Index

A

Acquaintanceship. See Peer relationships;

Victim-offender dynamics, relationships

Adolescents. See Youth

African Americans. See Black population

Age, 2

and domestic violence, 18

and gender differences, 298-300, 303, 304

and marital violence, 143, 144-145, 201-202

and neighborhood density, 55

of offenders, 18-19, 21-22, 28

and victimization risk, 7-8, 11-12, 13, 303

see also Delinquency and status offenses;

Developmental psychology;

Youth

Aggression

and alcohol, 381-390 passim

animal studies, 378-390 passim

developmental studies, 325-328

gender roles and differences, 295, 325-331, 337-338

Agonistic behavior, 378, 380-381

Alcohol use and abuse, 2, 37, 38, 377-378, 381-390, 406-407

animal studies, 381-389 passim

and assault, 32, 384

dose-effect relationships, 382-385, 390

environmental factors, 381, 382, 385, 388-389, 390

gender differences, 385-386

and homicide, 384, 386

hormonal mechanisms, 382, 385-386, 390

and marital violence, 188-192, 201, 384

neurological effects, 377, 406, 407

neurological mechanisms, 381, 382, 386-387, 390

personality traits, 387-388

by victims, 32, 389, 390, 406

and violent crime, 384

see also Bars

Amphetamines, 378, 380, 394-399, 407

Androgens

and alcohol, 385

Animal models, 378-381

alcohol effects, 381-389 passim

drug effects, 390-406 passim



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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences Index A Acquaintanceship. See Peer relationships; Victim-offender dynamics, relationships Adolescents. See Youth African Americans. See Black population Age, 2 and domestic violence, 18 and gender differences, 298-300, 303, 304 and marital violence, 143, 144-145, 201-202 and neighborhood density, 55 of offenders, 18-19, 21-22, 28 and victimization risk, 7-8, 11-12, 13, 303 see also Delinquency and status offenses; Developmental psychology; Youth Aggression and alcohol, 381-390 passim animal studies, 378-390 passim developmental studies, 325-328 gender roles and differences, 295, 325-331, 337-338 Agonistic behavior, 378, 380-381 Alcohol use and abuse, 2, 37, 38, 377-378, 381-390, 406-407 animal studies, 381-389 passim and assault, 32, 384 dose-effect relationships, 382-385, 390 environmental factors, 381, 382, 385, 388-389, 390 gender differences, 385-386 and homicide, 384, 386 hormonal mechanisms, 382, 385-386, 390 and marital violence, 188-192, 201, 384 neurological effects, 377, 406, 407 neurological mechanisms, 381, 382, 386-387, 390 personality traits, 387-388 by victims, 32, 389, 390, 406 and violent crime, 384 see also Bars Amphetamines, 378, 380, 394-399, 407 Androgens and alcohol, 385 Animal models, 378-381 alcohol effects, 381-389 passim drug effects, 390-406 passim

