Index

A

ABC News survey, 34-35, 53

Accuracy of prediction, 223-225, 227-228, 278-279, 280

Adolescents. See Youth

Age, 245, 280

and confidence in criminal justice system, 53

and fear of violence, 11-14, 34

and incarceration and sentencing, 51, 309

and perceived seriousness of violent acts, 48

see also Juvenile delinquency;

Older persons;

Youth

Aggression, 235-236

Alarms, 23

Alcohol abuse, 180, 190, 196, 197-198, 280

Altruistic fear, 56-57

American Psychiatric Association, 220, 236

Animal models, 25-26

Antisocial personality disorder, 236, 242, 245

Anxiety, 4-5, 96

Arrest, 168, 222

risk of, 311-312, 332-334, 336

Assault, 35, 86, 92, 93, 99, 105, 107, 142, 151n:16, 173-174, 301, 302, 303, 309

mental health impacts, 96, 98

perceived seriousness of, 46

Attraction to Sexual Aggression (ASA) Scale, 233

Avoidance behaviors, 20, 21-22, 23-24, 26, 54, 55-56

B

Battered women's centers, 101

Behavior. See Lifestyle; Offenders and criminal behavior

Behavioral science model, 188

Benefit-cost analyses, 71-72, 147

of incarceration policies, 71, 132, 349-354

Black population

confidence in criminal justice system, 53-54

fear of, 18-19

homicides, 168

knowledge of others' victimization, 34, 36

and perceived seriousness of violent acts, 47-48

Blood glucose levels, 263, 286n:13



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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control Index A ABC News survey, 34-35, 53 Accuracy of prediction, 223-225, 227-228, 278-279, 280 Adolescents. See Youth Age, 245, 280 and confidence in criminal justice system, 53 and fear of violence, 11-14, 34 and incarceration and sentencing, 51, 309 and perceived seriousness of violent acts, 48 see also Juvenile delinquency; Older persons; Youth Aggression, 235-236 Alarms, 23 Alcohol abuse, 180, 190, 196, 197-198, 280 Altruistic fear, 56-57 American Psychiatric Association, 220, 236 Animal models, 25-26 Antisocial personality disorder, 236, 242, 245 Anxiety, 4-5, 96 Arrest, 168, 222 risk of, 311-312, 332-334, 336 Assault, 35, 86, 92, 93, 99, 105, 107, 142, 151n:16, 173-174, 301, 302, 303, 309 mental health impacts, 96, 98 perceived seriousness of, 46 Attraction to Sexual Aggression (ASA) Scale, 233 Avoidance behaviors, 20, 21-22, 23-24, 26, 54, 55-56 B Battered women's centers, 101 Behavior. See Lifestyle; Offenders and criminal behavior Behavioral science model, 188 Benefit-cost analyses, 71-72, 147 of incarceration policies, 71, 132, 349-354 Black population confidence in criminal justice system, 53-54 fear of, 18-19 homicides, 168 knowledge of others' victimization, 34, 36 and perceived seriousness of violent acts, 47-48 Blood glucose levels, 263, 286n:13

