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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 CARL VERNON MOORE August 21, 1908-August 13, 1972 BY OLIVER H. LOWRY CARL VERNON MOORE was a truly unique human being. This is said advisedly. I have known no other person who so combined exceptional ability with the most admirable personal traits, including leadership, teaching ability, skill in patient care, modesty, and, above all, consideration and service for others. He also belonged to a new breed of clinicians who thought that basic medical science is too important to be left to the preclinicians. Many who knew Carl as the epitome of integrity, industriousness, unselfishness, and devotion to medicine may not have realized how human he was and that he may have had a few potential weaknesses like the rest of us, one of which he freely admitted. Carl Moore was a St. Louisan all his life. He was born in St. Louis and was largely trained there, and there he spent all but four years of his career. His grandmother on his father's side was a relative of Henry Clay. She married a Missouri farmer and died while Carl's father (also Carl Moore) was still a boy. When the grandfather remarried, Carl Moore senior ran away from home and eventually became a St. Louis policeman with no greater ambition than to walk a beat. Carl's maternal grandmother was married to a factory

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 worker of German ancestry. They were very poor. The grandmother had to take in washing, and Carl's mother had to leave school after the third grade. At the time of her marriage, she was working in a laundry. Carl had to work all during his schooling. His interest in medicine may have started at age ten when he began working after school for a drugstore delivering prescriptions on his bicycle. His sense of responsibility, so characteristic all his life, must have impressed the owner, who let him fill capsules and make up prescriptions. During this period Carl and his sister played a game in which he was the doctor and she the nurse. Other part-time jobs while growing up were trimming trees, running elevators, taking children camping, and working in a box factory. Later in college and medical school, he cleaned houses and set up pins in a bowling alley and during the summers worked as a riveter in the steel mills. There is no sign that Carl enjoyed having to work so hard. Although he never craved riches, he hated to be poor. However, it would be inaccurate to say he grew up in poverty. There was opportunity to take violin lessons, starting in grade school and continuing into college. He even eventually gave a concert, which he described as being ''so terrible that I never played again.'' There was also a chance to go to baseball games with his mother and time after school to chase baseballs for the St. Louis Browns during practice. As a result, Carl developed a lifelong love of baseball and knew almost as much about baseball statistics as he did about medicine. He was physically very strong, but to his sorrow had no great athletic ability. One other extracurricular interest must be mentioned that may come as a surprise to those who knew Carl only on duty. He loved to gamble. His mother was a good card

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 player, and he often played pinochle with his maternal grandfather. Carl became a very good poker player and would have liked to play every night if he had had the time. He would also have loved to play the stock market. Fortunately, his father convinced him that the odds were usually against the gambler. Because of this and because he recognized his gambling instinct, Carl made very few investments and these were all most conservative. Three people were especially important in Carl's development: his father, his mother, and the Reverend Paul Press, a minister of the Evangelical Church. Although Carl did not admire his father's lack of ambition, he learned one most significant thing from him. Carl's father, because he was a policeman, often saw people at their worst. He became convinced that people are basically self-interested and greedy, and he persuaded Carl that this is true and that people are primarily motivated by a desire for power. Consequently, although Carl himself can only be described as noble, and although those around him felt he expected you as well to try to be noble, the fact is that Carl apparently never really did expect people to act unselfishly. Instead, he was prepared for the worst and thereby avoided disappointment in the behavior of others, overlooked their defects, and took great pleasure when they did behave unselfishly. In contrast to his attitude toward his father, Carl greatly admired his mother, Mary Moore. She had drive and energy, was up early and worked late. But she was gregarious and had a strong sense of humor, which she and Carl shared. She went to church three times a week, more for social than religious reasons. While Carl was still in secondary school, he helped his mother buy a confectionery store, which she ran with the aid of her stepdaughter, and Carl worked there after school (in addition to his other jobs).