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences Antipsychotic medications, 398-399, 406 Antisocial personality disorder and alcohol abuse, 387-389, 390 Arousal and marital violence, 223-224 Arrest blood alcohol levels at, 384 domestic and marital violence cases, 125-126, 129, 226-231, 249, 259 gender differences, 296-301, 312-314, 320, 321-322 race differences, 20-21 Assault, 6, 13 and age, 8, 18 and alcohol use, 32, 384 and drug use, 396, 402 gender differences, 8, 9, 19, 298, 300, 302 and marital status, 10 offenders as victims, 31, 32-34 race differences, 9-10, 20, 21 and social class, 11, 24 victim-offender relationship, 35 see also Domestic violence; Marital violence; Rape and sexual assault Australia alcoholism studies, 384, 389 victimization studies, 7 B Bars, 16, 32, 40, 62, 388 Beer, 385 Benzodiazepine and receptors, 386, 390 Biological factors, 295, 324-325, 352. See also Genetic factors; Hormonal mechanisms; Neurological mechanisms Black population, 6, 9-10, 20-21, 36, 64, 352 and family disruption, 72-73 homicides, 6, 9, 351 and imprisonment of women, 344-345 and marital homicide, 174-175 poverty concentration of, 69-70, 71-72, 88 Brain. See Neurological mechanisms Brain damage and alcohol, 386-387 Bystanders, 2 C Canada alcoholism studies, 384, 389 victimization studies, 16 Cannabis, 401-403 Careers in violence, 1, 28, 29, 90 community studies, 85 gender differences, 295, 316-318 marital abuse, 151-152, 212-216, 250, 253-255 Case-control methodology, 94n:29, 259 Catecholamines and receptors, 380, 386 Cats, 381, 390, 392, 395, 401 Census data, 79-80 Central nervous system. See Neurological mechanisms Chicago, Ill., 44, 48-49, 51, 62, 87 Child abuse and neglect, 26-27, 28, 130 and alcohol use, 384 gender differences, 311 and gender effects on criminal career choices, 332-333 historic movements against, 123 and marital violence, 147-148, 149-150, 192-195, 202, 215-216 protective factors, 27 and public policy, 116 Children. See Child abuse and neglect; Developmental psychology; Juvenile justice system; Youth Cities. See Metropolitan areas

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences Class. See Poverty and low income; Socioeconomic status Clonidine, 392 Cocaine, 278, 396, 399-401, 406, 407. See also Crack cocaine Code enforcement, 87, 89 Community institutions and organizations, 59, 76 Community-level risk factors, 1, 2-3, 29, 43-64, 75-83, 86, 89-90 family structure, 49, 55-57, 60, 72-73 housing and population density, 3, 49, 54-55, 71 marital violence, 173-174, 176 opportunity structures in, 73-75, 89 and public policy, 86-89, 90 Shaw and McCay model, 44-46, 47, 51, 53, 63 see also Cultural factors; Ecological factors; Mobility and community change; Poverty and low income; Race and ethnicity, community heterogeneity; Social disorganization Competitive behavior alcohol effects, 382 drug effects, 395, 398 Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS), 131-132, 135, 137, 139, 165, 181-184, 240, 241 Contextual analysis, 83-85 Correlates of violence. See Community-level risk factors; Individual-level risk factors; Situational risk factors Courts and gender differences, 340-342 juvenile, 340-341 and marital violence, 236-239, 245-249 and sexual assault cases, 347 Crack cocaine, 378, 399, 400, 407 Criminal justice system battered women's self-defense pleas, 244-245 and child abuse, 116 and domestic violence, 117, 118 and marital violence, 129-130, 225-249, 255 see also Arrest Cruising, 32, 33 Cultural factors and alcohol use, 381, 382, 389, 390, 407 community-level studies, 61-63, 64, 79-80 marital violence, 120-122, 206-208, 222-223, 224-225 see also Ethnography ''Cycle of violence," 26-27, 194-195, 221-222, 250-251, 258 D Data collection. See Census data; National Crime Survey; Official record data; Self-report studies Daytime activity, 14-15, 16 Delinquency and status offenses, 3, 21, 76 community-level studies, 44-45, 51-52, 81 and family structure, 25-26 female offenders, 21-22, 24, 314, 340-341 gangs, 24, 31, 58, 64 and social class, 3, 21, 23-25 and victimization risk, 31, 33-34 see also Juvenile justice system; Youth Demographic characteristics. See Age; Gender differences; Race and ethnicity; Victim-offender dynamics, overlap of demographic profiles Density of housing and population, 3, 49, 54-55, 71