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control Bureau of Justice Statistics, 87, 243 Burglary, 18, 20, 30, 35, 36, 177, 300, 303 C California, 136, 300, 318, 319, 320, 363n:18 Case management, 220, 284n:2 Censoring events, 247, 254, 283 Chicago, Ill., 18-19, 22 Chicago Tribune, 29, 30 Child abuse and neglect, 92, 148, 151n:16, 179, 200-201 classification instruments, 234-235, 242 false accusations of, 139-140 later violent behavior by victims, 81, 122, 180, 201, 238 mental health impacts, 98, 179-180 psychological testing for, 234-235 risk factors, 237 Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory, 234-235 Cities. See Neighborhoods; Urban areas Citizen patrols and crime-reporting programs, 24 Classification of violent behavior, 217-219, 226-228, 229-247 informal methods, 225-226 research needs, 281-283 types of, 230-245 Clinical predictions, 237 Coefficient alpha, 223 Community treatment facilities, 83 Companionship, 19, 22 loss of, 81, 119 Compensatory value. See Willingness to accept Conduct disorder, 236 Consequences of violent behavior, 1, 67-69. See also Costs of violent behavior; Injuries Construct validity, 221-222 Consumer product injuries, 89-90 Content validity, 221 Contingent valuation surveys, 85 Corporal punishment, 204 Correctional institutions and inmates, 296-298, 354-358 classification systems, 231-233, 236-237 costs of incarceration, 71-72, 73, 83, 131-134, 136-139 fear of victimization in, 56 offense rates and mix, 307-321 official records, 240-241 overcrowding, 305-307 populations, 298-307, 320-321 public opinion on, 49-50 rates of incarceration, 131-132, 315-320 risk and severity of imprisonment, 312-314 Costs of violent behavior, 67-70, 75, 76, 87-89, 91-122, 141-145 comparisons among offenses, 70-71 conceptual framework, 72-79 criminal justice system, 83, 125-135 death risk, 86, 117-118 direct, 72, 79, 79-81, 80, 85, 87, 91-101 emergency response, 101-106 estimation, 69-72, 78-79, 84-87, 189 to family members, 81, 118-121 fear of crime, 83, 88, 125 fixed, average, and marginal, 76-77 imprisonment, 71-72, 73, 83, 131-134, 136-139 indirect, 85-86, 99-101 injuries, 82, 84-87, 89-91, 91-94, 145-146 literature review, 84-91 medical, 73, 79, 88, 89-94, 145 mental health, 79, 88, 98-99, 114-115, 121, 122, 152n:24-25 monetary, 73-74, 87, 99-101 nonmonetary, 72, 73-74, 79, 81, 85-86, 87-89, 101, 150n:8 to offenders, 73, 83, 84, 136-139, 141 offsetting benefits, 75-76 overdeterrence, 83-84, 139-140 pain, suffering, and quality of life, 73-74, 81, 88, 89, 90, 112-117 and policy analysis, 71-72 preventive measures, 70, 87, 123-125, 135-136 reduction measures, 77-78 research needs, 99, 146-148 and seriousness of acts, 37, 70, 149n:3 societal, 72-73, 82-84, 122-140, 144, 145

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control torts, 81, 111-112 victim assistance, 77-78, 101-103, 104 see also Productivity losses Courts costs, 83, 126 public confidence in, 49, 53 Crime. See Criminal justice system; Mass media (for news coverage) ; Nonviolent crime; Offenders and criminal behavior Crime event/criminal profile data, 241-242 Crime seriousness index, 70 ''Crime stoppers" programs, 136 Criminal intent, 58-59, 182-183 Criminal justice system case processing, 126-129, 130, 131 costs, 83, 125-135, 147 legal fees, 83, 129, 131, 132 public confidence in, 49, 53-54 versus public health perspectives, 167-183, 191-210 public opinion, 27-28, 48-54, 59 research activities and researchers, 172, 188-191 sanction policies, 311-321 see also Correctional institutions and inmates Criminogenic commodities, 170, 190-191, 196-198, 202, 206 Criterion validity, 222 Cross-sectional studies, 219 Cultural influences and perceived seriousness of crimes, 37 and violence prevention, 171, 203-205, 207, 209-210 Cycle of violence. See Intergenerational violence D Dallas, Tex., 16, 17, 21, 22 Dangerous persons, 18-19 Dangerous places, 15-18, 21-22, 24, 55-56 Darkness, 19, 22 Death penalty, 133-134 Deaths, 81 risk, 86, 117-118 Dementia, 235 Demographic characteristics and confidence in criminal justice system, 53-54 and fear of victimization, 11-15, 33-34 and knowledge of others' victimization, 34, 36 offenders, 228, 245 and perceived seriousness of violent acts, 47-48, 51 and punishments preferred, 51-52 see also Age; Employment status; Females; Gender differences; Income level; Males; Older persons; Race and ethnicity; Youth Desistance, 246-247, 328-330 Deterrence, 49, 52, 59, 71-72, 73, 168, 182, 183, 194, 321, 336-348, 350-351, 356-357 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), 220, 235-236, 245 Dichotomous dependent variables, 256 Discount rates, 78-79 Discriminate analysis, 256 Disorganized asocial offenders, 241 Dogs, for personal security, 23, 123 Domestic violence, 92, 151n:16, 170, 179, 199, 200-201 mental health impacts, 179-180 see also Child abuse and neglect; Spousal abuse Downtown areas, 16 Dramatization of crime, 31-32, 204 Driving while intoxicated, 58, 197-198 Drug abuse, 180, 190, 196-197, 228, 235-236, 240-241, 262, 280, 285-286n:12 Drug offenses, 45, 302, 303, 320, 359n:6 dealers, 86, 87, 150n:10, 228-229, 243 Durkheim, Emile, 26-27 E Early release programs, 72, 307, 320-321, 328 Economics. See Costs of violent behavior Educational level, and sentencing, 51 Educational programs, 135, 201, 205-206

