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Index A Acceptance sampling plan, 133 See also Sampling plans Acetic acid. See Mayonnaise and salad dressings Acetylmethylcarbinol, 119 Acid canned foods. See Canned foods, acid Acidification, 69 Acinetobacter, 222, 223 Action/decision criteria, 5, 27-28, 145-51 Additives, 12, 38-39, 297-99 Adenosine triphosphate test, 25, 120 Aerobic plate count (APC), 62, 63, 105-107 bottled water, 300-301 dried meats, 31, 219 fats and oils, 281, 282 fish, 34, 250, 252, 254 fresh meats, 195-97 fruits and vegetables, 35, 257, 258 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 22, 105-8 1 421 poultry, 32, 227, 236-37 salads, 293 Aeromonas, 125, 302 Aflatoxins, 19, 78, 85 in grains, 36, 147, 273, 275 in peanuts, 10, 12, 38, 280-81, 296 in spices, 287 in tree nuts, 12, 37, 38, 285, 286, 296 UV detection, 27, 126-27, 273 Agricultural Marketing Act, 167, 174 Agricultural Marketing Service, 167, 168 Agriculture Department (USDA), 5, 48-49, 166-74, 177, 266 dried milk inspection, 6, 28, 167, 187-90 egg products inspection, 33, 168, 242-48 meat and poultry inspection, 168, 170-74 Alcaligenes, 301 Alternaria, 273 Alteromonas putrefaciens, 194

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422 American Association of Cereal Chemists, 85 American Meat Institute, 212, 309 American Oil Chemists Society, 85 American Sanitation Institute, 301 Animal feeds, 85, 147, 156 pet foods, 13, 39, 304-6 Appert, Francois Nicholas, 42 Army Natick Research and Devel- opment Center, 5, 176-78 Aspergillusfisheri, 23, 110, 262 Aspergillusflavus, 38, 126, 273 Aspergillus glaucus, 273 Aspergillus parasiticus, 38, 126, 273 Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 25, 85, 86, 108, 121, 157 B Bacillus in cocoa, 284 in gums, 297, 298 in meat and poultry, 195, 222 Bacillus cereus, 78, 148 in fats and oils, 278, 280 in grains, 273 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 20-21, 90 in processed meat, 208, 216, 219 in spices, 287 in vegetables, 67, 257 Bacillus coagulans, 269, 283 Bacillus licheniformis, 273 Bacillus stearothermophilus, 178, 265, 283 Bacillus subtilis, 273 Bacon, 201-3, 206-9, 2135 219 Bakery products, 38, 296. See also Confectioneries; Pastries INDEX Beans. See Fruits and vegetables Bean sprouts, 257 Beef. See Meat, processed; Meat, raw Beverages. See Fruit beverages; Soft drinks Biscuits, 292 Bologna, 206, 208, 235 Botulism. See Clostridium botu- linum Bread, 43, 273, 289 Brochothrix thermosphacta, 200, 202 Brucella abortus, 77, 81 Brucella melitensis, 77, 81 Brucella suds, 77, 81 Brucellosis, 6, 18, 78, 81-82, 190 Butter and margarine, 10, 29, 277-78, 281, 282 whipped butter, 29, 281, 282 Buttermilk, 47 Byssochlamys fulva, 23, 58, 110, 262 C Cake mixes, 12, 291 Campylobacter, 67, 94-95, 200, 299 Campylobacter fetus subsp. intes- tinalis, 94 Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, 21, 78, 94-95 in meat, 196, 197 in poultry, 32, 222-24, 226, 228, 235, 236 Canadian food standards, 5, 157- 58, 377-86 Canned foods, 43, 70, 149 ethanol content, 118 formulated foods, 291, 294