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 It was the Reverend Press who introduced Carl to a liberal religious environment centered around the Eden Seminary, where Paul Press's brother was a professor, and this association led to Carl going into the ministry. Thus, when he graduated from high school (at age fifteen!), he enrolled in Elmhurst College, which is supervised by the Evangelical Church. This was probably against the wishes of Carl's father, who was afraid Carl would become a missionary. Instead, he wanted him to become a doctor! Richard Niebuhr (brother of Reinhold) was the head of Elmhurst College. On several occasions Carl was stimulated by sitting in on long philosophical-religious arguments between the Niebuhr brothers. This or something else at Elmhurst changed his mind about the ministry. In fact, thereafter he was never a churchgoer; he "couldn't take the time." Having decided, after all, to go into medicine, he left Elmhurst at the end of three years and proceeded to Washington University, where he accomplished what the registrar said could not be done by completing all the medical school requirements in one year. In medical school three staff members are believed to have been decisive in attracting Carl to medical research: Edward S. West, in the Biochemistry Department, who always kept the door to his laboratory open for students such as Carl; Leo Loeb professor of pathology; and Joseph Erlanger, professor of physiology and subsequent Nobel laureate. Carl's house officer training consisted of a half year in pathology and a year and a half in medicine (six months of this while still in medical school). This was followed by an eighteen-month fellowship at Ohio State University with Charles A. Doan, who was one of the last two people to exert a decisive influence on Carl's career. From Doan and his group, Carl acquired his lifelong fascination with hematology and iron metabolism.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 In Columbus he also met an even more influential person, his future wife, Dorothy Adams, daughter of a Presbyterian minister, granddaughter of missionaries, recipient of a master's of science in history from Clark University, and dedicated fighter for the rights of man. Having more faith than Carl in people's good intentions, she tended to counterbalance his skepticism on this score. William Daughaday, a longtime colleague, describes Carl's subsequent career: Returning to Washington University in 1938, Carl proceeded to organize the hematology laboratories of the Department of Medicine. By the late forties, Carl's laboratory was recognized as a leading training center for hematologists, attracting talented fellows from around the world. Carl Moore encouraged his young associates to investigate the importance of immunological mechanisms in accelerated removal of blood cells. This resulted in the classic demonstration by Harrington of antiplatelet antibodies in thrombocytopenic purpura and of antileukocyte antibodies in transfusion reactions by Chaplin and Brittingham. To establish these disease mechanisms, a number of plasma-transfer experiments with high potential risk were undertaken. In characteristic fashion, Carl insisted that he should be a subject for one such experiment. This resulted in hospitalization with a frightening thrombocytopenia. It was not long before Carl Moore's influence in the school extended beyond hematology. In 1948 Barry Wood asked him to share the departmental burdens as cochairman. They divided the heavy tasks of running the clinical service and charting the course of the department. After Barry Wood resigned the chairmanship of the Department of Medicine in 1955 to return to Johns Hopkins University, it was inevitable that Carl was selected to succeed him. Carl Moore created a great Department of Medicine by selecting outstanding young men, equipped with experi-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 ence in basic scientific disciplines, and providing them with the freedom to develop to their full potential. He recognized that application of the sophisticated techniques of modern science to medical research requires periods of uninterrupted time. He did everything in his power to free his faculty from unreasonable administrative chores and meaningless meetings. To provide the necessary balance, he encouraged respect for the activities of full-time and part-time men who devote most of their time to patient care and teaching. Although Carl Moore's heart always remained with the Department of Medicine, he did heed the call for help from his medical school on two occasions. From 1953 to 1955 he served as dean, and from 1964 to 1965 he was vice-chancellor for medical affairs. During each period his wisdom and patience carried his school through difficult periods of growth. Despite his contributions as an investigator and an administrator, Carl Moore was primarily a great teacher of medicine. By steady application and continuous study, he became an excellent general internist. He felt a personal obligation for all the patients on his service and always exhibited the greatest concern for their welfare and sympathy for their suffering. This quality was immediately sensed by house officers and students, and it created an unmatched environment for learning medicine. He was able to achieve the difficult task of building a department with strong investigative interests that at the same time excelled in teaching clinical medicine. He taught students and house officers more by listening and inspiration than by didactic brilliance. His students came to ward rounds primed with information derived from bedside and library study and prepared to contribute. They always found a professor equally well prepared. His "professor's rounds" were always con-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 ducted a free discussions, where the lowliest student commanded attention and respect. Carl Moore's love of teaching never flagged. Even after seventeen years of directing his department, he still approached his teaching with the same enthusiasm and obvious pleasure that he had exhibited at the start of his tenure. In the brief periods when he relinquished "running the service" to his senior associates, he exhibited a restlessness that did not abate until he was back on the wards. Carl Moore exerted a tremendous influence on many generations of house officers. He took a warm personal interest in their goals and accomplishments. He guided their training more by example than decree, and he had the capacity to inspire superior performance. In Carl Moore's view, "One of the great privileges accorded the academic clinician is the satisfaction of being a physician and a teacher while he enjoys the luxury of being able to pursue his investigative interests."1 What kind of person was Carl Moore? Four of his close associates wrote: He was a truly compassionate physician, never abrupt or hasty, and always available. How moving was the response of his patients to his presence, though so many had fatal diseases. Carl was uncomplicated. He was an expert on proved formulas for professional and academic achievement, and his department and school were never subjected to risky, untested ventures. He usually spoke last in group deliberations and typically with the best comprehension and analysis. He was profoundly thoughtful and considerate. He knew that his department was made up of people—not himself, but other people: colleagues, house officers, fellows, students, and non-academic personnel. All had ready access to him, regardless of an overburdened schedule. From the Department of Medicine under Carl Moore came