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control Elderly. See Older persons Electronic monitoring of offenders, 71 Emergency medical treatment, 89 transport costs, 73, 105-106 Employer costs of injuries, 107 Employment status prior to offense, 136-137 and victimization risk, 86 Engraving of valuables, 21, 23 Entertainment, crime as, 31-32, 204 Environmental influences, 184-188 fear reactions, 4, 5, 15-19, 57-58 and violence prevention, 201-203 Epidemiological studies, 168-169, 183-188, 243-244 Escorts, 22, 24 Ethnopenologies, 49, 52 Expressive violence, 186 Extortion, 178 F Failure-time models, 247, 268-272, 282 False imprisonment, 138, 139-140 Family members of offenders, 138 quality of life costs, 118-121 see also Child abuse and neglect; Domestic violence; Spousal abuse Fear of victimization, 2, 3-28, 167 biological bases, 25-26 community responses, 24-25, 26-28 conceptual issues, 3-5 consequences of, 20-24, 26-27, 177-178 costs, 83, 88, 125 and cues to danger, 4, 5, 15-19, 57-58 and knowledge of others' victimization, 36 lifestyle changes, 26, 83, 124-125 for loved ones, 56-57 measurement of, 5-6 offense-specific, 7-11 physiological indicators, 3, 5-6 and prior victimization, 19-20, 54-55, 96 research needs, 54-57 social distribution, 1, 11-15 sociological impacts, 26-27 surveys of, 3, 6-7, 21-24, 57 see also Public opinion and perception Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) crime statistics, 7, 31, 92, 117, 243 offender typologies, 241-242 Females and fear of violence, 11-14, 18 mental health impacts of victimization, 96, 98 risk reduction measures, 23-24 see also Gender differences; Rape Fictional crime, 31-32 Fines, 137 Firearms. See Weapons Fixed costs, 76, 77 Florida, 300, 302, 303-305, 319, 320 Folk theories. See Ethnopenologies Frontier justice, 27-28 G Gallup Surveys, 6, 7, 9, 53 Gangs, 178 Gender differences, 245, 280 fear of violence, 11-14, 18 and perceived seriousness of violent acts, 48 risk reduction measures, 23-24 and sentencing, 51 General Social Survey (GSS), 2, 6, 7, 23, 36, 53 Goetz, Bernard, 28 Gresham's Law, 31 Guns. See Weapons H "Habilitation" programs, 135 Haddon matrix, 184, 185, 187 Health consequences. See Injuries Health insurance, 79, 109-110, 145, 153n:30-31 Hedonic pricing models, 85-86, 87 Home detention, 134 Homicide, 86, 138-139, 168, 173, 266, 303, 309, 320 child witnesses of, 120, 121 costs of, 92, 94, 106, 108-109 family impacts of, 120-121, 145-146