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences of peer relationships, 58, 59 Dependency issues, 209 Deprivation. See Poverty and low income Deterrence, 339-340 Developmental psychology and alcohol abuse, 388, 390 and drug abuse, 393, 407 effects of witnessing marital violence, 26, 194-195, 201, 203, 211-212, 256, 258 gender differences, 325-328 Disorder and disorganization. See Social disorganization Divorce and separation, 10, 25, 70-71 Dogs, 382 Domestic violence, 1, 115-118, 130-132, 239-244, 250-260 and alcohol use, 384, 289 desistance from, 252-253 gender differences, 311 historic movements against, 122-124 police policies, 125-126 see also Child abuse and neglect; Marital violence Dopamine and receptors, 392, 398-399 Drinking. See Alcohol use and abuse; Bars Drug abuse, 2, 37-38, 377-378, 406-407 animal studies, 390-406 passim and gender, 339 neurological effects, 377, 378, 406 violent crime related to obtaining drugs, 38, 377, 393, 394 Drug dealing, 32, 38, 377, 393, 399, 400, 401, 403 E Ecological factors, 41-42. See also Community-level risk factors "Ecological fallacy," 45, 80 "Ecstasy," 394 Educational achievement and attachment, 27-29 Educational attainment, 11 and marital violence, 147, 149 Electroencephalogram (EEG), 387 Employment status and victimization risk, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 of women, and offending, 331 see also Unemployment Endocrinologic mechanisms. See Hormonal mechanisms England, victimization studies, 7 Environmental factors, 324-325 and alcohol, 381, 382, 385, 388-389, 390 animal studies, 379-380 see also Community-level risk factors; Situational risk factors Ethnicity. See Race and ethnicity Ethnography, 61-63, 79, 86, 252 "Eve," 394 Event-related potentials (ERPs), 387 Experimental research. See Laboratory experiments (human) F Family income. See Income levels Family structure and dynamics, 25-27, 28, 29, 89, 115-116, 326 and alcohol use, 388-389 community-level studies, 49, 55-57, 60, 72-73 and public policy, 116-117, 128-129 social control models of, 128-129 see also Child abuse and neglect; Domestic violence; Marital violence Feedback effects, 75-78 Female-headed families, 57 Females, 9, 294, 331-335, 350-352

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences delinquency, 21-22, 24, 314, 340-341 in gangs, 24, 318-320, 351 gun ownership, 76 homicide offending, 19, 20, 298, 300, 309-310 offense rates, 298-301, 312-315, 329-330 see also Feminist theory and activism; Gender differences; Gender roles; Marital violence; Rape and sexual assault Feminist theory and activism responses to marital violence, 116, 117, 124-125, 126, 127-128, 238 and role theory, 329-330, 334, 351 Finland, alcoholism studies, 388, 389 Fish, 382, 390, 395, 401, 404 Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 385 Friendships. See Peer relationships Frustration, and marital violence, 223-224 G Gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) and receptors, 386, 390, 407 Gangs, 24, 31, 58, 64 community-level studies, 48-49, 60, 61 females in, 24, 318-320, 351 Gender differences, 2, 293-296, 294, 295-296, 324-339, 337-339, 350-354 alcohol effects, 385-386 arrests, 296-301, 312-314, 320, 321-322 careers in violence, 295, 316-318 and criminal justice system, 320-322, 340-345 developmental psychology, 211-212, 325-328 homicides, 6, 8, 19, 36, 298, 300, 315-316, 351 limitations in analysis of, 295, 320-324 marital violence offending and victimization, 167-171, 172, 257, 311, 351 marital violence reporting, 138, 142 and neighborhood density, 55 offense rates and ratios, 19-20, 21-22, 28, 312-315, 320-324 research needs, 294, 295-296, 335-339, 350-354 severity of violence, 9, 36-37, 132, 167, 168, 257, 311, 311-312, 322 victimization, 8-9, 12, 13, 295, 302-310, 315-316, 353-354 Gender identity, 295 Gender roles, 295-296, 331-335, 353 and aggression, 295, 325-331, 337-338 and criminal careers, 331-339 labeling effects, 331-333 and marital violence, 202-203, 329 Genetic factors alcohol abuse, 387, 390, 406, 407 drug abuse, 406 Gentrification, 52 Gonadotropic hormones, 385 Great Britain, victimization studies, 16, 17, 32-33, 60 Guardians, 40, 55 absence of, 13, 32, 56 Guns, 38, 74-75, 76 H Hallucinogens, 377, 378, 401-406, 407 animal studies, 380 Hamsters, 391, 402 Heroin, 391, 393, 406

