Index

A

Academic achievement, see School performance and failure

Acetylcholine (ACh), 246, 248, 249, 266-267

Acetylsalicylic acid, 531

Activational hormonal effects, 5, 6-7

Adaptive behavior

and brain damage, 14

models, 12, 21, 78-79

Additive genetic variance, 23, 42

Adolescents, see Juvenile offenders; Puberty

Adoption studies, 3, 27, 29, 30, 31, 34-39, 42-43, 45, 49, 94

alcohol abuse, 4, 37, 38, 40-41, 44

standardization of, 46

of unrelated siblings, 47

Adrenal hormones, 7, 8, 184, 189, 222-225

Adrenal medulla, 184, 193, 222-225

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 7, 182, 184, 211, 218

Affective defense behavior, 12, 61, 63, 69-78

Age, 79, 90

and schizophrenia, 81

Aggressiveness

animal models, 12, 62-79, 174-179, 209-214, 247-248

definitions of, 173-179, 247-248

drug effects on, 9

and epilepsy, 82-85

and fetal steroid exposure, 6

genetic influences, 2, 21-22

heterogeneity in, 179-180

hormonal influences, 6-7, 8, 180-229

and hypoglycemia, 16

neuroanatomical factors, 12

neurochemical influences, 9, 10, 11

Agonistic behavior, 21-22, 175, 192, 211

Alcohol use and abuse, 4, 82, 275, 520, 534

adoption studies, 4, 37, 38, 40-41, 44

and benzodiazepine receptors, 11

genetic influences, 3, 4, 24, 46

and hormonal mechanisms, 224, 226, 228

neurochemistry, 10, 256, 261

and neuroimaging results, 16

neuropsychologic factors, 13

in pregnancy, 14, 94-95

and sugar metabolism, 17, 524, 525

among violent offenders, 86

withdrawal management, 10, 270

Alprazolam, 277, 278

Aminergic hormones, 182



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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences Index A Academic achievement, see School performance and failure Acetylcholine (ACh), 246, 248, 249, 266-267 Acetylsalicylic acid, 531 Activational hormonal effects, 5, 6-7 Adaptive behavior and brain damage, 14 models, 12, 21, 78-79 Additive genetic variance, 23, 42 Adolescents, see Juvenile offenders; Puberty Adoption studies, 3, 27, 29, 30, 31, 34-39, 42-43, 45, 49, 94 alcohol abuse, 4, 37, 38, 40-41, 44 standardization of, 46 of unrelated siblings, 47 Adrenal hormones, 7, 8, 184, 189, 222-225 Adrenal medulla, 184, 193, 222-225 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 7, 182, 184, 211, 218 Affective defense behavior, 12, 61, 63, 69-78 Age, 79, 90 and schizophrenia, 81 Aggressiveness animal models, 12, 62-79, 174-179, 209-214, 247-248 definitions of, 173-179, 247-248 drug effects on, 9 and epilepsy, 82-85 and fetal steroid exposure, 6 genetic influences, 2, 21-22 heterogeneity in, 179-180 hormonal influences, 6-7, 8, 180-229 and hypoglycemia, 16 neuroanatomical factors, 12 neurochemical influences, 9, 10, 11 Agonistic behavior, 21-22, 175, 192, 211 Alcohol use and abuse, 4, 82, 275, 520, 534 adoption studies, 4, 37, 38, 40-41, 44 and benzodiazepine receptors, 11 genetic influences, 3, 4, 24, 46 and hormonal mechanisms, 224, 226, 228 neurochemistry, 10, 256, 261 and neuroimaging results, 16 neuropsychologic factors, 13 in pregnancy, 14, 94-95 and sugar metabolism, 17, 524, 525 among violent offenders, 86 withdrawal management, 10, 270 Alprazolam, 277, 278 Aminergic hormones, 182