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INDEX grain components, 36, 272 poultry products, 236 spore-bearing spices, 11, 37, 287 sugar in, 11, 37, 53, 62-63, 149, 285 Canned foods, acid, 58, 69 definition of, 268 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 10, 36, 269-70 pH measurement, 24, 116 product safety and quality, 269 sterilization process, 268-69 uncured meats, 213, 218 Canned foods, low-acid, 148 C. botulinum, 65, 68, 79, 148- 49, 213, 257, 264-66 definition of, 264 HACCP system application, 3, 10, 13, 51, 266-67, 308-11 heat processing changes, 68 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 10, 36, 266-67 pet foods, 305 product safety and quality, 44, 264-66 sterilization of, 69, 264 thermophilic spore count, 23- 24, 110-11 12-D process, 46, 265 uncured and cured meats, 213- 14, 218-19, 264-66 See also Canned foods, low aw Canned foods, low aw canned, cured meats, 213- 14, 218-19 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 10, 36, 271-72 product safety and quality, 270- 71 Carbonated beverages. See Soft drinks 423 Carcinogens. See Aflatoxins; My- cotoxins Carmine color, 38, 298 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 22, 76 Cereals and cereal products, 313 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 10, 36, 275-76 product safety and quality, 147, 272-75 UV detection of aflatoxins, 27, 126-27 Cheese, 24, 43, 47, 62, 112 brucellosis, 6, 81 E. colt, 6, 29, 192 histamine and tyramine, 92, 93 from raw milk, 6, 186, 192 S. aureus, 6, 29, 47, 65, 68, 69, 116, 190-91, 313 Cheese, cottage, 110, 185 Cheese spreads, 68, 270-71 Chicken. See Poultry, processed; Poultry, raw Chlorine, 63, 70, 302 Chocolate. See Cocoa and choco- late Cholera, 77, 80 Ciguatera, 7, 19, 34, 78, 83-84, 249, 250 Cladosporium, 273 Clostridia, 216, 302 Clostridium botulinum, 77, 208 in acid canned foods, 268-69 in fats and oils, 278, 280 in foil-wrapped baked potatoes, 257 in grains, 273 in low-acid canned foods, 46, 65, 68, 148-49, 213, 257, 264-66 in low aw canned foods, 270, 271

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424 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 17-18, 78-79 in pickles, 68 in potpies, 33, 59, 205, 236, 290 in raw fish, 8, 34, 249, 252 in smoked fish, 8, 45-46, 68, 251-52 in vegetables, 67, 68 Clostridium perfringens, 78, 148 alpha toxin, 20, 89 in fats and oils, 278, 280 in fish, 92, 249, 252 in grains, 273 in gums, 297-98 in meat, 196, 197, 208, 219 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 20, 89 in poultry, 33, 222-24, 226, 233-34, 236 in spices, 287 in vegetables, 67 Clostridium sporogenes, 266 Clostridium thermosaccharolyti- cum, 265-66, 283 Cocoa and chocolate microbial contamination, 16, 283, 284, 286 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 11, 37, 285 milk chocolate, Salmonella in, 65, 69, 70, 284 Coconut, 12, 37, 38, 285, 286, 296 Codes of Hygienic Practice, 49, 60, 155, 156 Codex Alimentarius Commission, 5, 60-61, 154-56, 198, 291. 292 Codex General Principles for the Establishment and Applica- tion of Microbiological Crite INDEX ria for Foods, 53, 156, 366 71 Coliform bacteria fecal coliform indicators, 26, 33, 65, 122-23, 250, 253, 302 in fruit beverages, 262 in fruits and vegetables, 35, 258 in grains, 272 as indicators, 26, 124-25 in peanut butter, 281 in raw meat, 197 in shellfish, 33, 250 in water, 65, 300-302 in yeast, 289 Colors, food, 12, 38, 297, 298 Commerce Department, 5, 174-76 Compliance Policy Guides, 159 Confectioneries, 11, 16, 37, 283- 86 Corn. See Cereals and cereal prod- ucts Corned beef, 201-3, 206, 213, 218, 302 Coxiella burnetii, 21, 46, 78, 91- 92 Criteria, microbiological actions taken when criterion is exceeded, 5, 27-28, 145-51 advisory criteria, 56, 57 applications, 59-60, 153-54, 330-33, 360-61 Canadian standards, 5, 157-58, 377-86 Codex relationship, 60-61 components of, 55-56 current role, 51-53 definitions, 3, 55-57 food quality relationship, 359- 60 guidelines, 3, 56-57 implied standards, 16, 52

