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Drinking Water ant Health Volume 5 SAFE DRINKING WATER COM~ITTEE Board on loxicolo~ and Environmental Health Hazards ~ . . ~ ~ . ommls~on on Lue Sconces National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washln~on, D.C. 1983

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: We project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medi- cine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accor- dance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congression- al charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. 1 he study reported in this publication was conducted at the request of and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Contract No. 68-01-3169. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 77-89284 International Standard Book Number 0-3~)9-03381-0 First Printing, November 1983 Second Printing, August 1986 Third Pnnting, October 1988 Founh Pnnting, January 1991 Printed in the United States of America

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List of Participants SAFE DRINKING WATER COMMITTEE DANIEL B. MENZEL, Departments of Pharmacology and Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, Chairman EDWARD I. CALABRESE, Division of Public Health, University of Massa- chusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts GARY P. CARLSON, Department of Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana CIPRIANO CUETO, D~amac Coloration, Rocknlle, Maryland JOHN L. EMMERSON, Lilly Toxicology Borate, Eli Lilly & Company, Greenfield, Indiana MICHAEL A. GALLO, Department of Environmental and Community Medicine, Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey KRISTIEN E. MORTELMANS, Microbial Genetics Department, Stanford Research Institute International, Menlo Park, California MALCOLM C. PIKE, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Uni- versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, California THOMAS SHELLENBERGER, Midwest Research institute, Kansas City, Missouri TlIOMAS SlIEPARD, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Labora- tory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee ...

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iV LIST OF PARTICIPANTS National Research Council Staff ROBERT J. GOLDEN, Project Director FRANCES M. PETER, Editor AGNES E. GASKIN, Secretary Environmental Protection Agency Project Officer KRISHAN KHANNA, EPA Office of Water Supply, Washington, D.C. BOARD ON TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZAR DS RONALD W. ESTABROOK, Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Medical School, Dallas, Texas, Chairman' PHILIP I. LANDRIGAN, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio, Vice Chairman EDWARD BRESNICK, Department of Pharmacology, University of Ver- mont, Burlington, Vermont VICTOR H. COHN, Department of Pharmacology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. A. MYRICK FREEMAN, Department of Economics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine DAVID G. HOEL, Biometry Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina MICHAEL W. LIEBERMAN, Department of Pathology, Washington Uni versity, St. Louis, Missouri RICHARD A. MERRILL, School of Law, University of Virginia, Charlottes- ville, Virginia VAUN A. NEWILL, Exxon Coloration, New York, New York JOHN M. PETERS, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Uni- ~rersity of Southern California, Los Angeles, California JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, Environ Coloration, Washington, D.C. LIANE B. RUSSELL, Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee ClIARBES R. SCHUSTER, JR., Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Ex Officio Members LESTER BRESBOW, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California

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List of Participants v GARY P. CARLSON, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pur- due University, Lafayette, Indiana NAMES F. CROW, Genetics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madi- son, Wisconsin BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, Department of Environmental and Commu- nity Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey/ Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey ROGER O. MCCLELLAN, Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Insti- tute, Albuquerque, New Mexico DANIEL B. MENZEL, Departments of Pharmacology and Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina SHELDON D. MURPHY, Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas, Houston, Texas NORTON NELSON, Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York Uni- versity Medical Center, New York, New York JAMES L. WHITTENBERGER, Southern Occupational Health Center, Uni- versity of California, Irvine, California National Research Council Staff ROBERT G. TARDIFF, Executive Director JACQUELINE PRINCE, Sta~Assistant

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- Preface The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (PL 93-523) authorized the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish federal standards to protect humans from harmful contaminants in drinking water and to es- tablish a joint federal-state system for assuring compliance with these stan- dards and for protecting underground sources of drinking water. One sec- tion of the law [1412(e)] and its amendments (42 USC Subpart 300f et seq., 1977) mandated that the National Academy of Sciences conduct studies on the health effects associated with contaminants found in drinking water. It stipulated that the study group should evaluate the available data for use in developing primary drinking water regulations, identify areas of insuffi- cient knowledge, and make recommendations for future research. Amend- ments to the act in 1977 called for revisions of the Academy's studies to reflect "new information which has become available since the most recent previous report [and which] shall be reported to the Congress each two years thereafter." The first study in this series was published in 1977 under the title Drink- ing Water and Health. That volume examines the health effects associated with microbiological, radioactive, particulate, inorganic, and organic chemical contaminants found in drinking water. It also gives numerical risk assessments, which are estimates of the probability that cancer will result from exposure to certain chemical contaminants in drinking water. Volumes 2 and 3 of Drinking Water and Health were published in 1980. Volume 2 compares the efficacy and practicability of chlorination and 11 alternative disinfection methods for inactivating microorganisms, identi- e V11