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences Hispanic population, 172, 175 Homicides, 6, 64 and age, 8, 18 and alcohol use, 384, 386 community-level studies, 45-46, 47, 48-49, 51, 67-70 and drug use, 396, 400 gender differences, 6, 8, 19, 36, 298, 300, 315-316, 351 by marital violence victims, 163, 199-201, 218-221, 244-245 race differences, 9, 351 of spouses and partners, 117, 158-164, 166, 174-176, 199-201 third-party involvement, 40 victim-offender relationship, 35 and youth, 90-91n:4, 384 Hormonal mechanisms, 324-325, 352 of alcohol, 382, 385-386, 390 of opiates, 392-393 Housing, and public policy, 87, 90 Housing and population density, 3, 49, 54-55, 71 (5-HT) receptors. See Serotonin (5-HT) receptors 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 386 I Ice. See Methamphetamine Imprisonment, and gender differences, 342-344 Income levels and marital violence, 143, 145, 202 and victimization risk, 10-11, 13 Individual-level risk factors, 1, 2, 3, 80, 89, 90 marital violence, 201-206, 221-225, 240-241 in offending, 2, 17-29 in victimization, 2, 6-17 see also Age; Gender differences; Lifestyle-routine activity theories; Marital status; Personality traits; Race and ethnicity; Socioeconomic status Injuries, 9, 38 domestic violence, 116, 117, 131, 156-157, 176-180 Inner city abandonment of, 69, 76, 77 and delinquency, 44 and marital violence, 143, 145, 172 Institutions. See Community institutions and organizations Intergenerational violence, 26-27, 194-195, 221-222, 250-251, 258 Interracial violence, 36 Intimacy, 209 Intimates, violence between. See Marital violence J Juvenile justice system, and gender differences, 340-341 Juveniles. See Delinquency and status offenses; Youth L Labeling, and gender roles, 331-333 Laboratory experiments (human), 379-380, 381 alcohol effects, 382, 388 amphetamine effects, 395 cannabis effects, 402 see also Animal models Laws and statutes affecting sexual assault cases, 347-350 and child abuse, 116 and marital violence, 122-124, 125, 166 Leisure activity, 73-74 Lifestyle-routine activity theories, 2, 13-17, 41-42, 73-74, 77, 91-92n:14

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences and gender differences, 315-316 and violent subculture theory, 31 Longitudinal studies, 84-85 LSD, 403-404, 407 Luteinizing hormone (LH), 385 M Macrolevel risk factors. See Community-level risk factors; Metropolitan areas; Research activities and needs Males, 36, 293, 294 victimization risk, 8, 9 see also Gender differences; Gender roles; Marital violence Marijuana. See Cannabis Marital status, 2, 25, 143, 146, 153 and victimization risk, 10, 12, 13, 16, 56 Marital violence, 116, 117-118, 130-132, 142-151, 239-244, 250-260 and alcohol abuse, 188-192, 201, 384 careers in, 151-152, 212-216, 250, 253-255 and child abuse, 147-148, 149-150, 192-195, 202, 215-216 criminal justice policy, 129-130, 225-249, 255 cross-cultural studies, 120-122 cultural factors, 206-208, 222-223, 224-225 definitions, 118-119 desistance from, 151-152, 213, 252-253 deterrence and intervention, 129, 228-233, 241, 242, 253, 259 effects on children, 26, 194-195, 201, 203, 211-212, 256 feminist responses to, 116, 117, 124-125, 126, 127-128 gender differences, 167-171, 172, 257, 311, 351 historical policies, 122-124 homicides, 117, 158-164, 166, 174-176, 199-201 homicides by victims, 163, 199-201, 218-221, 244-245 offender characteristics, 185-197, 202-203 power motivation in, 208-210, 223-224 and public policy, 117-118, 122-127, 128-130, 225-249, 255 and rape, 116, 164-166 rationalization of, 216-218, 258 research needs, 258-260 risk factors, 201-206, 221-225, 240-241 social controls, 128-129, 205, 248-249 and stranger violence, 196-197, 204-205, 213, 214, 215-216, 251-252 survey results, 133-156, 171-174 theories of, 249-252 treatment interventions, 236-239, 255-256 victim characteristics, 197-199, 203-204 victim empowerment, 128, 210-211, 256-257, 260 MDA, 394 MDMA, 394 Mediation, 40 Men. See Gender differences; Gender roles; Males; Marital violence Mescaline, 404 Methadone, 391, 392, 393-394 Methamphetamine ("ice"), 378, 394, 396 Methodological limitations in domestic violence studies, 132, 133 ecological fallacy, 45, 80 in gender analyses, 295, 320-324 in macrolevel analysis, 65-67, 75 of offender data, 17-18, 22, 23, 24-25, 29