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INDEX industry use, 180-81, 330 international specifications, 372-76 mandatory criteria, 56, 57 national and international activi- ties. See specific organiza- tions Oregon Meat Standard, 197-98, 331 principles for establishing, 53 purpose and need for, 3, 16, 57-58, 357-58 quality standards, 3, 8, 16-17, 34-35, 53, 61-63, 163-64 254, 331-32 report on, 1-2, 54 sampling plan, 5, 27, 132-44 specifications, 3, 53, 57 standards, 3, 56 state and local actions, 178-80, 331 Critical control point, 149-50. See also Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) sys- tem Crustaceans. See Fish and shell- fish Cultured foods fermented dairy products, 24, 43,47, 110, 112, 116, 185 fermented sausage, 24, 31, 43, 47, 65, 68, 70, 116, 211-13, 218 starter cultures, 47, 68, 116, 191 tofu, 93, 273, 302 See also Cheese Cured meats poultry products, 235 See also Meat, processed Cytophaga, 301 425 D Dairy products. See Butter and margarine; Cheese; Milk and dairy products Decision criteria, 5, 27-28, 145- 51 Defect Action Levels, 57, 159, 163, 332 Defense Cataloging and Standard- ization Act, 177 Defense Department, 5, 176-78 Delicatessen foods, 292-93 Denmark, 279, 327 Desulfotomaculum nigrificans, 266 Diacetyl content, 25, 35, 118- 19, 262 Diarrhea, 82, 83 Diphtheria bacillus, 46 Direct microscopic count, 23, 108-9, 163 Direct plating method, 25, 26, 121-23 Dried foods, 69. See also specific foods Drop plate method, 108 Dye reduction time, 24, 113 Dysentery, 77 E Education and training, 48, 225- 26, 326-27 Egg Products Inspection Act, 9, 167, 168, 239, 243 Eggs and egg products, 108, 163 in confectioneries, 37, 285, 286 inspection program, 33, 168, 242-48 in mayonnaise, 278 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 9 pasteurization, 9, 69, 239, 241

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426 product safety and quality, 239 42 Salmonella contamination, 9, 33, 65, 66, 69, 239, 241-48 Enterobacter, 123, 124 Enterobacteriaceae, 26, 121, 124, 125, 195, 216, 222 Enterococci, 26, 123-24, 203, 235 Environmental Protection Agency, 288 Enzymes, 12, 297, 298 Erwinia, 124 Escherichia colt, 124- 125, 297 in cheese, 6, 29, 192 in fish, 33, 34, 250, 252, 254 in fruits and vegetables, 258 as indicators, 25-26, 121-23, 281, 302 .... .. pathogenic, 19-20, 78, 87 in raw meat, 197-98,! 201 in spices, 287 in tree nuts, 12, 146, 147, 296 in yeast, 289 Ethanol measurement, 24-25, 118 Ethylene oxide, 11, 69, 288 European Economic Community (EEC), 5, 156-57 Extract release volume, 120 F FAD/WHO Food Standards Pro- gram, 5, 154-56 Fats and oils butter and margarine, 10, 29, 277-78, 281, 282 mayonnaise and salad dressings, 10, 11, 24, 37, 43, 44, 46, 69,116,277-82 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 10- 11, 36-37, 281-82 INDEX peanut butter, 10, 11 j 36-37, 277-78, 280, 282 product safety and quality, 277- 78 Fecal contamination, 120-26 fecal coliform indicators, 26, 33, 65, 122-23, 250, 253, 302 See also specific pathogens Federal Meat Inspection Act, 167, 168 Federal regulation. See specific agencies Feeds. See Animal feeds Fermented foods. See (cheese; Cultured foods Fish and shellfish botulism, 8, 34, 45-46, 68, 249, 251-52 ciguatera, 19, 34, 78, 83-84, 249, 250 E. coli, 33, 34, 250, 252, 254 ethanol content, 24-25, 118 fecal coliforms, 26, 65, 122, 123 frozen products, FDA quality standards j 3, 8, 16-17, 34 35, 53, 63, 163-64, 254, 331-32 hepatitis A, 82, 83, 249 indole content, 24, 117-18, 253 microbial contamination, 7-8, 45, 67, 70, 146, 249-53, 302 microbiological criteria applica tions, 8, 33-35, 253-55 organoleptic examination, 112 13, 253 paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), 7, 19, 34, 78, 84, 249, 251

