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NUTRIENT R E Q U I R E M E N TS OF DOMESTIC AN I MALS Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits Second revised edition, i977 Subcommittee on Rabbit Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. 1977

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS SERIES Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 1977 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, 1968 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 1971 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 1971 Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, 1972 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 1973 Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 1973 Nutrient Requirements of Trout, Salmon, and Catfish, 1973 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, 1974 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 1975 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 1976 0-30~02607-5 0-309-01676-2 0-309-01916-8 ~309-01861-7 0-309-02028-X 0-309-0204X 0-309-0214~5 0-309-02141-3 0 309-02315-7 0-309-02212-6 0-309-0241~6 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Support was also received from the American Cyanamid Company, Eli Lilly and Company, and Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council. Subcommittee on Rabbit Nutrition. Nutrient requirements of rabbits. (Nutrient requirements of domestic animals) Bibliography: p. 1. Rabbits Feeding and feeds. I. Title. II. Series: National Research Council. Commit- tee on Animal Nutrition. Recommended nutrient allowances for domestic animals. SF95.N32 1977 CSF454] 636.08'52'08s ISBN 0-309-02607-5 [636'.93'22] 77-6318 Available from: Printing and Publishing Office National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 First Pnniing, May 1977 Second Pnniing, June 1990 Third Pnniing, May 1991 Printed in the United States of America

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PR EFACE This report is one of a series issued under the direction of the Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Re- sources, National Research Council. It was prepared by the Subcommittee on Rabbit Nutrition and replaces the First Revised Edition of Nutrient Requirements of Rab- bits, issued in 1966. The purpose of this report is to present available data on We nutrient requirements of domestic rabbits and to provide information on the appli- cation of the data to feeding these animals. Such informa- tion should be especially useful to rabbit producers, manufacturers of rabbit feels, and scientists using rabbits in research. The following items identify the general nature of the report: Data presented reflect, in most cases, new infor~na- tion that was not available for the previous report; how- ever, many requirements for rabbits have not been de- termined. Nutrient requirements and signs of deficiency and toxicity, where known, are presented and discussed. Re- quirements for grown, maintenance, gestation, and lacta- tion are presented in tabular form. Requirements for essential amino acids for growth are indicated, but requirements for other conditions are not known. A section on Diets and Feeding Practices includes ir~- formation on Pelleted vs. Nonpelleted Feed, Particle Size and Crude Fiber, Purified and Experimental Diets, Diet Ingredients.and Examples of Adequate Rations, Germ- Free Diets, and Antimicrobial Agents. The section on Composition of Feeds and the accom- panying tables were prepared by He Subcommittee on Feed Composition from information supplied by the In- ternational Feedstuffs Institute. The subcommittee is indebted to Philip Ross, Execu- tive Secretary, and Selma P. Baron, Staff Assistant, of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources for their assistance in the production of this report, and to William P. Flatt, Director, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Uni- versity of Georgia, who served as liaison between the Committee on Animal Nutrition and the Board on Ag- riculture and Renewable Resources in the review of the report. Subcommittee on Rabbit Nutrition Lewis R. Arrington, Chairman Peter R. Cheeke Francois Lebas Sedgwick E. Smith Committee on Animal Nutrition Robert R. Oltjen, Chairman Clarence B. Ammerman John P. Bowland Charles W. Deyoe Joseph P. Fontenot Edward C. Naber Gary L. Rumsey Loris H. Schultz Richard G. Warner . ... 111

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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES SYLVAN H. WITTWER, Chairman MARTIN E. ABEL WILLIS W. ARMISTEAD THADIS w. BOX ROBERT E. BUCKMAN* MARION CLAWSON JAMES H. COPP ELLIS B. COWLING WILLIAM P. FLATT ROBERT P. HANSON CLARENCE P. IDYLL A. CARL LEOPOLD RALPH J. Mc CRACKEN* CHARI FS F. NTVEN, JR. CHARLES E. PALM JOHN A. PINO GLENN W. SALISBURY GUSTAV A. SWANSON D. WYNNE THORNE PHILIP HO S S. Executive Secretary SELMA P. BARON, Staff Assistant * Liaison member. iv

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CO NTENTS INTRODUCTION NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS AND SIGNS OF DEFICIENCY AND TOXICITY Energy / 2 Utilization of Energy-Providing Nutrients / 2 Carbohydrates / 2 Lipids / 3 Protein and Amino Acids / 3 Mineral Elements / 4 Calcium and Phosphorus / 4 Potassium / 5 Sodium and Chlorine / 5 Magnesium / 5 Iron / 5 Copper / 5 Selenium / 5 Molybdenum / 6 Zinc / 6 Cobalt / 6 Manganese / 6 Iodine / 6 Fat-Soluble Vitamins / 7 Vit~nin A / 7 Vitamin D / 7 Vitamin E / 7 Vitamin K 18 2 Water-Soluble Vitamins / 8 Riboflavin and Pantothenic Acid / 8 Niacin / 8 Thiamine / 8 Pyndoxine / 8 Choline / 8 Vitamin B:2 / 8 Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) / 9 Biotin / 9 DIETS AND FEEDING PRACTICES Pelleted vs. Nonpelleted Feeds / 10 Particle Size and Crude Fiber / 10 Purified and Expenmental Diets / 10 Diet Ingredients and Examples of Adequate Rations / 11 Germ-Free Diets / 11 Antimicrobial Agents / 12 COMPOSITION OF FEEDS Nomenclature / 16 Locating Names in the Tables / 17 Data / 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY v 10 16 27