Students who lack social access to the institution, for example, may find themselves isolated and unable to continue their studies, regardless of how talented they might be and how well their financial needs have been met.

The programs discussed above create among their student participants a culture of success, in which the students move forward as a group. The focus is not on one or two stars, but on the successful completion of the program by each student.

Comprehensive "pipeline" programs represent an important alternative for the future. No one institution can alone change the social and educational system that has led to the underrepresentation of minorities in science, particularly in the health professions. Academic medical centers, under the leadership of the AAMC, are being encouraged to focus on themselves as "an integral part of the communities they serve" (Petersdorf, 1991). The AAMC ''Project 3000 by 2000" envisions increasing the number of minority students in medical school through both short-term and long-term strategies. Medical schools, for example, would work with 4-year colleges to decompress the preclinical years, allowing students to take courses at both the undergraduate campus and the medical school during the senior year of college. Among the long-term projects suggested by the AAMC for its members is the creation of magnet health science high schools that would operate in partnership with colleges and medical schools to "create an integrated educational pathway" (Petersdorf, 1991). Such partnerships would give students the chance to take part in a rigorous curriculum in a hospitable environment, while providing the students with mentors and role models who would give relevance to the students' academic work.

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