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INDEX sanitation programs, 5, 67, 80, 84, 152-53, 165-66, 174-76 scombroid (histamine) poison ing, 7, 21, 25, 34, 92-93, 119, 249, 250, 253 state and local regulation, 8, 34, 178, 254 trimethylamine and total volatile nitrogen, 24, 116- 17 Vibrio cholerae, 80-81 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 21, 34, 67, 91, 249, 251 Fish and Wildlife Act, 174 Flavobacterium, 222, 223, 301 Flour, 273 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 5, 19, 86, 150 aflatoxin standards, 19, 85 canned food regulation, 10, 264, 266-69 Compliance Policy Guides, 159 cooperative programs, 164-66 Defect Action Levels, 57, 159, 163, 332 fish product standards, 176 formulated foods standards, 291-92 frog legs Salmonella standard, 252 histamine standards, 92-93 inspection program, 49 mayonnaise pH standard, 37, 278 objectives, 158-59 quality standards, frozen fish products, 3, 8, 16-17, 34 35, 53, 63, 163-64, 254, 331-32 shrimp standards, 112, 253 tree nuts E. cold standard, 12, 146-47, 296 427 See also Hazard Analysis Criti- cal Control Point (HACCP) system Food and Drugs Act (Canada), 157-58, 377-86 Foodborne diseases organisms causing, 76-77 outbreaks, by etiology, 74-75 See also specific diseases, indi- cator organisms, and patho- gens Food colors, 12, 38, 297, 298 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, 52 n. 3, 63, 146, 158-59, 164- 65 Food handlers, 48, 67 Foods categories, 184-85 control of microorganisms in, 2-3, 46-51 cooked food, handling, 70 microbial activities in, 15, 41- 46 perishable, 15-16, 43-44 safety versus quality, 16, 61-63 selection for testing, 3-4, 17, 65-71 shelf-stable, 15, 43 ~ . . sources or microorganisms In, 41 See also specific foods Food Safety and Inspection Ser- vice (FSIS), 167, 170 Food service establishments, 314- 26 Formulated foods, 216 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 11-12, 38, 293-95 product safety and quality, 290- 93 France, 29, 192

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428 Frankfurters (weiners), 206-9, 213, 218, 234, 235 Frog legs, 159, 252 Frozen foods, 65-66, 69. See also specific foods Fruit beverages, 261-62 diacetyl content, 25, 118- 19 262 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 9, 35, 58, 262-63 product safety and quality, 110, 262 Fruits and vegetables delicatessen salads, 292-93 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 9, 35, 58, 63, 258-60 microscopic mold counts, 9, 23, 35, 57, 109-10, 258, 259 pesticide residues, 313 product safety and quality, 43, 44, 67, 257 Fusarium, 273 G Gambierdiscus toxicus, 83 Gelatin, 285, 293 Geotrichum candidum, 23, 35, 109-10, 258, 259 Giardia, 299 Gonyoulax, 251 Gonyoula~c catenella, 84 Gonyoulax tamarensis, 84 Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs),49,52, 310 Grains. See Cereals and cereal products Ground beef, 30, 62, 200-201, 216-17 Guidelines, 3, 56-57, 59-60 Gums, 12, 297-98 Gymnodinium breve. See Ptychod- icus breve INDEX H Ham, 8, 201-4, 206-10, 213-15. 219, 234, 235 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, 62, 66, 118, 180 canned foods, 3, 10, 13, 51, 266-67 cereal products, 10, 273, 275, 276 cost/benefit aspects, 327 fish and shellfish, 7, 34, 252- 55 food service establishments, ap- plication to, 314-26 formulated foods, 12, 38, 291 home applications, 326-27 implementation plans, 14, 40, 329, 335 implementation problems and prerequisites, 13- 14, 39-40, 308-12 necessity for, 313-15, 326-27 nuts, 12 overview of, 2-3, 50-51 pet foods, 306 poultry, 31, 32, 228, 237 raw meat, 7, 30, 197, 198 sugar, cocoa, and confectioner- ies, 37, 283, 285 WHO/ICMSF report, 399-419 yeasts, 11 Helminthosporium, 273 Hepatitis A virus, 67, 77, 78, 82- 83, 249, 299 Histamine, 7, 21, 25, 78, 92-93, 119, 163,250,253 Home food preparation, 314- 15, 326-27 Howard mold count, 23, 35, 57, 109, 259

