THE FUNDING OF YOUNG INVESTIGATORS IN THE BIOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES

Committee on the Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences

Board on Biology

Commission on Life Sciences

National Research Council


NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1994



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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences THE FUNDING OF YOUNG INVESTIGATORS IN THE BIOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Committee on the Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences Board on Biology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences

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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences This page in the original is blank.

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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance. The report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study by the National Research Council's Commission on Life Sciences was sponsored by Department of Defense PO MDA903-91-M5267, Department of Energy grant DE-FG05-91-ER61167, National Institutes of Health PO 263-MD-107969 and 263-MD-12904, National Science Foundation grant BBS9023767, Markey Foundation grant 90-44, and the National Research Council Basic Science Fund. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 94-66103 International Standard Book No. 0-309-05077-4 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences COMMITTEE ON THE FUNDING OF YOUNG INVESTIGATORS IN THE BIOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Shirley M. Tilghman (Co-chair), Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Torsten N. Wiesel (Co-chair), Rockefeller University, New York, New York Harold Amos, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Pamela J. Bjorkman, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California Donald D. Brown, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland Francis J. Bullock, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts Nicholas R. Cozzarelli, University of California, Berkeley, California William H. Danforth, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri Charlotte V. Kuh, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey Robert T. Paine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Robin E. Reed, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Rebecca W. Rimel, Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Luis Sequeira, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Staff Peggy Fischer John E. Burris Joseph L. Zelibor Alvin G. Lazen Norman Grossblatt, Editor

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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences BOARD ON BIOLOGY Michael T. Clegg (Chair), University of California, Riverside, California Ananda M. Chakrabarty, University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois Gerald D. Fischbach, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Richard E. Lenski, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan Barbara J. Mazur, E. I. du Pont de Nemours, Wilmington, Delaware Daniel Morse, University of California, Santa Barbara, California Mary Lou Pardue, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts Daniel Simberloff, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida Michael E. Soulé, University of California, Santa Cruz, California Shirley M. Tilghman, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Geerat J. Vermeij, University of California, Davis, California Staff Eric A. Fischer, Director Paulette A. Adams, Administrative Assistant

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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES Thomas D. Pollard (Chair), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Bruce N. Ames, University of California, Berkeley, California John C. Bailar III, McGill University, Montreal, Canada J. Michael Bishop, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, California John E. Burris, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts Michael T. Clegg, University of California, Riverside, California Glenn A. Crosby, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington Leroy E. Hood, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Marian E. Koshland, University of California, Berkeley, California Richard E. Lenski, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan Emil A. Pfitzer, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, New Jersey Malcolm C. Pike, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California Henry C. Pitot, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Paul G. Risser, Miami University of Ohio, Oxford, Ohio Jonathan M. Samet, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., Armonk, New York Carla J. Shatz, University of California, Berkeley, California Susan S. Taylor, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California P. Roy Vagelos, Merck & Company, Inc., Rahway, New Jersey John L. VandeBerg, Southwest Foundation for Medical Research, San Antonio, Texas Torsten N. Wiesel, Rockefeller University, New York, New York Staff Paul Gilman, Executive Director Alvin G. Lazen, Associate Executive Director Solveig M. Padilla, Administrative Assistant

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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, selfperpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of public policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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The Funding of Young Investigators in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences CONTENTS     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction: Newly Independent Investigators in the Life Sciences   15 2   Extramural Funding of Newly Independent Investigators in Biomedical Research   21 3   Extramural Funding of Newly Independent Investigators in Biological Science   53 4   The Future Supply of Newly Independent Life Scientists   73 5   Conclusions and Recommendations   85     Appendix: Additional Data   99     Literature Cited   105

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