on violence in the conviction offense were a residual unclassified group (Uncle), whose modal characteristics could not be specified, and Jupiter, a type with such low prevalence that it is ordinarily excluded in other tests of the validity and reliability of the typology.

Thus the classification does not appear to yield valid indicators for distinguishing inmates who were violent in situations outside penal institutions. Nonetheless, the typology reportedly has been useful for reducing institutional violence by segregating types that are predatory from types that are prone to victimization. For example, violence within prisons appears to be reduced by segregating Deltas (amoral, hedonistic, egocentric, bright and manipulative, poor relations with peers and authorities, impulsive, sensation seeking leads to frequent infractions) from easily victimized inmates (Megargee et al., 1988).

The utility of the typology is limited by its complexity. Computer-programmed analyses of the MMPI scores were found to classify only two-thirds of the cases into the 10 types; the remaining classifications require clinical judgments for which interrater reliability is poor.

Attraction to Sexual Aggression (ASA) Scale The ASA scale (Malamuth, 1989) instrument asks for respondents' rankings of attitudes and opinions about 13 sexual acts ranging from "necking" to rape and pedophilia. Respondents state whether or not they have ever thought about trying the activity and provide opinions on the attractiveness of the 13 acts, the percentage of males and the percentage of females who would find the acts sexually arousing, the extent to which the respondent would find the acts sexually arousing, and the likelihood of engaging in the acts if there were no negative social repercussions. The dichotomous responses of whether or not the respondent ever thought of trying the activities are combined into the ASA scale by using multivariate scaling techniques; based on the other rankings, several different scales are constructed.

A shorter version of the ASA instrument refers to six sexual behaviors. The reliability and validity of both the long and the short versions of the instrument appear to be acceptable (Malamuth, 1989). Comparisons with other measures of sexual aggression (discussed below) indicate that this scale, applied to sexually experienced men, will distinguish those who are high on sexual aggression and, applied to sexually inexperienced men, has some utility for assessing their potential future risk for sexual aggression.



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