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences in social class measurement, 24 use of official record data, 46-47 victimization studies, 35, 42 victim resistance data, 39 Metropolitan areas, 43, 305 opportunity structures in, 73-75, 89 Mice, 382, 383, 385, 388, 389, 390, 391, 395, 400, 401, 402, 404, 405 Microlevel risk factors. See Situational risk factors Minority groups. See Black population; Race and ethnicity Mobility and community change, 3, 89 community-level studies, 44, 49, 50, 51-53, 60, 63, 64 Models and modeling and gender differences, 295 see also Animal models Monkeys, 325, 379, 382, 383, 385, 386, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 395, 396, 398, 399, 401, 403, 404, 405 Morphine, 390 Multicollinearity, 66-67 Municipal services, 87, 90 Murder. See Homicides N Naloxone, 391 Naltrexone, 391 Narcotics. See Drug abuse; Opiates National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, 115 National Crime Survey (NCS), 7, 15, 47, 90n:2 data on offenders, 17-18, 22 and gender differences, 302-310 marital violence data, 133, 152-156, 167, 180-181 and victim-offender relationship, 35 National Family Violence Surveys (NFVS), 133, 134-135, 139-143 National Youth Survey (NYS), 24, 34, 137 Native Americans, and alcohol abuse, 389 Neighborhoods. See Community-level risk factors; Ecological factors; Mobility and community change Neurological mechanisms, 378, 380 of alcohol, 381, 382, 386-387, 390 of amphetamines, 398-399 drug effects, 377, 378, 406 of opiates and withdrawal, 391-392 of PCP, 405-406 Neutralization of violent behavior, 216-218 Nighttime activity, 14-15, 16-17 O Offenders, 2, 17-29 age of, 18-19, 21-22, 28 alcohol abuse, 384 family structures and processes, 25-27 marital status, 25 marital violence, 185-197, 202-203 sex of, 19-20, 21-22, 28, 312-315, 320-324 as victims, 17, 31-34 see also Careers in violence; Victim-offender dynamics Official record data, 17, 35, 46-47 marital violence, 156-158, 180 see also Uniform Crime Reports OLS (ordinary least squares) regression analysis, 240-241 Opiates, 378, 390-394, 407 animal studies, 380, 390-391 Opportunity structures and theories, 73-75, 89 and gender roles, 331, 338-339 and offenders as victims, 32