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences Amitriptyline, 273 Amphetamines, 9, 261 Amygdala, 12, 13, 60, 67, 88, 172, 256-257 Anabolic steroids, 7, 211, 220, 228 Androgens, 5-6, 7, 104, 184, 197, 205, 206, 207, 210, 211, 216-217, 221 Aneuploidy, 24, 26 Anger inventories, 221 Animal studies aggressiveness, 12, 62-79, 174-179, 209-214, 247-248 genetic, 1, 4-5, 21-22 hormonal mechanisms, 5-7, 192, 194-197, 204-205, 209-214, 227 neurochemical, 8-9, 10, 11, 247-280 passim physiologic, 12 Antiandrogens, 6, 7, 214, 216 Antianxiety drugs, see Anxiolytics Anticonvulsants, 88 Antidepressants, 270, 271-275 Antihormones, 212, 214, 216 Antipsychotic drugs, 8-9, 10, 82, 268-271 Antisocial behavior, 82, 94, 205, 247, 528, 533 genetic influences, 3, 4, 30-39, 42-45, 47-48 Anxiolytics, 11, 275-276, 279, 280 Arecoline, 266 Arousal, 175 Assault, 43, 81, 180, 263, 277, 279 Attention deficit disorders (ADD), 14, 92, 93, 205, 247 and fetal alcohol exposure, 95 with hyperactivity (ADHD), 527-533, 535 Autism, 9-10 Autonomic functions, 12, 15 Aversiveness, 175-176 B Barbiturates, 275 "Battered alcoholic syndrome,"; 224 Behavior studies, 1-2, 179-180, 227 food intake, 516-520 see also Adoption studies; Animal studies; Twin studies Benzodiazepine anxiolytics, 11, 270, 275-276, 277-278, 280 receptors, 11-12, 264, 276-279 Beta-blockers, 9-10, 255, 279-280 Blood samples, 185, 188, 248 Bodily rhythms, 188, 221-222, 249 See also Circadian rhythms; Menstrual cycle; Seasonal rhythms Body image, 6 Brain, see Hypothalamus; Left-hemisphere dysfunction; Neuroanatomic networks; Neurobiologic mechanisms; Neurochemical mechanisms; Neuroimaging; Neuropsychologic assessment; Periaqueductal gray matter; Psychophysiologic assessment Brain damage, 12, 13, 14, 96, 97, 270, 279 and alcohol abuse, 82 and epilepsy, 83-84 and psychophysiologic testing, 15, 93 among violent offenders, 86 Broad sense heritability, 23 Buserelin, 212 Buspirone, 279 Buss-Durkee scale, 217-218 Butyrophenones, 269 C Carbachol, 267 Castration, 214 Catecholamines (CA), 249-255 Cats, 12, 61, 62-78, 250, 257, 266-267 Cerebral palsy, 93 "Chemical restraints,"; 9, 268 Child abuse, 93, 94, 247 Child molesters, see Pedophiles Children, 92-93 conduct-disordered, 15, 270 diet and hyperactivity, 16-17, 518, 527-533 drug treatment of, 270 noninvasive examination techniques, 92 punishment, 180 see also Child abuse; Developmental issues and anomalies; Fetal development; Juvenile offenders; Parent-child relations