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 one university president, three vice presidents, three deans, seven department chairmen, and twelve directors of hematology in American medical schools, as well as many men of stature in other fields of internal medicine and in other countries. There are scores of academic and practicing hematologists as well as hundreds of other physicians whose lives were meaningfully influenced by Carl. In addition to all of these, the at-large indebtedness to Carl Moore is incalculable; the impact he had for twenty-five years on public and private health-related national agencies and organizations directly influenced the form and character of all of medicine, particularly the careers of its academic members.2 THE IDEAL DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE Carl Moore worried a good deal about how medical schools as a whole, and departments of medicine in particular, could operate without diminishing any of their three missions: teaching, exemplary patient care, and research. He devoted some time to this in his presidential address to the Association of American Physicians in 1964: "One of the great strengths of American medicine certainly is that research is concentrated in our medical schools, where students can be stimulated by creative minds rather than in a large collection of research institutes. "We have held too long, I think, to the vision that the only desirable member of a department is so broad in his capabilities—a modern version of the renaissance man— that he is a polished clinician, a stirring teacher, and an investigator of great distinction. Many will regard as heresy the statement that this form of tripodal idolatry is in need of reformation. Within any department the responsibilities for patient care, teaching, and research must without question be kept in balance, but the time has come for the

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 equilibrium to be provided by the department as a whole, rather than to insist that it be provided by each individual. Unless that is done, we are doomed to mediocrity, doomed to lose to other disciplines an increasing number of outstanding young men. I don't see why the capable, productive investigator should not be free to spend 75 or 80 percent of his time in the laboratory provided he is willing to devote his remaining efforts with enthusiasm to teaching and to working at the bedside—as an internist in general and not only within his special field of interest. He must identify himself enough with clinical medicine to become a competent physician, but he doesn't necessarily have to be the standard of reference for every unusual syndrome or to be equally informed in all subspecialty areas. "If he learns from the house officers, if the resident must interpret the vectorcardiogram for him, there is no cause for embarrassment. He is in good company, as a matter of fact, and the best house officers will be quick to realize and appreciate that many things of importance can be learned from him. While a fair proportion of all research done in a clinical department should admittedly be disease oriented, not all needs to be. The increased understanding of disease that may come from the geneticist working with bacteria, the nephrologist studying cation transport across the toad bladder, the endocrinologist measuring the effect of insulin on the transport of glucose or amino acids across cell membranes, or the coagulationist working with fibrinolytic mechanisms has been demonstrated frequently enough; these activities must not be denied departments of medicine because the relationship to the patient at any given time seems remote. But if arrangements are made to provide this kind of freedom and a major fraction of time for research, the investigator takes on an obligation to use the time well-an obligation to his colleagues who assume a