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences P Paranoid psychosis, 394, 396, 397, 399 Parents. See Child abuse and neglect; Family structure and dynamics Parole, and gender differences, 344-345 "Partialling fallacy," 66 Partner assault. See Marital violence Patriarchal social organization, and marital violence, 203, 205, 206-208 Peer relationships, 58-59, 90 and alcohol use, 388-389 among youth, 27, 58, 60, 64 density of acquaintanceship, 58, 59 local social networks, 58-59, 76 Peptides, 380, 386, 392 Personality traits of alcoholics, 387-388 gender-related, 295 of wife-abusive men, 186-188, 202, 214, 223, 224-225 Pharmacology. See Alcohol use and abuse; Drug abuse Phencyclidine (PCP), 404-406, 407 Pigeons, 395, 401 Police and marital violence, 125-126, 210, 226-233, 249 and sexual assault, 308-309, 345-347 as source of data bias, 46-47, 305, 338 see also Reports to police Policy. See Public policy Population density. See Housing and population density Poverty and low income, 3, 5, 88, 89 community-level studies, 44-45, 48-50, 52, 60, 63, 66, 67-70 Predatory behavior, 32, 40, 56, 380 Pregnancy, and marital violence, 148, 149, 170, 202, 203 "Principle of homogamy," 13-14, 33, 41 Probation, and gender differences, 342 Prosecution of marital violence, 129, 233-236, 245-247 of sexual assault cases, 347-350 Psychomotor stimulants, 377 Public housing, 54, 87, 88-89 Public perception, of domestic violence, 115, 116-117, 258 Public policy community-level orientation, 86-89, 90 family violence, 116-117, 128-129 and gender differences, 293, 339-350 victim support and rights, 117, 126, 127, 255 Public transportation, 16, 17 Puritan era, 122-123 "Purse snatching," 91n:6 R Race and ethnicity, 9-10, 12, 20-22, 28, 82-83, 85, 293, 352 and age, 10, 21-22 community heterogeneity, 3, 44, 53-54, 64 crossover violence, 36 disaggregation in macrolevel research, 71-73 and gender, 6, 9, 10, 21-22, 309-310, 337-338, 352 and homicide, 36, 309-310 and homicide of spouses and partners, 160-162 and imprisonment, 344-345 and marital violence, 143, 144, 160-162, 172-173 and neighborhood density, 55 and social class, 24 see also Black population

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences Rape and sexual assault, 6, 8-9, 19, 22, 302, 303 and age, 8 community-level studies, 70-71 and education, 11 and income level, 11 race differences, 9, 20, 21 and resistance by victim, 39 of spouses and partners, 116, 164-166 and substance use, 384, 402 treatment of victims, 130, 345-350 victim-offender relationship, 35, 302-303, 308 Rats, 380, 381, 382, 383, 385, 386, 388, 389, 390, 391, 395, 399, 401, 402, 404, 405 Relationships. See Child abuse and neglect; Domestic violence; Family structure and dynamics; Marital violence; Peer relationships; Victim-offender dynamics, relationships Reports to police and gender bias, 305, 307, 320-321, 338 marital violence, 173-174, 175-176 and offenders as victims, 31-32 sexual assault, 345-346 Research activities and needs child abuse, 116 community-level studies, 46-64, 75-83 contextual analysis, 83-85 cross-level misspecification, 75, 80-83 desistance, 252-253 domestic and marital violence, 117-118, 130-132, 239-244, 250-260 ethnography, 61-63, 79, 86, 252 and feedback effects, 75-78 gender differences, 294, 295-296, 324-339, 350-354 interpretation problems, 75-83 lifestyle-routine activities theories, 13-17, 41-42 longitudinal studies, 84-85 mediating community processes, 75, 78-80 metropolitan-level studies, 64-75 multilevel analyses of risk factors, 1-2, 3-5, 75, 80-86, 89-90 racial disaggregation, 71-73 third-party involvement, 40 victimization, 6-12 victim resistance, 39-40 see also Animal models; Laboratory experiments (human); Methodological limitations; Self-report studies Retaliation by victims, 2, 31, 40 Retrospective studies, 254-255 Risk factors. See Community-level risk factors; Individual-level risk factors; Situational risk factors Robbery, 6, 11, 13, 28, 38 and age, 8, 18, 19 community-level studies, 47, 70-71 gender differences, 8, 9, 19, 298, 302 race differences, 9, 20-21 and resistance by victim, 39 victim-offender relationship, 35 "Rule of thumb," 123, 261n:4 S Scandinavia, alcoholism studies, 384, 387 Segregation effects, 69-70, 88 Self-defense and resistance, 2, 38-40 homicides by battered women as, 126, 244-245 see also Retaliation by victims