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences Chimpanzees, 214 Chlordiazepoxide, 276, 277, 278 Cholesterol, 24, 533-534 Cholinergic drinking, 246 Chromosomal anomalies, 24, 26 Circadian rhythms, 10, 206, 221, 252, 253 CI 680, 212 Clomipramine, 273 Clonazepam, 278 Clonidine, 10 Clozapine, 271 Cocaine, 9 maternal use, 14, 95 Cockerel, 204 Cognition and intelligence, 3, 13-14, 79, 91-93, 97 and diet, 531 and epilepsy, 85 and event-related brain potentials, 15 and fetal toxin exposure, 95 genetic influences, 1-2, 3, 26-27, 46, 47 and lead poisoning, 14, 94 and neuroimaging, 16 ''Cold calculated" aggression, see Predatory behavior Common environmental variance, 22-23 Communication skills, 13-14, 92, 93 and hormonal mechanisms, 224-225 Computerized tomography (CT), 15, 81, 87 Concussion, 14 Conduct disorder, 15, 39, 247, 270 Conflict Tactics Scale, 221 Correlational studies, 518-519 Corticopin releasing factor (CRF), 184 Corticosterone, 7 Cortisol, 7, 208, 218, 219 Counseling, 228 Criminal behavior, 3-4, 179-180, 261 genetic influences, 2, 3-4, 32-38, 40-41 hormonal influences, 206, 208, 222-223 and neuroimaging results, 16 as a neuropsychiatric disorder, 80-81 neuropsychologic factors, 13, 86-87 and psychophysiologic studies, 14-15, 91-92 see also Juvenile offenders Cyproterone acetate, 212, 216 D Data collection, see National registries; Surveys Defensive behavior, 174, 276 animal studies, 12, 61, 62, 69-78, 177-178 Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS), 218 Delinquency, see Juvenile offenders Dementia, 247 Denmark, 3, 33-36, 37 Depression, 247, 261, 269, 271, 520 Developmental issues and anomalies, 92-95 hormonal influences, 194-208 and psychophysiologic testing, 15 see also Fetal development; Puberty Diabetic pregnancies, 197 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IIIR), 247 Diary surveys, 221 Diazepam, 276, 277, 278 Diet, see Nutrition and diet Dietary challenge studies, 520 Dietary replacement studies, 519-520 Dopamine (DA), 8-9, 246, 248, 249, 250-251, 252, 253 receptor agonists, 254-255, 271 receptor antagonists, 8-9, 255, 268 "1-Dopa rage,"; 253-254 Down's syndrome, 247 Dropouts, 13 Drug abuse, 224, 520 among violent offenders, 86 genetic influences, 45, 46 neuropsychologic factors, 13 and schizophrenia, 81 see also Alcohol use and abuse; Amphetamines; Cocaine; Hallucinogens Drugs, see Pharmacological interventions E Eating disorders, 92 "Ecstasy," 261 Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 87-88 Electroencephalogram (EEG) testing, 14, 15, 17, 81, 93

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences Empathy training, 228 Endocrine mechanisms, see Hormonal mechanisms Endorphins, 182 Enkephalins, 182 Environmental influences, 1, 49, 50 and genetic factors, 1, 2-5, 22-23, 31, 39, 44-47 Environmental toxins, 14 Enzyme immunoassay, 185 Epidemiologic studies neuropsychologic impairment, 14 seizure disorders, 84 Epilepsy, 12, 13, 82-85, 217, 247, 270 Epinephrine, 8, 206, 208, 222-223 "Episodic dyscontrol" syndrome, 59, 63, 71, 88, 247, 270, 533 Estradiol, 214, 218 Estrogen, 5, 6, 184, 210, 214 Ethanol, see Alcohol use and abuse Ethical issues, hormonal treatments, 228-229 Ethnicity, see Race and ethnicity "Eve,"; 261 Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), 15, 91-92 Evolutionary models, 12, 21, 47-48 Experimental studies, 179, 518-520 Explosive aggression, 12, 247, 270, 533 F Families criminality in, 205 and diet, 17, 518 homicide within, 48 social learning of violence in, 2-3 see also Adoption studies; Pedigree studies; Twin studies Fearless personality, 15 Feingold, Benjamin, 531-532 Females, 92 fetal development, 5-6 homicide rates, 90 menstrual cycle, 91, 222 Fetal development, 93 and alcohol use, 14, 94-95 and drug use, 5-6, 14, 95 hormones and, 5-6, 194-204, 209 Fighting, 184, 204 Filicide, 48 Finland, 24 5-a-Reductase deficiency syndrome, 197, 206 5-HT, 246, 248, 255-264, 271, 279, 280 "Flight-fight" syndrome, 9 Fluorometric assays, 185 Fluoxetine, 272 Fluphenazine deconate, 270 Flutamide, 216 Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 205, 218 Food additives, 17 and hyperactivity, 531-533 Food intake, see Nutrition and diet G Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and receptors, 11-12, 248, 249, 264-266, 276-280 Gender differences, 79, 90-91, 180 brain development and structure, 6, 90-91 hormone-influenced, 5-6 preoptic brain development, 6 see also Females; Males Genetic influences, 1-5, 21-23, 39-50, 93-94 animal studies, 1, 4-5, 21-22 antisocial behavior, 3, 4, 30-39, 42-45, 47-48 chromosomal anomalies, 24, 26 environmental factors, 1, 2-5, 22-23, 31, 39, 44-47 juvenile antisocial behavior, 3, 30-31, 42, 44 Mendelian disorders, 24, 25 personality traits, 2, 26-30, 46 and race, 48-50 research needs, 46-47 Genetic markers, 2 Genetic variance, 22, 23 Genital development, 5, 6 Gepirone, 279 Glucocorticoids, 7 Glucose metabolism, 15, 16, 263, 521-522 Golden hamster, 204 Gonadotropins, 183, 184, 216 Graham, Sylvester, 516 Guinea pigs, 204

