Demography of AGING

Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston, Editors

Committee on Population 

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education 

National Research Council


NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 
Washington, D.C.
1994



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging Demography of AGING Linda G. Martin and Samuel H. Preston, Editors Committee on Population  Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education  National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS  Washington, D.C. 1994

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 94-66697  International Standard Book Number 0-309-05085-5 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418 B451 Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover: Figures from B.J. Soldo and E.M. Agree, "America's Elderly" [Population Bulletin 43(3); pp. 10-11]. Used with permission.

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging CONTRIBUTORS JACQUELINE L. ANGEL, Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin FRANK D. BEAN, Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin RICHARD V. BURKHAUSER, Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University VICKI A. FREEDMAN, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services OMER R. GALLE, Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin DOUGLAS HOLTZ-EAKIN, Metropolitan Studies Program and Economics Department, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University KEVIN KINSELLA, Center for International Research, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce RONALD D. LEE, Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley KENNETH G. MANTON, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University LINDA G. MARTIN, RAND, Santa Monica, California GEORGE C. MYERS, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University SAMUEL H. PRESTON, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania JOSEPH F. QUINN, Department of Economics, Boston College TIMOTHY M. SMEEDING, Metropolitan Studies Program and Economics Department, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University BETH J. SOLDO, Department of Demography, Georgetown University ERIC STALLARD, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University PAUL TAUBMAN, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania DOUGLAS A. WOLF, Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging COMMITTEE ON POPULATION RONALD D. LEE (Chair), Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley CAROLINE H. BLEDSOE, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University JOSE-LUIS BOBADILLA, Population, Health, and Nutrition Department, World Bank, Washington, D.C. JOHN B. CASTERLINE, Department of Sociology, Brown University KENNETH H. HILL, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University DEAN T. JAMISON, Center for Pacific Rim Studies, University of California, Los Angeles LINDA G. MARTIN, RAND, Santa Monica, California MARK R. MONTGOMERY, Department of Economics, State University of New York, Stony Brook ANNE R. PEBLEY, RAND, Santa Monica, California SAMUEL H. PRESTON, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania and Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford RONALD R. RINDFUSS, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill BETH J. SOLDO, Department of Demography, Georgetown University MARTA TIENDA, Population Research Center, University of Chicago AMY O. TSUI, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JOHN HAAGA, Director LINDA G. MARTIN, Director* BARNEY COHEN, Research Associate SUSAN COKE, Senior Project Assistant* CHRISTINE A. COSTELLO, Program Officer KAREN A. FOOTE, Research Associate JAMES N. GRIBBLE, Program Officer** CAROLE L. JOLLY, Senior Program Officer PAULA J. MELVILLE, Senior Project Assistant SUSAN SHUTTLEWORTH, Senior Project Assistant *   through June 1993 **   through August 1993

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging Preface The Committee on Population was established in 1983 to conduct scientific assessments of major population issues and to provide a forum for the discussion and analysis of important public policy issues related to population. It is concerned with questions about the measurement, determinants, and consequences of changes in population size, growth, and distribution that are important to scientists and policy makers in both developed and developing nations. The committee has a history of activities relating to the demography of aging. Of particular concern have been cross-national research and policy issues, as reflected in its 1988 workshop on aging in developing countries, sponsored by the National Institute of Aging, which focused on health, family, and economic issues. However, the committee has also had an interest in domestic issues of population aging, exemplified in its 1987 publication, Demographic Change and the Well-Being of Children and the Elderly. That report, which summarized the discussion and included three papers from a 1985 workshop, considered the status of children and the elderly in the United States, possible demographic factors influencing their status, and their well-being relative to groups of similar ages in other developed countries. The report also discussed the effects of changes in age structure on the economic and fiscal health of the country, at both the local and the federal levels. More recently, the committee cosponsored, with the Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention of the Institute of Medicine and the Committee on National Statistics of the National Re-