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences Self-report studies, 17, 23, 47 and gender differences, 310-311, 323-324 marital violence, 181-184 Sentencing, gender differences in, 340-342 Serotonin (5-HT) receptors alcohol effects, 386, 390, 407 drug effects, 403 Severity of violence, 8 in domestic violence, 132, 141-142, 150, 167, 168, 176-178, 257, 311 gender differences, 9, 36-37, 132, 167, 168, 257, 311-312, 322 and presence of weapon, 38, 40 and resistance by victim, 39-40 and third-party involvement, 40 Sex. See Females; Gender differences; Gender roles; Males Sexual violence. See Rape and sexual assault "Shadow cultures," 63 Shaw and McCay model, 44-46, 47, 51, 53, 63 Situational risk factors, 1, 2, 3, 29, 30-42, 89, 90 in homicides of spouses and partners, 162-164 see also Alcohol use and abuse; Drug abuse; Ecological factors; Third parties' involvement; Victim-offender dynamics; Weapons Social control, 128-129 marital violence, 128-129, 205, 248-249 Social controls, 76, 79 community-level studies, 45, 58 Social disorganization, 76, 79, 89-90 community-level studies, 45, 57-62, 63, 64 and public policy, 87-90 Social judgment theory, and homicides by abused women, 219-221 Social networks, 58-59, 60, 76, 80, 87 and marital violence, 208 Social services, 116, 129 Socioeconomic status, 2, 7, 10-12 of offenders, 23-25, 28 see also Educational attainment; Employment status; Income levels; Poverty and low income; Unemployment South Africa, alcoholism studies, 389 Southern states, homicide rates, 64 Spousal abuse. See Marital violence Stability of neighborhoods. See Mobility and community change Status offenses. See Delinquency and status offenses Statutes. See Laws and statutes Steroids, 380, 386 Subculture of violence theory, 31-34, 64, 80 and community-level factors, 61-63, 93n:24 Substance abuse. See Drug abuse Suburbs, marital violence rates, 145 Surveys. See Longitudinal studies; National Crime Survey; National Family Violence Surveys; National Youth Survey Sweden, alcoholism studies, 389 T Teenagers. See Youth Television viewing, 73-74 Terrorism, 356n:11 Testosterone, 385, 390, 392-393 THC. See Cannabis Theft, 6, 15 Third parties' involvement, 2, 40

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Understanding and Preventing Violence - Volume 3: Social Influences Treatment interventions, marital violence, 236-239, 255-256 Tribal societies, alcohol use studies, 389 Turnover. See Mobility and community change U Unemployment, 11, 12, 13, 50 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 6, 153, 354-355n:4 and gender differences, 296-301, 302, 305, 309 Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHRs), 159 United Kingdom, alcoholic offender studies, 384 Urban areas. See Metropolitan areas Urban renewal, 87-88 V Validity of animal models, 379-381 of gender role and identity constructs, 295 of marital violence research, 180-181, 182-184 Victim-offender dynamics, 2, 30 overlap of demographic profiles, 4, 30-34 relationships, 34-37 and resistance by victim, 38-40 Victims and victimization, 2, 6-17 and age, 7-8, 11-12, 13, 303 alcohol use, 32, 389, 390, 406 criminal justice emphasis on, 117, 126-127 domestic violence issues, 117, 126-127 gender differences, 8-9, 12, 13, 295, 302-310, 315-316, 353-354 marital status, 10, 12, 13, 16, 56 marital violence, 197-199, 203-204 multilevel analyses, 90 offenders as, 17, 31-34 resistance and self-defense, 2, 38-40 retaliation by, 2, 31, 40 rights of, 117, 126, 127 self-defense homicides, 126, 244-245 Voluntary organizations community, 59 W Weapons, 2, 9, 38, 40, 73, 74-75, 76, 400 Weckamine, 394 Wife battering. See Marital violence Withdrawal effects, 380, 391-393, 394 Women. See Females; Feminist theory and activism; Marital violence; Rape and sexual assault Y Youth and cocaine, 400 and homicide, 90-n:4, 384 neighborhood supervision of, 56, 60, 64 peer relationships, 27, 58, 60, 64 victimization risk, 8, 14, 33-34 see also Delinquency and status offenses