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Viii PREFACE ties the by-products likely to be formed by the use of each major method, and evaluates the use of granular activated carbon for the reduction or removal of organic and other contaminants from drinking water. Volume 3 reviews 12 epidemiological studies concerning health effects associated with drinking water containing trihalomethanes. It also summarizes the current state of knowledge on the relationship between cardiovascular dis- ease and water hardness. It adds to the 1977 publication's information on estimation of risk to human health by extrapolating carcinogenesis data from laboratory animals to humans and also evaluates six models for esti- mating the carcinogenic risk at low doses. Furthermore, it examines the acute and chronic health effects associated with the products of water dis- infection and other selected contaminants. The volume also develops sug- gested no-adverse-response levels (SNARL's) for both acute and chronic exposure to the drinking water contaminants reviewed by the committee. One chapter reviews the contribution of selected inorganic elements in drinking water to the optimal nutrition of humans. Volume 4 of Drinking Water and Health was published in 1982. This volume identifies chemical and biological contaminants associated with drinking water distribution systems and the health implications of defi- ciencies in those systems. It also contains an evaluation of information on the toxicity of selected inorganic and organic contaminants and provides SNARL's when appropriate. Some of the compounds were reviewed for the first time in this report; others had been reviewed in earlier volumes of this series. For the latter compounds, discussions were limited mainly to infor- mation that had become available after the earlier reports had been pub- lished, although the committee occasionally cited older references that were not previously assessed. The study reported in this volume continues the assessment and evalua- tion procedures established in the earlier volumes. Twenty-one compounds are renewed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 contains an evaluation of epidemio- logical data on exposure to arsenic and asbestos in drinking water. On behalf of the members of this committee, I would like to express our thanks and gratitude to Dr. Robert Golden, who served as the Project Offi- cer for this study. Without his enthusiastic efforts and logistical support this endeavor would not have been possible. We also thank Ms. Frances Peter, who served as Editor of this report, and Ms. Virginia White, Ms. Edna Paulson, and Ms. Edna Millard, who assisted in an extensive search of the scientific literature and in reference verification. In addition, we ac- knowledge the assistance of members of the EPA staff, especially Drs. Krishan Khanna and Joseph Cotruvo. The committee is grateful to Ms. Agnes Gaskin for organizing meetings, preparing the manuscripts, and providing general secretarial support.

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Preface ix Special thanks are in order for Drs. David Hoel, Joseph Haseman, and Nathanial White from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sci- ences, who expended great effort in providing the committee with the car- cinogenic risk estimates. Finally, I thank the members of the committee, all of whom took time away from busy schedules to donate their expertise to this project. Their contributions will continue the level of excellence established by previous volumes in this series. It was a pleasure to have the opportunity to work with them. DANIEL B . MENZEL, Chairman Safe Drinking Water Committee

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Contents I INTRODUCTION II TOXICITY OF SELECTED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING 9 WATER Aldicarb, 10 Carbofuran, 12 Carbon tetrachloride, 15 Chlorobenzene, 18 o-Dichlorobenzene, 22 p-Dichlorobenzene, 2S 1,2-Dichloroethane, 28 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 32 1,2-Dichloroethylene Ices and trans), 40 Dichloromethane, 43 Dinoseb, 46 Hexachlorobenzene, 49 Methomyl, 57 Picloram, 60 Rotenone, 63 Tetrachloroethylene, 70 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 74 Trichloroethylene, 79 Xl

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Xii CONTENTS Vinyl chloride (monochloroethylene), 85 Uranium, 90 III EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS 118 OF ARSENIC AND ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER Arsenic, 118 Asbestos, 123 APPENDIX: 1977 AMENDMENT TO THE SAFE DRINKING 149 WATER ACT INDEX 151

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DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH

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