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging search Council, a workshop on forecasting life expectancy, with an emphasis on the United States. In January 1992, at the request of the Office of Demography of Aging of the National Institute on Aging, the Committee on Population convened a small planning meeting of experts on the demography of aging. This group proposed developing a volume that delineates the field of the demography of aging, highlights the contributions that the demography of aging can make to policy formulation, and summarizes what is known and promising areas for future research in specific subfields. At the planning meeting, it was proposed that papers be commissioned on eight topics: formal demography of age structure and the life course; retirement and labor force behavior; wealth and income; family demography; social and medical support: division of labor among families, market, and state; medical demography; socioeconomic differentials in health and mortality; and migration and population redistribution. The Committee accepted the proposal of the planning group and began to develop the plan for this volume. Authors were selected for each topic, and they were asked to address the following cross-cutting issues, when possible: data availability and needs; conceptual issues (e.g., micro versus macro approaches, cohort aspects); measurement; prospects for international comparisons; research design; heterogeneity; and projections. The committee subsequently decided to add a ninth paper on aging research in developing countries. This set of topics is believed to provide an extensive road map to the subject comprised by the term "demography of aging." This volume presents revised versions of the nine papers, which were originally presented and discussed at a workshop at the National Research Council in Washington, D.C., on December 10-11, 1992. Also included as an appendix is a letter report to the National Institute on Aging from the committee that summarizes the committee's assessments of and recommen-

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging dations for data collection and research that emerged from the papers and discussion. The Committee on Population and the editors of this volume are grateful to the National Institute on Aging and in particular to the Office of Demography of Aging and its director, Richard Suzman, for financial support, guidance, and assistance. We would also like to thank the participants at the December 1992 workshop for their insightful comments and suggestions and especially recognize the contributions of the formal discussants: James M. Poterba, James W. Vaupel, George Kaplan, Lee Lillard, Robert J. Willis, John B. Casterline, Linda J. Waite, George C. Myers, and John Knodel. Susan M. Coke, Paula J. Melville, and Susan Shuttleworth all provided superb administrative assistance in organizing the workshop and producing this volume. Florence Poillon and Mendelle T. Berenson skillfully edited the papers, Elaine McGarraugh meticulously prepared the volume for publication, and Eugenia Grohman patiently guided us through the review and production processes. We thank them all. We are also enormously grateful to Barney Cohen for overseeing the final stage of the project and for keeping us more or less on schedule. LINDA G. MARTIN AND SAMUEL H. PRESTON, EDITORS

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging Contents 1   Introduction Samuel H. Preston and Linda G. Martin   1 2   The Formal Demography of Population Aging, Transfers, and the Economic Life Cycle Ronald D. Lee   8 3   Retirement and Labor Force Behavior of the Elderly Joseph F. Quinn and Richard V. Burkhauser   50 4   Income, Wealth, and Intergenerational Economic Relations of the Aged Douglas Holtz-Eakin and Timothy M. Smeeding   102 5   The Elderly and Their Kin: Patterns of Availability and Access Douglas A. Wolf   146 6   Care of the Elderly: Division of Labor Among the Family, Market, and State Beth J. Soldo and Vicki A. Freedman   195

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging 7   Medical Demography: Interaction of Disability Dynamics and Mortality Kenneth G. Manton and Eric Stallard   217 8   Socioeconomic Differences in Adult Mortality and Health Status Samuel H. Preston and Paul Taubman   279 9   Geographic Concentration, Migration, and Population Redistribution Among the Elderly Frank D. Bean, George C. Myers, Jacqueline L. Angel, and Omer R. Galle   319 10   Research on the Demography of Aging in Developing Countries Linda G. Martin and Kevin Kinsella   356     Appendix: Letter to Richard Suzman of the National Institute on Aging from the Committee on Population, March 2, 1993   405

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging Demography of AGING

OCR for page R1
Demography of Aging This page in the original is blank.