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 greater percentage of the teaching and patient care and to our society in general for providing the time, the tools, and the space for his creative efforts. I am constantly amazed by the attitude, evidenced fortunately by only a few, that opportunities such as these are an individual's God-given right rather than one of life's greatest privileges to be earned and safeguarded. The struggle to provide the investigator with 75 to 80 percent of his time for research is wasted effort if he elects to let himself be consumed by an interest in administrative matters or fritters life away by making three project site visits per week. "The investigator must also be willing to respect the activities of those full-time men in the department who provide the balance for him, the men who devote three-fourths of their efforts to patient care and teaching, who express their intellectual curiosity by studying and describing the clinical manifestations of disease as their contribution to knowledge. "All I am trying to say is that the clinical investigator closely allied to the basic sciences and the clinical investigator closely allied to the patient are both needed. Given both types of men, a department of medicine can fulfill its function, provide maximum opportunity for growth of each individual, achieve excellence in all three areas of responsibility, and increase steadily in scientific nature. Such departments will become increasingly different from those of the present or the past, but the change is inevitable if we are to participate as important partners in the scientific biological revolution that now surrounds rather than permeates us."3 CARL MOORE'S RESEARCH Moore's scientific contributions were the result of clinical research of the highest order. The term "clinical re-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 compassion at the bedside are antithetical qualities not to be found in the same man. Carl was an outstanding example of the fallacy of this view. In the care of his own patients he communicated a degree of concern and sensitivity rarely encountered.6 Carl was one of the kindest and most gentle men I have known. He never forgot that a patient was a human being and not just an interesting case. He listened to everyone. He appeared to have as much time to talk about baseball with Will Anderson as he had to talk to a staff member about departmental affairs.7 Carl led his associates in a low-keyed manner, but lead them he did. He relied on his personal example to spur them to heights greater than they would otherwise have achieved. He appeared shy and humble to the casual observer, yet his was an intricate mixture of pride and humility. Carl was an excellent poker player, and I often thought his talent served him well in creating a team out of the diverse personalities in his department. Only once I called his bluff and found him without a pat hand. When Carl was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1970, the members of the department of medicine held an impromptu champagne fest in the laboratory. After a few glasses of champagne we walked out of Wohl Hospital together. "It's a great honor for Washington University, but I wish it had gone to some younger man on the faculty rather than to me," Carl confided. In answer to my "incredulous profanity," he puffed his pipe, chuckled quietly, and walked away.8 Carl Moore was a man who looked on medicine and his daily work in the medical center as a privilege and a joy and as a means of attaining personal rewards far higher than fame, financial gain, or stature in society. For him the