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences H Hallucinogens, 11, 261 Haloperidol, 82 Head injuries, 14, 84, 93, 96 Heart rates, 15, 17, 227 Heritability, see Genetic influences Heritability of liability, 23 Hermaphroditism, 197, 206 Home environment, see Families Homicide, 43, 48, 90, 93, 180, 277 Hormonal mechanisms, 1, 5-8, 180-229 and bodily rhythms, 10, 206, 221-222 and communication, 224-225 definitions, 182-184 developmental issues, 194-208 endogenous changes, 185 exgenous modification, 185, 197 feedback, 189-190, 191 fetal development, 5-6, 194-204, 209 and neuroimaging, 16 and perception, 223-224, 226 research needs, 226-229 and stress, 225-226 structure, 186-187 therapies, 173, 185, 214, 216, 228 see also Peptides; Steroids Human growth hormone, 228 Hyperactivity, 17, 205, 208, 270, 273 and food additives, 531-533 and lead poisoning, 94, 535 and sugar intake, 519, 520, 527-531 Hypercholesterolemia, 24 Hypoglycemia, 16, 17, 521-522, 523-524 Hypothalamus, 12, 13, 61-73 passim, 88, 209, 218-219, 247, 256, 272 Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, 183-184, 193,212, 218 Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, 183, 193, 212 I Imaging techniques, see Computerized tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging; Neuroimaging; Positron emission tomography; Regional cerebral blood flow techniques Imipramine, 273 Impulsivity and impulse control, 10, 46, 205, 261, 271 Incarceration drug management, 277 inmate studies, 15, 217, 252 India, 12, 88 Infanticide, 48 Information processing (cognitive), 15, 91-92 Insulin, 17, 533 Intelligence, see Cognition and intelligence Intentionality, 175 Intermittent explosive disorder, see "Episodic dyscontrol" syndrome Intrauterine location, 195-196 Involuntary acts, 59 Iowa, 38-39, 45 Ipsapirone, 279 J Japan, 12, 88 Johns Hopkins University-NIMH preventive intervention project, 97-99 Juvenile offenders dietary improvement, 252 fetal alcohol exposure, 95 genetic influences, 3, 30-31, 42, 44 neuropsychiatric studies, 86 psychophysiologic studies, 15, 93 psychosurgical procedures on, 88 K Kellogg, John Harvey, 516 Korsakoff's disorder, 279 L Language processing, 13-14, 87, 91 Lead poisoning, 535 cognitive effects, 14, 94 Left-hemisphere dysfunction, 13, 87, 91 Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, 247 Liability, 23, 31, 46 Limbic system, 12-13, 59-73 passim, 74, 77, 80-81, 87, 88, 93, 96, 247