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INDEX I Ice, 13, 39, 302, 303 Indicator organisms definition, 4 selection for testing, 4-5, 22- 27, 72, 104-5 validity of, 348-57, 361-63 See also specific agents, organ- isms, and test procedures Indole measurement, 24, 117- 18, 122, 253 Industry regulation, 180-81 Infant formula, 12, 291 Inspections of facilities, 48-49 International Bottled Water Asso- ciation, 301 International Commission on Mi- crobiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF), 5, 53, 60,66, 157 International Dairy Federation, 86, 157 International regulation, 5, 154- 58 International Standards Organiza- tion, 86, 157 International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 85 Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Con- ference, 166 Irradiation treatment, 11, 38, 225, 288 J Juices. See Fruit beverages K Klebsiella, 92, 119, 123, 124, 258 L Lactic acid bacteria, 45 in cultured and fermented prod- ucts, 68, 112, 116, 211, 212 429 in fruit juices, 119, 262 in fruits and vegetables, 35, 258 in grains, 272 in mayonnaise and salad dress- ings, 44, 279, 282 in meat, 195, 200, 202, 208- 10, 214, 215 in poultry, 223, 235 in yeast, 289 Lamb. See Meat, processed; Meat, raw Limits. See Sampling plans Limulus amoebocyte lysate test, 25, 119-20 Lipolytic counts, 107-8 Local regulation. See State and lo- cal regulation Low-acid canned foods. See Canned foods, low-acid Luncheon meats, 11, 206-8, 210, 213, 215, 218, 235 M Machinery mold, 23, 109-10 Margarine. See Butter and margar- ~ne Mayonnaise and salad dressings, 10, 11, 24, 37, 43, 44, 46, 69, 116, 277-82 Meat, processed canned, cured, 43, 44, 46, 213-15, 218-19, 264-66, 302 canned, uncured, 213, 218 cooked, cured, 31, 38, 149, 206-11, 217-18 cooked, uncured, 30, 204-6, 217 dried, 31, 215-16, 219 fermented sausage, 24, 31, 43, 47, 65, 68, 70, 116, 211-13, 218

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430 ground beef, 30, 62, 200-201, 216-17 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 8-9, 30-31, 219 nitrates/nitrites in, 68, 202, 203, 206, 207 "rework" product, 210 salted raw and cured, 30-31, 201-4, 217 Meat, raw critical control points, 313 extract release volume, 120 inspection program, 168, 170- 74 microbial contamination, 45, 67, 193-97 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 7, 30, 197-99 pork, 22, 70, 95-96, 196 Membrane filter method, 108 Mesophilic-spores. See Spores Metabolic products measurement, 111-20, 126-27 Microbiological criteria. See Crite- ria, microbiological Microbiological Monitoring and Surveillance Programs, 171 Micrococcus, 195, 202, 203, 209, 222, 235 Microorganisms control of hazards, 2-3, 46-51 microbial activities, 15, 41-46 microbial activity assessment, 24-25, 111-20 numbers of, estimation meth- ods, 22-24, 62, 63, 105-11 pathogenic microorganisms, 42 spoilage microorganisms, 42 useful microorganisms, 42-43 See also specific organisms Microscopic mold counts. See Yeast and mold counts INDEX Military food purchases, 176-78 microbiological criteria, 387-94 Military Standard lO5D, 134 Milk and dairy products aflatoxin Me, 85 antibiotic residues, 178, 313 brucellosis, 18, 78, 81-82 in confectioneries, 37, 285, 286 Coxiella burnetii, 21, 46, 78, 91-92 direct microscopic count, 108-9 diseases transmitted by, 66, 185 dried milk (Salmonella), 6, 16, 28-29, 65, 167, 187-90 dye reduction tests, 24, 113 fermented products, 24, 43, 47, 68, 110, 112, 116, 185 microbiological criteria applica tions, 6, 28-29 pasteurization, 27, 29, 46, 69, 70, 127 pathogens in, 46, 93, 107 phosphatase test, 27, 70, 127 product safety and quality, 185 87 raw milk, 6, 29, 186, 192-93, 395-98 sanitation programs, 152 state regulation, 178 Streptococcus pyogenes, 20, 46, 87-88 tuberculosis, 18, 78, 82 USDA standards, 167 USPHS/FDA Grade A criteria, 49 n. 2, 59, 145-46, 152, 165 See also Butter and margarine; Cheese Mold counts. See Yeast and mold counts Molds. See Yeasts and molds Molluscs. See Fish and shellfish