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control interpersonal diffusion of knowledge of, 35-36 mass murderers, 191, 241-242 news coverage, 30 perceived seriousness of, 38 risk of, 2, 9, 117-118 in television dramas, 32 "Hosts," 184-187, 191 Household characteristics, 55 Household duties, loss of, 79, 81, 88, 107-108, 118, 153n:28-29 "Human capital" valuation, 74 I Imprisonment. See Correctional institutions and inmates Incapacitation of offenders, 49, 52, 71-72, 73, 75-76, 168, 182, 183, 194, 321-336, 341, 344, 346, 349-354, 356-357 Incest, 98 Incidence-based cost estimates, 78-79 Income level of incarcerated offenders, 137 and knowledge of others' victimization, 36 and victimization risk, 86 Income transfer programs, 110 Index crime rate, 308-309, 360n:8-9 Index of Spouse Abuse, 231 Indigent defense, 83, 129, 131 Information sources, on violence, 1, 2, 28-38, 57-58. See also Mass media Injuries, 167-168, 173, 175-176 costs, 82, 84-87, 89-91, 91-94, 145-146 see also Mental health injuries; Risk of injury and victimization Innocent parties, 84 Instrumental violence, 186 Insurance, 21, 23, 109-111, 145-146, 153n:30-31 Intergenerational violence, 122, 180 Internal consistency, 223 Interpersonal diffusion of crime news, 34-36, 57 Interrater reliability, 223 J Jury awards, 85, 86, 88, 89, 98, 114, 115-116, 119 Jury Verdict Research, Inc., 111, 114-115 Juvenile delinquency arrest records, 238-239 referrals to court, 239 sentencing, 51 K Kuder-Richardson formula (KR20), 223 L Laboratory studies, 244 Lambda. See Rate of commission Late luteal phase dysphoric disorder, 236 Law. See Criminal justice system; Torts Life insurance, 110, 145-146 Lifestyle, 55, 99, 101 Longitudinal studies, 219, 244 fear of victimization, 54-55 perceived seriousness of violent acts, 58 Losses. See Costs of violent behavior M Males in crime dramas, 32 fear of, 18, 19 and fear of violence, 11, 13 homicides, 168 mental health impacts of victimization, 96 risk reduction measures, 24 see also Gender differences Marginal costs, 70, 76-77 of incarceration, 73 Mass media, 1, 2, 28-34, 57 and community programs, 25 crime as entertainment, 31-32, 204 crime as filler material, 31 criticisms of crime news coverage, 29-31 Mass murderers, 241-242 Media General/Associated Press survey, 53

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control Medical costs, 73, 79, 88, 89-94, 145 Mental health injuries, 94-99, 167, 181 costs, 79, 88, 98-99, 114-115, 121, 122, 152n:24-25 to family members, 119-121 to witnesses, 121-122 Mental retardation, 236 Michigan, 302, 320 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 231-233, 284n:2 "Mirror image" model, 30-31, 33 Molestation, 96, 97 Moral judgments, 167, 191, 204-205. See also Normative evaluations Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), 58 Multiple personality disorder, 98 Multiplicative model of fear, 8-9 Multivariate scaling techniques, 231-235, 246 Murder. See Homicide N National Accident Sampling System (NASS), 93 National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI) data base, 93-94, 151-152n:19 National Crime Survey (NCS), 7, 23, 26, 57, 87, 88, 92-93, 95, 127-129, 148, 150-151n:14-17, 311-312 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), 93 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 93 National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), 93 National Survey of Crime Severity, 38-48 National Survey of Punishment for Criminal Offenses, 50 Neighborhoods, 15-18, 21, 87 and conversations about crime, 34 Neighborhood watch programs, 24-25, 27, 136 News coverage. See Mass media Newspapers, 28-29, 30 New York, 300, 303, 320 Nicotine withdrawal, 236 Nighttime, 19, 22, 24, 26, 83 Nonviolent crime interpersonal diffusion of knowledge of, 35-36 news coverage, 30-31 perceived seriousness of, 38, 46 and potential for violence, 176-178, 180-181 Normative evaluations, 49-51, 58 O Observational studies, 244-245 Occurrence models, 247, 257, 258-268, 282 Offenders and criminal behavior, 174-175, 182-183 career lengths, 328-332, 351, 357 characteristics of, 48-49, 51-52, 228-229, 245 classification of, 217-219, 226-228, 229-247 costs to, 73, 83, 84, 136-139, 141 defendant records, 239-240 disorganized asocial, 241 FBI typology, 239-240 former victims, 122 organized asocial, 241 prediction of, 217, 218-220, 247-281, 284n:2 relationship to victim, 46-47 victimization of, 56, 75-76, 86-87 see also Correctional institutions and inmates; Criminal intent; Criminal justice system; Juvenile delinquency; Recidivism and recidivists Official record data, 238-242, 246, 280 Older persons and fear of violence, 11-14, 22 mental health impacts of victimization, 96 and perceived seriousness of violent acts, 48 risk reduction measures, 23 sentencing of, 51 Opportunity costs, 73, 77 Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, 256 Organic personality syndrome, 235 Overdeterrence, 83-84, 139-140