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences Lithium, 271, 273-275 Longitudinal studies, 220-221 Lorazepam, 277 Luteinizing hormone (LH), 182, 183, 184, 204, 205, 212, 218, 219 M Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 15, 16, 81, 227 Maladaptive behavior, 78-79 Males, 6, 79, 90, 92-93, 96, 221 fetal development, 5-6 homicide rates, 90 hormonal cycles, 222 schizophrenic, 81, 82 Mania, 247 Marmosets, 197 Meat eating, 515-516 Medication, see Pharmacological interventions Medroxyprogesterone, 217 Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), 197, 216 Melanocyte stimulating hormones, 211 Mendelian disorders, 24, 25 Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) database, 24, 25 Menstrual cycle, 91, 222 Mental illness, see Neuropsychiatric disorders Mental retardation, 247, 270, 277, 279 drug therapy, 9-10 Methylphenidates, 273 Mice, 5-6, 21-22, 177, 194, 195-196, 204, 209-211, 212, 255-226, 249-251, 256, 257, 264-266, 277 Midazolam, 277 Models, see Animal studies Mongolian gerbil, 204 Monkeys, 60, 77, 205, 253, 260-261 Monoamine oxidase-A, 24 Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, 271 Mood changes, 205-206, 219 Multifactorial models, 23, 46-47 Murderers, 86, 261, 533. See also Homicide Muscarinic receptor activity, 266-267 N Nadolol, 280 Narrow-sense heritability, 23 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 97 National registries, 84, 96-97, 99 Scandinavian countries, 4, 96 "Nature versus nurture" debates, 2 Nervous system, see Autonomic functions Neuroanatomic networks, 1, 12-13, 14, 60-62 in cats, 62-73, 74, 77-78 Neurobiologic mechanisms, 1, 59-62 research needs, 95-99 Neurochemical mechanisms, 1, 5-12, 14, 248-249 Neurodevelopmental issues, see Developmental issues and anomalies Neuroendocrinology, 181-182 Neeroimaging, 1, 13, 14, 15-16 Neuroleptics, 269-271 Neuromodulators, 246 Neuropsychiatric disorders, 59, 61, 80-87, 247 treatment, 87-90 Neuropsychologic assessment, 13-14 and neuroimaging, 16 Neurotransmitters and receptors, 8-12, 73, 75-76, 77-78, 181-182, 209, 246, 248-267 hormonal, 5-8 Nicotine, 10, 267 Nonadrenergic feeding, 246 Noradrenergic receptor blockers, 272-273 Norepinephrine (NE), 8, 9-10, 208, 212, 222-223, 246, 248, 249-250, 251-252, 253 Norway, 32-33 Nutrition and diet, 10, 16-17, 515-516, 535 food additives, 17, 531-533 research methodology, 516-520 sugar intake, 16-17, 520-531 see also Hypoglycemia

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences O Obsessive-compulsive disorders, 256, 273 Offenders, see Criminal behavior; Incarceration Opiates, 10, 77, 270 maternal use, 14, 94 Opioid peptides, 73, 77, 226 Organ weights, 185, 188 Organic brain disease, 279 Organizational hormonal effects, 5-6 Oxazepam, 276, 277, 278 P "Paradoxical rage," 11, 273, 277-278, 280 Paranoid psychosis, 9 Parent-child relations, 6, 23, 47 PCP (phencyclidine), 82 Pedigree studies, 46 Pedophiles, 24, 46, 87 Peer relations, 6 Peptides, 1, 182, 193, 226, 246 Perception, 46, 223-224, 226 Periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), 61-73 passim, 78 Personality disorders, 10, 263, 533 Personality traits, 2, 26-30, 46 Pharmacological interventions, 1, 12, 87-88, 249, 268-280 antidepressants, 270, 271-275 antipsychotics, 8-9, 10, 82, 268-271 anxiolytics, 11, 275-276, 279, 280 beta-blockers, 9-10, 255, 279-280 criticisms of, 89-90, 268 dopamine receptor antagonists, 8-9, 255, 268 hormonal, 173, 185, 214, 216, 228 serotonin receptor antagonists, 10, 11, 259, 271, 272-273, 275 Phenothiazines, 269, 271 Pheromones, 212 Pindolol, 280 Piperidylalkylphenothiazines, 270 Plea bargaining, 180 Positron emission tomography (PET), 14, 15, 16, 81, 86, 87 Postpartum psychoses, 48 Poverty, 79, 90, 92, 93, 96, 205 Predatory behavior, 174, 254-255, 256, 258 animal studies, 12, 61, 62-63, 64-69, 73, 74, 177-178 Prefrontal cortex, 13 Premenstrual tension (PMT), 7, 180, 222 Prenatal development, see Fetal development Preoptic brain area, 6, 209 Preschool play group studies, 179 Preventive interventions, 97-99 Primates, 6, 7, 10, 60, 77, 174, 196-197, 204-205, 212, 214, 215, 227 Prison, see Incarceration Progesterone, 216 Progestogen-estrogen treatments, 197 Prolactin, 205 Propranolol, 279-280 Prospective studies, 14 Psychoactive drugs, 246 Psychopathology, 174, 279 genetic influences, 2, 46 psychophysiologic characteristics, 15, 91-92 and substance abuse, 9, 11, 82 Psychophysiologic assessment, 14-15, 91-92 and neuroimaging, 16 Psychosurgery, 12-13, 84-85, 88-89, 90 Psychotherapy, 228 P300 wave, 15 Puberty, 204-208, 227 Q Quantitative genetic studies, 2-5 R Race and ethnicity genetic influences, 48-50 Radioimmunoassay, 185 Rape, 43, 179 Rating scales, 221 Rats, 12, 21, 178-179, 194, 212, 225-226, 250, 251, 253, 256, 257, 267 Red deer, 212