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 satisfaction of helping others led to his giving all his energy to the task before him, whether it was planning a complex new project, conducting student rounds, or helping a total stranger find his way in the hospital. Carl was always willing to drive himself a bit harder, to go the second mile, to achieve the goals that he had decided were worthwhile. For those with whom he dealt whose ambition and maneuvering led to meanness and petty bickering, he had nothing but contempt in his heart but remarkably little rancor in his speech. He was a humble man. His humility was a source of wonder and even distrust to some of the powerful and arrogant people with whom his high offices brought him into contact. Carl had a disarming simplicity and directness to his speech, with a knack for saying the proper thing; his writing reflected this simplicity with careful elimination of all that was wordy, flowery, or trite. Many people awed by his position, his international reputation, and his leonine visage were not privileged to see his pervading warmth, sensitivity, and attention to the small things that helped to righten the lives of friends he made wherever he went. Carl Moore, despite his remarkable achievements, was not a genius whose every effort met with easy success. His achievements were the result of hard work. He recognized the superior intellectual endowments of a number of his associates, and without jealousy he encouraged them to excel and to reap their due rewards. His ambition was for his department, his school, and the fulfillment of the task at hand, not for his own personal aggrandizement. I am left with the vision of a man whose life revolved around his desire to get on with the tasks he identified as being important, to tackle them with all the intensity he could muster without sparing himself in the effort, but along the way he radiated sensitivity, warmth, integrity, simplicity,

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 and humility that struck a chord in the hearts of people who knew him, a chord that helped restore faith in man's basic humanity.9 I AM GREATLY INDEBTED to Dorothy Moore for the details about Carl Moore's family background and his own early years. NOTES 1.   W. J. Daughaday, American Journal Of Medicine, 54(1973):140-42. 2.   W. J. Harrington, E. B. Brown, E. H. Reinhard, and V. Loeb, Jr., Blood, 40(1972):771-74. 3.   Carl Moore, "Presidential Address: Behold Now Behemoth," Transactions of the Association of American Physicians, 77(1964):1-7. 4.   L. Heilmeyer and K. Plotner, Das Serumelsen und die Eisenmangelkrankheit (Pathogenesis, Symptomatology and Therapy) (Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer, 1937). 5.   P. F. Hahn, W. F. Bale, E. O. Lawrence, and G. H. Whipple, "Radioactive Iron and Its Metabolism in Anemia," Journal of the American Medical Association, 111 (1938):2285-86. 6.   M. Kenton King, Outlook, 1972, vol. 9, p. 1. 7.   Ibid., Virginia Minnich, p. 2. 8.   Ibid., Philip W. Majerus, p. 5. 9.   Ibid., Elmer B. Brown, p. 5.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS DEGREES 1928 A.B., Washington University 1932 M.D. (cum laude), Washington University School of Medicine 1955 LL.D., Elmhurst College UNIVERSITY AND HOSPITAL APPOINTMENTS 1932-34 Internship and residency, Department of Medicine, Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri 1934-35 National Research Council Fellow in Medicine, Ohio State University 1935-36 Instructor in Medical Research, Ohio State University 1936-38 Assistant Professor of Medicine, Ohio State University 1938-41 Assistant Professor of Medicine, Washington University 1941-46 Associate Professor of Medicine, Washington University 1946-55 Professor of Medicine, Washington University 1953-55 Dean of the School of Medicine, Washington University 1955-72 Busch Professor of Medicine and Head of Department, Washington University 1964-65 Vice Chancellor-in-Charge of Medical Affairs, Washington University MEMBERSHIP IN AMERICAN ORGANIZATIONS AND SOCIETIES American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fellow American College of Physicians, Fellow (Governor for Missouri, 1953-56; Vice President, 1960-61; Regent, 1961-72) American Institute of Nutrition American Medical Association, Fellow (Secretary, Section on Experimental Medicine and Therapeutics, 1946-49; Vice Chairman, 1949-50; Chairman, 1950-51) American Society for Clinical Investigation (Vice President, 1952-53; President, 1953-54) American Society of Experimental Pathology American Society of Hematology (President, 1959-60)