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control P Pain and suffering, 73-74, 81, 88, 89, 90, 99, 112-116, 114, 116 Paranoia, 242 Parole, 133 Pennsylvania, 51, 300, 302, 318-319, 320, 365n:21 Perceptions of violence. See Fear of victimization; Public opinion and perception Persistence of violence, 218, 228, 245-246 Philadelphia, Pa., 15-16, 17, 22 Police community relations, 24 confidence in, 23, 27-28, 49, 53-54 costs, 73, 83, 103-105, 126, 147 preventive patrols, 71 Policy. See Public policy Postdiction studies, 219-220 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 94-97, 120-121, 236 Poverty, 203, 207 Predatory behavior, 284n:2 Prediction of violent behavior, 217, 218-220, 247-281, 284n:2 accuracy, 223-225, 227-228, 278-279, 280 methodological problems, 222, 224-228, 247, 254-257 research needs, 281-283 review of studies, 248-254, 257-278 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration, 3 Pretrial detention, 126 Prevalence, 2, 217, 220 Prevalence-based cost estimates, 78, 149n:6 Preventive and precautionary measures, 192-193 costs, 70, 87, 123-125, 135-136 criminal justice approaches, 194-200 juvenile delinquency, 195-196 personal strategies, 20-21, 22-24, 25-26, 54, 55, 72-73, 123-125 public health approaches, 169, 200-205, 206-207 timing of, 186-187 see also Deterrence Primary prevention, 193 Prisons. See Correctional institutions and inmates Probation, 71, 83, 131, 133, 134, 138 Productivity losses, 73, 74, 79, 83, 90, 98, 106-109, 108-109, 135 of incarcerated offenders, 136-137 Property losses, 73, 79, 88-89, 99, 149-150n:7 Property-marking projects, 24, 25 Prosecution, 83, 126 Psychiatric classifications, 235-236 Psychological injury. See Mental health injuries Psychological tests, 230-235 Public defenders, 83, 129, 131 Public health system, 168 and epidemiological analyses, 168-169, 183-188 operational resources, 207-209 Public opinion and perception, 1-3 of criminal justice system, 27-28, 48-54, 59 effects of victim, offender, and respondent characteristics, 51-52 seriousness of violent acts, 37-48, 58-59 see also Fear of victimization Public policy and cost analyses, 69-70, 71-72, 147 criminal justice and public health dichotomy, 192-207 and incarceration, 349-354 policing, 9, 11 and seriousness of violent acts, 37 and violence classification and prediction, 279, 283-284 Public service announcements, 83 Punishment. See Criminal justice system; Deterrence; Incapacitation of offenders; Rehabilitation of offenders; Retributive justice; Sentences to prison Q Quality of life, 73, 81, 90, 112-113, 116-117, 118-121 R Race and ethnicity, 203, 207, 209, 245, 280, 362n:12

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control and confidence in criminal justice system, 53-54 and fear, 14-15, 18-19 and juvenile arrests, 238 and knowledge of others' victimization, 36 and perceived seriousness of violent acts, 47-48 and sentencing, 51 Rage, classification of, 235-236 "Ransom" value. See Willingness to pay Rape, 35, 92, 93, 94, 99, 101, 105, 107, 142, 266, 286n:14, 301-302 , 304, 309 child witnesses of, 120, 121 fear of, 14 mental health impacts, 95-98, 179 perceived seriousness of, 38, 45, 46-47, 58 and sadism, 236 tort actions, 111, 112 Rapid assessments, 230-231 Rap sheets. See Official record data Rate models, 247, 272-278, 282 Rate of commission, 218, 228, 245-246, 322-328, 350-351 Reactive approaches, 192-193 Recidivism and recidivists, 72, 83, 138, 174-175, 191, 241, 364-365 n:19 career termination, 328-330 drug abusers, 241 juvenile, 238, 329 sentencing of, 51 Regression analysis, 256-257 Rehabilitation of offenders, 49, 52, 72, 135, 168, 182-183, 194 Relative Improvement Over Chance (RIOC) statistic, 225, 278-279, 283 Reliability, 223, 246, 280 Repeat offenders. See Recidivism and recidivists Research activities and needs, 219-220, 281-283 costs and consequences, 99, 146-148 criminal justice system, 172, 188-191 prediction, 217, 218-220, 247-283, 284n:2 quality measures, 221-225, 279-280 Restitution, 49 Retail businesses, 55-56 Retributive justice, 49, 52, 167, 204 costs, 73, 83 Risk of injury and victimization, 11-12, 177 and fear, 8-9, 10, 12-15, 125 to inmates, 138 public health approaches, 169, 171, 183-184, 187, 202, 203 Robbery, 21, 34, 35, 45, 92, 93, 99, 105, 107, 142, 177, 300, 303, 309, 320, 359n:6 mental health impacts, 95, 96, 98 S Sadism, 236 Safe School Study, 17 Samples. See Selection bias; Surveys School days lost, 81, 88, 108 Schools, 17 Seattle, Wash., 17, 21, 22 Secondary prevention, 193 Security systems and devices, 21, 22-23, 25, 56, 83, 125 Selection bias, 226-227, 247, 255, 283 Self-destructive behavior, 245 Self-reports, offender, 240, 242-245, 246, 280. See also Surveys Sentences to prison, 50-51, 59, 173, 296, 312-314, 318-319, 320, 337, 349 costs and benefits, 71, 132, 349-354 Serial killings, 191, 241, 242 Seriousness of violent acts, 218 as determinant of fear, 8-9, 10, 37 and interpersonal diffusion of crime news, 35-36 and news reporting, 30-31 public opinion, 37-48, 58-59 and punishment, public preferences for, 37, 49-50 surveys of, 38-48, 70-71 "Seven-stitch rule," 173-174 See. See Females; Gender differences; Males Sexual violence psychological testing for, 233, 244 public health perspectives, 178-180 sadism, 236 tort actions, 111 see also Rape