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences Regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) techniques, 15, 81, 86 Registries, see National registries Reitan neuropsychologic battery, 86 Repeat offenders, 80, 208 Repetitive rapists, 24, 46 Reproductive strategies, 47-48 Research needs genetic influences, 46-47 seizure disorders, 83-85 sugar consumption, 526-527 Rhesus monkeys, 6, 196-197, 205, 277 Riots, 179 Risk perception, 46 r/K strategies, 47-48 Rodents, 4-5, 21-22, 77, 209, 211, 213, 225-226 S Sadism, 87, 175 Saliva, 188 Scandinavian countries, 4, 45, 214 Schizophrenia, 81-82, 89, 92, 246, 247 drug therapy, 9-10, 217, 268, 279 parental, 94 School performance and failure, 205 and fetal toxin exposure, 95 genetic influences, 2 and lead poisoning, 94 and neuropsychologic deficits, 13-14, 97-99 Seasonal affective disorders, 92 Seasonal rhythms, 10, 188, 221 Sedatives, see Anxiolytics Seizure disorders, 13, 24, 81, 84, 85, 93, 96 research needs, 83-85 see also Epilepsy Sensation seeking, 46 Serial killers, 79 Serotonin, 10-11, 82, 246, 249, 255-264 receptor-blocking drugs, 10, 11, 259, 271, 272-273, 275 Sex, see Females; Gender differences; Males Sex chromosome aneuploidy, 24, 26 Sex hormones, see Androgens; Estrogen; Steroids Sex offenders, 41, 88 antiandrogen therapy, 7, 214, 216 neuropsychology, 87 Sex-cycle rhythms, 188, 221 Siblings, 22-23, 47. see also Twin studies Skin conductance, 15 Smoking, 267 in pregnancy, 14, 95 withdrawal management, 10 Snails, 176 Social attitudes, 2 Social learning, 2-3, 14, 196 Social signals, 223-225 Socioeconomic status, 79, 90, 92, 93 and epilepsy, 85 and schizophrenia, 81 Somatotropic hormone, 205 Spinal cord, 61-62 Spinal punctures, 248-249 Sports, 179, 180, 219 Steroids, 1, 5-7, 183-184, 193, 205, 208-222, 246 anabolic, 7, 211, 220, 228 Stilbestrol, 214 Stimulants, 9, 270 Stress, 225-226 and hormonal levels, 7, 8 and serotonin levels, 7, 10 studies of, 179 Sugar consumption, 16-17, 520-531 and hyperactivity, 519, 520, 527-531 research needs, 526-527 see also Hypoglycemia Suicide, 256, 261, 271 Surgery castration, 214 on hormonal glands, 185, 192 see also Psychosurgery Surveys, 97 Sweden, 36-38 T Tamarinds, 197 Tamoxifen, 212, 216 Tardive dyskinesias, 270, 271 Temper tantrums, 277, 278 Temperament, 2 Testosterone, 5-7, 189, 194, 195-197, 205, 206, 211, 216, 217, 219, 222 Thioridazine, 270 Thioxanthines, 269 Thyroid, 184, 205 Tobacco use, in pregnancy, 14, 95

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 2, Biobehavioral Influences Tomography, see Computerized tomography; Positron emission tomography Tourette's syndrome, 247 Toxemic pregnancies, 197 Treatment interventions, 87-90 Tricyclics, 271, 272, 273 Twin studies, 3, 27, 29, 30-31, 32-34, 39, 41, 42, 45, 49 standardization of, 46 "Twinkie defense,"; 520-521 U Unique environmental variance, 22-23 United Kingdom, 226 Unverricht and Lundborg myoclonus epilepsy, 24 Urban areas, 44, 45 Urine samples, 248 V Verbal abilities and deficits, 13-14 Vertical environmental transmission, 23 W "Wandering tendency," 88 White, Dan, 520-521 Winning, 7, 219-220 Withdrawal states, 10 X X-linked disorders, 24 XYY syndrome, 24, 26