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INDEX Moraxella, 222, 223 Mung bean sprouts, 257 Mushrooms, canned, 68 Mustard dressings, 292 Mycobacterium bovis, 18, 77, 81 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 46, 82 Mycotoxins, 16, 19, 77, 78, 84- 85, 262 in grains, 10, 36, 273, 276, 313 See also Aflatoxins N National Conference on Interstate Milk Shippers, 152 National Food Processors Associa- tion, 53, 267, 283 National Marine Fisheries Services (NMFS), 5, 174-76, 253 National Shellfish Sanitation Pro- gram,7, 18, 19,33,67,80, 84, 153, 165-66, 250, 333 National Soft Drink Association, 53 Nitrate, 202, 203, 206, 207 Nitrite, 68, 202, 203, 206, 207 Nurmi concept, 225 Nuts in confectioneries, 37, 285, 286 E. colt, 12, i46, 147, 296 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 12, 38, 296 peanuts, 10, 12, 16, 36, 38, 280-81, 296 product safety and quality, 295- 96 o Ochratoxin, 85 Oregon Meat Standard, 197-98, 331 431 Organoleptic examination, 111 13, 253 Oval tube/bottle culture, 108 Ozone, 302 p Palm hearts, 69 Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), 7, 19, 34, 78, 84, 249, 251 Pasta products, 10, 36, 274 Pasteur, Louis, 42 Pasteurization of eggs, 9, 69, 239, 241 of milk, 27, 29, 46, 69, 70, 127 Pastries, 10, 36, 164, 274-75, 292 Pathogens disease outbreaks, by etiology, 74-75 hazard categories, 4 n. 2, 77 78 organisms causing diseases, ta bles, 76-77 selection for testing, 4, 17-22, 72-77, 348-49, 358-59 See also specific pathogens Patulin, 35, 85, 262 Peanut butter, 10, 11, 36-37, 277-78, 280, 282 Peanuts, 10, 12, 16, 36, 38, 280 81, 296 Penicillic acid, 85 Penicillium expansum, 262 Penicillium vermiculatum, 262 Pepper, black, 208, 287 Pesticide residues, 313 Pet foods, 13, 39, 304-6 pH measurement, 23, 70, 113, 116 Phosphatase test, 27, 70, 127

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432 Phosphates, 68 Pickles, 43, 47, 68 Pickling process, 202, 206-7 Pies. See Pastries Pigs, 194 Pig's feet, 213, 214 Pimientos, 69 Pizza, 12, 292 Plate loop method, 108 Poliomyelitus, 82, 83 Pork. See Meat, processed; Meat, raw Potatoes, 257 Potpies, 11, 33, 59, 204, 205, 236, 290, 292 Poultry, processed microbiological criteria applica- tions, 8, 32-33, 236-37 product safety and quality, 230- 36 Poultry Products Inspection Act, 167, 168 Poultry, raw inspection program, 168, 170- 74 irradiation, 225 microbial contamination, 32, 45, 67, 221-24, 226-27 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 7, 31-32, 224-28 Nurmi concept, 225 Salmonella contamination, 31- 32, 222-26, 228 Processed meats. See Meat, pro- cessed; Poultry, processed Proteolytic counts, 107-8 Proteus morganii, 92, 119 Pseudomonas, 45, 195, 222, 223, 233, 272 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 26, 124, 300, 302 INDEX Psychrotrophic bacteria, 45 in meat, 195, 200, 201, 209 in milk, 186 in poultry, 223, 230, 233 Psychrotrophic counts, 107 Ptychodicus breve, 83 Public Health Service, 152, 153 Public Health Service Act, 165, 166 Purchase agreements, 3, 53, 57, 180-81 Q Q-fever, 91, 92 Quality standards, 3, 8, 16-17, 34-35, 53, 61-63, 163-64 254, 331-32 R Raw meats. See Meat, raw; Poul- try, raw Ready-to-eat/cook foods. See For- mulated foods Resampling, 141-42 Retail Food Protection Program, 166 Rice. See Cereals and cereal prod- ucts Roast beef, 9, 30, 204-5, 217 Rot fragment count, 23, 35, 109, 259 S Salad dressings. See Fats and oils Salads, 12, 292-93 Salmonella, 46, 65-67, 69, 70, 78 in animals and pet foods, 13, 39, 194, 304-6