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 Association of American Physicians (Councillor, 1956-61; Vice President, 1962-63; President, 1963-64) Central Interurban Club Central Society for Clinical Research (Secretary-Treasurer, 1939-44; Vice President, 1945-46; President, 1946-47) International Society of Hematology (Vice President, 1960-66; President, 1966-68) St. Louis Society of Internal Medicine Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine COMMITTEES 1946-49 Member, Hematology Panel, Division of Research Grants and Developments, U.S. Public Health Service 1951-56 Chairman, Hematology Panel, Division of Research Grants and Developments, U.S. Public Health Service 1952-56 Chairman, Hematology Study Section, National Institutes of Health 1953-60 Chairman, Blood and Blood Derivatives Committee, National Research Council 1955-72 Part-time Consultant, Research and Development Program, Department of Defense 1956-58 Member, Advisory Committee on Institutional Research Grants, American Cancer Society 1956-64 Consultant, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health 1956-72 Member, U.S.P. XVI Panel on Hematology 1957-59 Member, National Cancer Institute Board of Scientific Counselors 1958-62 Member, National Advisory Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases Council, and National Institutes of Health 1959 Member, Advisory Committee, Burroughs Wellcome Fund 1959-60 Special Advisor, Committee on Clinical Research Centers, National Advisory Health Council, National Institutes of Health 1960-66 Member, Advisory Committee for Biology and Medicine, Atomic Energy Commission 1961-62 Member, Council on Foods and Nutrition, American Medical Association 1967-72 Member, American Board on Nutrition 1967-72 Member, Norman Jolliffe Medical Student Fellowship

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64   Awards Committee, American Society for Clinical Nutrition 1967-72 Consultant, Hematology Advisory Committee, Food and Drug Administration 1967-72 Chairman, Advisory Council, Life Insurance Medical Research Fund 1967-72 Member, Panel of Expert Consultants to Assist the Technical Committee, Pakistan-SEATO Cholera Research Laboratory 1968-72 Member, National Advisory Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases Council, and National Institutes of Health EDITORSHIPS 1942-44 Assistant Editor, Nutrition Reviews 1944-49 Editor, Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1949-53 Editorial Board, Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1944-72 Editorial Board, Blood 1950-53 Editorial Board, Journal of Nutrition 1955-72 Editorial Board, American Journal of Medicine 1955-72 Editorial Board, Journal of Chronic Diseases 1956-66 Editorial Board, Modern Medical Monographs 1964-71 Coeditor, Progress in Hematology 1967-71 Coeditor, Cecil's Textbook of Medicine HONORS 1955 Modern Medicine Award for Distinguished Achievement 1958 Elected as Affiliate of the Royal Society of Medicine, London 1959 Joseph Goldberger Award in Clinical Nutrition, American Medical Association 1962 William McIlrath Guest Professor of Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia 1962 Honorary Life Member, Haematology Society of Australia 1962 Alumni Award, Washington University 1964 Stratton Medal, International Society of Hematology 1967 Elected as Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1968 Corresponding Member, German Society of Hematology

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 1970 Elected Member of the National Academy of Sciences 1970 John Phillips Memorial Award for Distinguished Contributions in Internal Medicine, American College of Physicians 1970 Centennial Achievement Award of Ohio State University 1971 Flexner Award of the Association of American Medical Colleges 1972 Master of the America College of Physicians (Posthumous)

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1935 With V. Suntzeff and L. Loeb. The specific nature of the inhibition of the coagulating effect exerted by tissue extracts on plasma resulting from incubation of tissue extract with blood serum. Am. J. Physiol. 114:1-18. 1937 With C. A. Doan and W. Arrowsmith. Studies in iron transportation and metabolism. II. The mechanism of iron transportation. Its significance in iron utilization in anemic states of varied etiology. J. Clin. Invest. 16:627-48. 1939 With W. Arrowsmith, J. Welch, and V. Minnich. Studies in iron transportation and metabolism. IV. Observations on the absorption of iron from the gastro-intestinal tract. J. Clin. Invest. 18:553-80. 1940 With V. Minnich, S. T. Wright, and T. D. Spies. Whole blood and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in patients with pellagra and associated deficiency diseases. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 45:441-46. 1943 With V. Minnich, R. W. Vilter, and T. D. Spies. Hypochromic anemia in patients with deficiency of the vitamin B complex: Response to iron therapy with and without yeast. JAMA 121:245-49. 1944 With E. H. Reinhard, R. Dubach, and L. J. Wade. Depressant effects of high concentrations of inspired oxygen on erythrocytogenesis. Observations on patients with sickle cell anemia with a description of the observed toxic manifestations of oxygen. J. Clin. Invest. 23:682-98. With L. A. Hempelmann, Jr., E. H. Reinhard, O. S. Bierbaum, and

