~ne, 23 p-dichlombenzene, 25-26 1,2-di~io~ane, 28-30 1,1-di~hyl~e, 32-33 1,2-di~l~-ene, ~1

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Index 155 dichloromethane, 43-44 dinoseb, 46-47 hexachlorobenzene, 50-S1 in humans compared to laboratory animals, 3 methomyl, 57 picloram, 60 rotenone, 64 tetrachloroethylene, 71 1,1,1trichloroethane, 74-75 trichloroethylene, 79-80 uranium, 92-93 vinyl chloride, 8~-86 methom~l, 9, 57-60 acute effects. 57 anticholinesterase activity, S1 carcinogenicity. 59 chronic effects. 58 human health effects, 57 metabolism, 57 mutagenicity, 58-59, 99 SNARL, 59.98 teratogenicity, 59 methyl chloroform (see 1,1, 1 -triehloroethane) models, mathematical, viii additive model for asbestos exposure, 126-127, 144 GI cancer from asbestos ingestion, 7, 127-134 linear dose-effcet model for asbestos exposure, 128-130 multiplicative model for asbestos exposure, 126-127, 143-144 "one-hit"model for arsenic exposure, 122 multistage model for ehlorobenzene exposure, 21 multistage model for 1,1,1- triehloroethane exposure, 77 monoehloroethylene (see vinyl chloride) mutagenicity aldiearb, 11, 99 earbofuran, 14-15, 99 carbon tetraehloride, 17, 99 ehlorobenzene, 20, 99 o-diehlorobenzene, 24, 99 p-diehlorobenzene, 27, 99 1,2-diehloroethane, 30-31, 99 1,1-diehloroethylene, 36-37, 99 1,2-diehloroethylene. 42-43, 99 dichloromethane, 44-45, 99 dinoseb, 48. 99 hexachlorobenzene. 54, 99 methomyl, 58-59, 99 pieloram, 61, 99 rotenone, 67-68, 99 short-term tests, 5-6 tetraehloroethylene, 72-73, 99 1,1,l-triehloroethane, 76, 99 trichloroethylene, 81-82. 99 uranium. 96, 99 vin~l chloride. 86-87, 99 I`IADPH (see nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) lSeu Jersey asbestos workers GI cancer. 128 lung cancer, 127 Neu York asbestos workers and GI cancer, 128 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, 30, 75 numerical risk assessments (see eareinogenic risk estimates) picloram, 9, 60-63 acute effcets, 61 eareinogenieity, 62 ehronie effcets, 61 human health effcets, 61 metabolism, 60 mutagenicity, 61, 99 SNARL, 62-63, 98 teratogenieity, 62 polyethylene exposure, 52 porphyrinogenicity, hexachlorobenzene, 52-53, 56 protein synthesis inhibition, by o-diehlorobenzene, 24 Puget Sound area, asbestos in drinking water, 137-139 ribonueleie aeid (RNA) inhibition, by o-diehlorobenzene, 24 risk assessments (see carcinogenic risk estimates) RNA (see ribonucleic acid)

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156 INDEX rotenone, 9, 63-70 acute effects, 64-65 carcinogenicity, 68-69 chronic effects, 66-67 human health effects, 64 metabolism, 64 mutagenicity, 67-68, 99 SNARL, 70, 98 subchronic effects, 65-66 teratogenicity, 69, 98 Safe Drinking Water Act, 1974 (PL 93-523), vii, 149 1977 Amendments, vii, 149 San Francisco Bay area, California, asbestos in drinking water, 125, 136-137 Seattle, Washington, asbestos in drinking water, 125 (see also Puget Sound area) skin cancers, arsenic exposure, 1 18-122 SNARL (see suggested no-adverse-response level) somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis, s suggested no-adverse-response level acute, Yiii, 2 aldicarb, 12, 98 chronic, ~riii, 1-3, 97, 98 o-dichlorobenzene, 24-25, 98 p-dichlorobenzene, 27, 98 1,1-dichloroethylene, 39-40, 98 dinoseb, 49, 98 methomyl, 59-60, 98 picloram, 62-63, 98 rotenone, 70, 98 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 78 t~chloroethylene, 8S, 98 uncertainty factors used in calculations, 2 uranium, 96-97, 98 Sultan River, asbestos in drinking water, 137 Taiwan, arsenic levels in drinking water, 1 19-122 teratogen, definition, 6 teratogenicity aldicarb, 11 carbofuran, 15 carbon tetrachloride, 17-18 chlorobenzene, 22 o-dichlorobenzene, 24 p-dichlorobenzene, 27 1,2-dichloroethane, 31 1,1-dichloroethylene, 39 1,2-dichloroethylene, 43 dichloromethane, 45-46 dinoseb, 48-49 hexachlorobenzene, 56 methomyl, 59 picloram, 62 rotenone, 69 tests for, 6-7 tetrachloroethylene, 73 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 18 tuchloroethylene, 84-85 uranium, 96 vinyl chloride, 89-90 tetrachloroethylene, 9. 70-74 acute effects, 72 carcinogenicity, 73 chronic effects, 72 human health effects, 72 metabolism, 71 mutagenicity, 72-73, 99 teratogenicity, 73 threshold limit value (TLV) carbon monoxide, 44 chlorobenzene, 20 1,1-dichloroethylene, 32 toluene diisocyanate, o-dichlorobenzene used in manufacture, 22 2,2,2-trichloroacetic acid, metabolite of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 74 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 9, 28, 32, 74-78 acute effects, 75-76 carcinogenic risk estimate, 77-78, 98 carcinogenicity, 76-78 chronic effects, 76 1,2-dichloroethane, 28 human health effects, 75 metabolism, 74-75 mutagenicity, 76, 99 SNARL, 78, 98 teratogenicity, 78 tumor incidence, 77

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Index 157 2,2,2-trichloroethanol, metabolite of 1,1,1- trichloroethane, 74 trichloroethylene, 9, 79-85 acute effects, 81 carcinogenic risk estimate, 83-84, 98 carcinogenicity, 82-83 chronic effects, 81 human health effects, 80-81 metabolism, 71, 79-80 mutagenicity, 81-82, 99 SNARL, 85 teratogenicity, 84-85 tumor incidence, 83 tumor incidence data, 2 chlorobenzene, 21 1,2-dichloroethane, 31 1,1-dichloroethylene, 37-38 hexachlorobenzene, S4-55 1, 1,1-trichloroethane, 77 trichloroethylene, 83 (see also carcinogenicity) uranium, 9, 90-97 acute effects, 94 chronic effects, 94-95 human health effects, 93 metabolism, 92-93 mutagenicity, 96, 99 SNARL, 96-97, 98 teratogenicity, 96 U.S. asbestos workers and GI cancer, 128 Utah, arsenic in drinking water, 120-121 vinyl chloride, 9, 85-90 acute effects, 86 carcinogenicity, 88-89 chronic effects, 86 chronic exposure, 33-34 1,2-dichloroethane, 28 human health effects, 86 metabolism, 85-86 mutagenicity, 86-87, 99 teratogenicity, 89-90 vinylidene chloride (see 1, 1 -dichloroethylene) Washington State, asbestos in drinking water, 137-139

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