a Based on costs for all felony cases and the processing stages for aggravated assault (no estimates available for simple assaults).
case was about $230 in 1987 dollars (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1988c:4-5). Although no published crime-specific estimates are available, we can estimate the cost by crime type, based on a few additional pieces of information. From Table 15, we estimate the weighted average time spent by judges per case to be 4.05 hours. This implies an average cost of indigent defense of $57 per hour of judicial time.
Spangenberg et al. (1986:33) reported that 48 percent of all felony cases require indigent defense. No estimates are available on the cost to defendants who hire their own legal counsel. However, given the relatively low fees paid for indigent defense, privately funded legal defense costs are likely to be higher. Absent other data, we assume that the private cost per case is the same as the indigent defense cost estimated above.
Assuming that indigent defense time is proportional to judicial time and that the cost of private defense is the same as indigent defense, we can estimate the average cost per case, as shown in Table 21.
Cost of Sanctions
Convicted offenders are subject to a variety of sanctions such as jail or prison, probation, community service, and fines. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (1989c), incarceration is imposed in 95 percent of murder, 75 percent of rape, 76 percent of robbery, and 45 percent of aggravated assault convictions. Expected time served in prison for newly incarcerated offenders and