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Understanding and Preventing Violence: Volume 4 - Consequences and Control Shock incarceration programs, 71 Shrinkage, 227-228 Situational analyses and approaches, 170-171, 189, 198-200 Social institutions, public confidence in, 27-28 Sociological analysis, 188-191 Spatial avoidance, 21-22, 26 Spousal abuse, 178, 369n:45 later violent behavior by victims, 122 misdemeanor arrest programs, 71 perceived seriousness of, 46, 47 psychological testing for, 231 Standard psychological tests, 231-235 States victim aid funding, 102-103 State-Trait Anger Scale, 230-231 Statistical limitations, of predictive models, 256-257, 282 Stepwise regression, 227, 256-257 Stochastic selectivity, 355-357 Stress, 96, 180 Stuart, Carol, murder case, 67-68 Suicides, 138-139, 168 Supported Work experiment, 71 Surveys, 188 interpersonal diffusion of crime news, 34-36 of medical costs, 93 offender self-reports, 240, 242-246, 280 of preferred punishments, 49-51 see also National Crime Survey T Tay-Sachs disease, 224, 285n:6 Teacher observation studies, 244-245 Teenagers. See Youth Television, 28-29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 204 Tertiary prevention, 193 Test-retest reliability, 219, 223 Texas, 300, 302, 305, 319 Theft, 35, 36. See also Burglary; Robbery Times of danger, 19, 22 Torts, 81, 111-112 U Unemployment, 86, 136-137 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 7, 92, 117, 127-129, 189, 243, 360-361 n:11 Urban areas, 15, 229 V Validity of research, 221-222, 279-280 Vandalism, 35 "Vectors", 184-187, 191 Victim assistance programs, 77-78, 101-103, 104 Victimization careers, 55 lifestyle changes, 99, 101 offsetting benefits of, 75 personal knowledge of others', 34-36 See also Fear of victimization Victims, 174-175, 181, 218 characteristics and public opinion, 47, 51-52 later violent behavior by, 122 prior criminal behavior of, 86 ratings of seriousness of violent acts, 48 relationship to offender, 46-47 Victims of Crime Act (VOCA), 101-102 Vigilantism, 27-28 W Wage losses, 73, 79, 83 Wealth effect, 149n:4 Weapons, 190-191, 196, 198, 202-203 injuries, 150n:13 for personal security, 21, 22, 23, 83, 123, 190 White-collar crimes, 46, 58 Willingness to accept (WTA), 74, 85-86, 113, 149n:4 Willingness to pay (WTP), 74, 85-87, 112-113, 116-117, 159n:4 Witnesses, 120, 121-122, 134, 135, 174 Y Youth fear of, 18, 19, 22 homicides, 168 violence prevention programs, 201 see also Juvenile delinquency