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INDEX in carmine color, 298 in cocoa and chocolate, 11, 16, 37, 283-85 in coconut, 12, 38, 296 in confectioneries, 37, 285, 286 in cooked roast beef, 9, 30, 205, 217 diseases caused by, 77-78 in dried meat, 216, 219 in dried milk, 6, 28-29, 65, 167, 187-90 educational efforts, 326 in egg products, 9, 33, 65, 66, 69, 239, 241-48 in fish, 67, 146, 249, 252, 302 in formulated foods, 291-92, 294 in frog legs, 159, 252 in fruits and vegetables, 259 in grains and cereal products, 10, 36, 273-75 in mayonnaise and salad dress ings, 278, 279, 281 microbiological criteria applica tions, 19, 81, 85-86, 197 number of cells causing illness, 73, 76 in peanut butter, 10, 11, 37, 280-82 in poultry, 31-32, 67, 222-26, 228, 233-37 in processed meat, 208, 210, Sausage, 8-9 212, 218 in raw meat, 196, 197 sampling plan, 19, 85-86, 339 47 in spices, 11, 37, 287, 288 in water, 299 in yeasts, 11, 38, 289, 290 Salmonella agona, 225 Salmonella anatum, 274 433 Salmonella cholerae-suis, 77, 78, 81 Salmonella cabana, 298 Salmonella eastbourne, 73, 284 Salmonella enteritidis, 298 Salmonella gallinarum, 222 Salmonella hadar, 225 Salmonella infantis, 248 Salmonella muenchen, 73 Salmonella newport, 200, 298 Salmonella paratyphi A, 77, 78 Salmonella paratyphi B. 77, 78 Salmonella paratyphi C, 77, 78 Salmonella pullorum, 222 Salmonella sendai, 77, 78 Salmonella typhi, 77, 78 Salmonella typhimurium, 262, 279 Salt, 68 Salted meats. See Meat, processed Salt pork, 203 Sampling plans, 5, 27, 132-44 . limits, establishment of, 140-41 NRC Salmonella plan, 19, 85- 86, 339-47 optimal number of samples, 137-40, 351-52 resampling, 141-42 Salmonella surveillance in egg products, 9, 33, 168, 242-48 state plans, 179 types of, 134-37 "back slopping" process, 211 canned, 213, 218-19 cooked, 203, 204, 206-10 fermented, 24, 31, 43, 47, 65, 68, 70, 116, 211-13, 218 raw, salted, 201-2 Saxitoxin, 84, 251 Scombroid poisoning, 7, 25, 34, 92-93, 119, 249, 250

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434 Serratia, 124 Serratia liquefaciens, 194 Shellfish. See Fish and shellfish Shigella, 18, 77, 79-80, 249, 252, 299 Shigella boydii, 77 Shigella dysenteriae, 77 Shigellaflexneri, 77 Shigella sonnet, 77 Soft drinks, 11, 37, 44, 110, 285. See also Fruit beverages Soup mixes, 12, 70, 291, 292 Sour cream, 47 Soybeans and soy products, 10, 36, 93, 273, 275, 302 Spain, 279 Specifications, 3, 53, 57, 60-61 Spices, 69 microbial contamination, 11, 44, 149, 208, 210, 287 microbiological criteria applica tions, 37-38, 288 Spiral plate method, 108 Spoilage, 42, 46-47 Spores, 69 in canned, cured meats, 214, 215 in cocoa, 37, 284 in fruit beverages, 262 in grains, 272, 273 in low-acid canned foods, 265 66 in low aw canned foods, 270 mesophilic sporeforrners as indi cators, 148-49 in processed foods, 44 in processed poultry products, 235, 236 in spices, 11, 37-38, 44, 149, 208, 210, 287 in sugar and starches, 11, 37, 53, 62, 149, 283 INDEX thermophilic spore count, 23 24, 107, 110-11 Standard plate count, 108 Standards applications, 59 definition, 3, 56, 60 Staphylococcus aureus, 16, 65, 67, 69, 78, 147, 148, 271, 294 in cheese, 6, 29, 47, 65, 68, 69, 116, 190-91, 313 in fats and oils, 278, 280-82 in fermented sausage, 9, 31, 65, 68, 116, 212, 218 in fish, 34, 70, 249, 252, 254 in fruits and vegetables, 259 in grains and cereal products, 10, 36, 274, 275 in gums, 297 as indicators, 25, 120-21 microbiological criteria applica tions, 20, 88-89 in poultry, 32, 222-24, 227, 233-37 in processed meat, 8, 208, 210, 213-16, 219 in raw meat, 195-97 in spices, 287 thermonuclease test, 26, 29, 69, 89, 126, 191 in whipped butter, 29 Starches, 53, 62, 149 Starter cultures. See Cultured foods State regulation, 178-80 bottled water, 301 fish and seafood, 8, 34, 254 formulated foods, 12 horticultural products, 259 Sterilization, 69 Streptococcus, 302 Streptococcus bovis, 123