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 S. Moore. Hematologic complications of therapy with radioactive phosphorus. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29:1020-41. With R. Vilter, V. Minnich, and T. D. Spies. Nutritional macrocytic anemia in patients with pellagra or deficiency of the vitamin B complex. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29:1226-55. 1945 With O. S. Bierbaum, A. D. Welch, and L. D. Wright. The activity of synthetic lactobacillus casei factor (''folic acid") as an antipernicious anemia substance. I. Observations on four patients: two with Addisonian pernicious anemia, one with nontropical sprue and one with pernicious anemia of pregnancy. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 30:1056-69. 1946 With E. H. Reinhard, O. S. Bierbaum, and S. Moore. Radioactive phosphorus as a therapeutic agent. A review of the literature and analysis of the results of treatment of 155 patients with various blood dyscrasias, lymphomas, and other malignant neoplastic diseases. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 31:107-218. With R. Dubach and V. Minnich. Studies in iron transportation and metabolism. V. Utilization of intravenously injected radioactive iron for hemoglobin synthesis, and an evaluation of the radioactive iron method for studying iron absorption. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 31:1201-22. 1949 With J. C. Tinsley, R. Dubach, V. Minnich, and M. Grinstein. The role of oxygen in the regulation of erythropoiesis. Depression of the rate of delivery of new red cells to the blood by high concentrations of inspired oxygen. J. Clin. Invest. 28:1544-64. 1950 With M. Grinstein, M. D. Kamen, and H. M. Wikoff. Isotopic studies of porphyrin and hemoglobin metabolism. I. Biosynthesis of coproporphyrin I and its relationship to hemoglobin metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 182:715-21. With V. Minnich, D. E. Smith, and G. V. Elliott. Studies on the

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 acute toxic effects of 4-amino-pteroyl-glutamic acid in dogs, guinea pigs and rabbits. Arch. Pathol. 50:787-99. 1951 With R. Dubach. Observations on the absorption of iron from foods tagged with radioiron. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys. 64:245-56. With W. J. Harrington, V. Minnich, and J. W. Hollingsworth. Demonstration of a thrombocytopenic factor in the blood of patients with thrombocytopenic purpura. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 38:1-10. 1953 With W. J. Harrington, C. C. Sprague, V. Minnich, R. C. Ahlvin, and R. Dubach. Immunologic mechanisms in idiopathic and neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann. Int. Med. 38:433-69. 1955 With R. Dubach and S. Callender. Studies in iron transportation and metabolism. IX. The excretion of iron as measured by the isotope technique. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 45:599-615. 1957 With E. B. Brown, R. Dubach, D. E. Smith, and C. Reynafarje. Studies in iron transportation and metabolism. X. Long-term iron overload in dogs. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 50:862-93. 1958 With E. B. Brown and R. Dubach. Studies in iron transportation and metabolism. XI. Critical analysis of mucosal block by large doses of inorganic iron in human subjects. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 52:335-55. 1959 With M. Grinstein and R. M. Bannerman. The utilization of protoporphyrin 9 in heme synthesis. Blood 14:476-85. 1962 With V. Minnich, J. K. Cordonnier, and W. J. Williams. Alpha, beta and gamma hemoglobin polypeptide chains during the neonatal

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 64 period with description of a fetal form of hemoglobin D. Blood 19:137-67. 1964 Presidential address: Behold now behemoth. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 77:1-7. 1966 The angry medical student and the changing face of medicine. The Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha 29:72-77. 1975 Iron and hypochromic anemia. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci. 1:245-62.