into conduct that was not in itself criminal and by taking children out of their communities, the juvenile justice system might be stigmatizing children and putting them in environments where it was easier for them to become committed to lives of crime and to learn the necessary skills (Sarri and Hasenfeld, 1976). Still more recently, advocates have sought to shift the focus of the juvenile justice system from its rehabilitative purposes to greater reliance on the mechanisms of deterrence and incapacitation to control juvenile crime, that is, to make the system resemble the adult system more closely than it now does (Springer, 1986).

The only point of reviewing this history is to illustrate the fact that the criminal justice community has had a long tradition of thinking about how to prevent crimes by intervening in the development of criminal offenders, and that this tradition has been located principally in debates about the proper jurisdiction and approaches of the juvenile justice system. In all likelihood, this tradition will continue as the criminal justice community ponders what to do with a juvenile justice system that has disappointed everyone, but still seems to be the only institution positioned to intervene forcefully in the development processes that surround children who commit crimes or are themselves the victims of crime (Moore et al., 1987). This position has assumed particular importance as it has become apparent that (1) there are some offenders who are particularly active and can be identified (imperfectly) at relatively early stages of development, and (2) the conditions under which children are now being raised are deteriorating badly.

Controlling Criminogenic Commodities

In recent years, the criminal justice community has also begun to be wooed away from its preoccupation with offenders and to examine other approaches to controlling criminal violence. One focus has been on ''criminogenic commodities" - including alcohol, drugs, and guns (Moore, 1983b). In public health language, the widespread availability of alcohol, drugs, and guns has been seen as an important risk factor for violence, and the criminal justice community has sought to establish laws, and enforce existing laws, to reduce the danger of these commodities.

Among these commodities, drugs have been the most consistently favored target of the criminal justice community. Indeed, it is the conviction that drugs are closely tied to criminal violence that has propelled drug control to the forefront of the nation's



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