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INDEX Streptococcus equines, 123 Streptococcus faecalis, 123, 297 Streptococcus faecium, 123 Streptococcus, Group D, 208 Streptococcus pyogenes, 20, 46, 78, 87-88 Sugar microbial contamination, 53, 149, 283, 284 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 11, 37, 62, 285 Sulfur dioxide, 68 Surface/spread plate method, 108 T Tapioca starch, 58 Temperature effects, 69-70 Testing, 50 Thermoduric counts, 107 Thermonuclease test, 26, 29, 31, 69, 89, 126, 191 Thermophilic spore count, 23-24, 107, 110-11 Thermophilic spores. See Spores Tofu, 93, 273, 302 Tomatoes and tomato products, 68, 264, 268, 269 Howard mold count, 57, 109, 259 rot fragment count, 109, 259 Total volatile nitrogen, 24, 116- 17 Tree nuts. See Nuts Trichinella spiralis, 22? 70, 78, 95-96, 196, 201-3, 208, 212, 213 Trimethylamine measurement, 24, 116-17 Tri-State Seafood Committee, 255 Tuberculosis, 18, 78, 82 Turkey. See Poultry, processed; Poultry, raw 435 TV dinners, 12, 204 12-D process, 46, 265 2-deoxydivalenol, 274 Typhoid fever, 302 Tyramine, 92 U Ultraviolet fluorescence, 27, 126- 27, 273 USDA. See Agriculture Depart- ment V Vacuum packing, 45-46, 68 Vegetables. See Fruits and vegeta- bles Vibrio, -302 Vibrio alginolyticus, 91 Vibrio cholerae, 18, 34, 77, 80- 81, 251, 299 Vibrioflavialis, 34, 91, 251 Vibrio hollisue, 34, 91, 251 Vibrio metschnikovii, 91 Vibrio mimicus, 34, 91, 251 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 78 in fish and seafood, 21, 34, 67, 91, 249, 251 Vibrio vuluificus, 34, 91, 251 Viruses ECHO, 67 hepatitis A, 67, 77, 78, 82-83, 249, 299 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 18- 19, 82-83 Norwalk, 67, 82, 299 Parvovirus-like agent, 299 poliomyelitis, 82, 83 Rotavirus, 299 Vomitoxin, 274

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436 Water W bottled water, 12, 26, 39, 124, 299-303 coliforms in, 65, 300-302 drinking water, 39, 66, 299 processing water and ice, 13, 39, 302, 303 Water activity-controlled canned foods. See Canned foods, low aw Wholesome Meat Act, 167, 170 Wholesome Poultry Products Act, 167, 170 y Yeast and mold counts for fruit beverages, 35, 262 for fruits and vegetables, 9, 23, 35, 57, 109-10, 258, 259 for mayonnaise, 282 microscopic mold counts, 23, 35, 57, 109-10, 259 Yeasts and molds, 271 Baker's yeast, 289 in carbonated beverages, 44, 53 in cocoa and chocolate, 284 INDEX in confectioneries, 11, 37, 284 in fruit beverages, 35, 262, 263 in fruits and vegetables, 44, 258 in grains, 273 heat-resistant molds, 23, 110 in mayonnaise and salad dress- ings, 44, 279 in meat, 195, 202-4, 209, 212, 216 microbiological criteria applica- tions, 11, 38, 290 nutritional yeast, 11, 289, 290 in nuts, 12, 296 in poultry, 222, 235 product safety and quality, 289 in spices, 287 in sugar, 11, 37, 53, 283, 285 Yersinia enterocolitica, 21, 78, 93-94 in poultry, 222-24, 226, 235, 236 in raw meat, 196, 200 in soy products, 93, 273, 275, 302 Yogurt, 43, 47 Zearalenone, 85 z