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Assessing Changing Food Consumption Pains Committee on Food Consumption Patterns Food and Nutrition Board National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1981

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NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special com- petences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accor- dance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its Congres- sional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The study summarized in this report was supported by Contract 223-77-2060 from the Food and Drug Administration, Public Health Service, Department of Health, Education and Wel- fare. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Food Consumption Patterns. Assessing changing food consumption patterns. Bibliography: p. 1. Nutrition surveysUnited States. 2. Food consumption United States. I. Title. TX360. U6N33 1981 641 ' .0973 ISBN 0-309-03135-4 Al ailable from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America 8 1-9476 AACR2

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COMMITTEE ON FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS ROBERT O. NESHElM, The Quaker Oats Company, Chairman I. J. ABRAMS, Market Research Corporation of America HENRY BLACKBURN, University of Minnesota DORIS H. GALLOWAY, University of California at Berkeley HELEN A. GUTHRIE, The Pennsylvania State University TIMOTHY M. HAMMONDS, Food Marketing Institute GAIL G. HARRISON, University of Arizona HAROLD B. MOUSER, Case Western Reserve University NAS/NRC Staff MARGARET R. STEWART MYRTLE L. BROWN KENNETH R. FULTON . . . 111

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Preface The Food and Nutrition Board established a Steering Committee to under- take the reported study. Members of the Committee on Food Consumption Patterns were drawn from several disciplines, including nutrition, an- thropology, statistics, food economics, and epidemiology. Persons familiar with survey methodology as used in the various government agencies, academic institutions, and the private sector were included. The Committee gathered information from a variety of sources and organized a series of workshops to draw on the skills and experience of a large number of indi- viduals and organizations. Although the system is intended to meet the special needs of the Food and Drug Administration, it should be relevant for use by other agencies and institutions engaged in monitoring food consumption and nutritional and health status. The system can be used to screen a representative sample of the U.S. population or adapted for use in more detailed studies of specific population groups. Although economic and other considerations may influ- ence adoption of the proposed system, the Committee believes that the method is valid and that the information gathered thereby would be signifi- cantly more complete and useful than methods that are currently available. The Committee wishes to express its appreciation to the participants in its three workshops. Their contributions of background papers and thoughtful discussion were essential to development of the system proposed in this report. These papers are attached to the report in Appendixes A, B. and C. Participants in the workshops are listed in Appendix D. The Committee also wishes to recognize the important contributions of George H. Beaton in development of some of the basic concepts of the proposed system.

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Contents Introduction Characteristics of a System for Measuring Food Consumption Patterns Relating Food Consumption Data and Nutntional Status Data The Proposed System Some Study Design Characteristics Data Base Requirements Conclusions and Recommendations References APPENDIXES A BACKGROUND PAPERS FOR WORKSHOP ON METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF AGGREGATE DATA ON FOOD CONSUMPTION The Food System: An Overview Harold F. Breimyer . . V11 4 6 12 19 29 38 41 45

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~ . . V111 Contents Measurement and Forecasting of Food Consumption by USDA 51 Alden C. Manchester and Kenneth R. Farrell A. C. Nielsen Company Services Oliver S. Castle B BACKGROUND PAPERS FOR WORKSHOP ON EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR OBTAINING FOOD CONSUMPTION DATA Dietary Methodology Charlotte M. Young Mail Diary Method for Collecting Food Purchasing and Food Usage Information from Consumer Panels I. J. Abrams Collecting Data on American Food Consumption Patterns: An Anthropological Perspective Claire Monod Cassidy Individual Variation in Intake of Nutrients by Day, Month, and Season and Relation to Meal Patterns: Implications for Dietary Survey Methodology Harold B. Houser and Helen T. Bebb Diary-Interview Technique to Assess Food Consumption Patterns of Individual Military Personnel D. D. Schnakenberg, T. M. Hill, M. J. Kretsch, and B. S. Morris Possible Alternative Methods for Data Collection on Food Consumption and Expenditures Robert B. Pearl C BACKGROUND PAPERS FOR WORKSHOP ON NUTRITION AND HEALTH STATUS INDICATORS Can Nutritional Status Be Determined from Food Consumption or Other Measures? A. E. Schaefer Relating Food Intake, Demographic, Attitudes and Behavior Data to Measures of Nutritional Status Howard G. Schutz Methods of Relating Food Consumption to Nutritional Status and Health: Dietary Methodology Victor M. Hawthorne Anthropometry and Nutritional Status Francis E. Johnston 72 89 119 135 155 180 198 207 220 238 252

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Contents Relation of Nutritional Anemias to Food Consumption Patterns Victor Herbert D PARTICIPANTS AND OBSERVERS Workshop on Methods for the Collection of Aggregate Data on Food Consumption Workshop on Evaluation of Methods for Obtaining Food Consumption Data Workshop on Nutrition and Health Status Indicators . 1X 265 279 281 283

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