Toward Infrastructure Improvement

An Agenda for Research

COMMITTEE FOR AN INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AGENDA

BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD

GEOTECHNICAL BOARD

COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

James P. Gould

Andrew C. Lemer

Editors

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1994



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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research Toward Infrastructure Improvement An Agenda for Research COMMITTEE FOR AN INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AGENDA BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD GEOTECHNICAL BOARD COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL James P. Gould Andrew C. Lemer Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1994

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Funding for the project was provided through the following agreement between the indicated federal agency and the National Academy of Sciences: National Science Foundation Grant No. MSS-9116411, under master agreement 8618642. Disclaimer. The grantee is responsible for assuring that every publication of material based on or developed under this grant, except scientific articles or papers appearing in scientific, technical or professional journals, contains the following disclaimer: "Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation." Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 94-67335 International Standard Book Number: 0-309-05144-4 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research COMMITTEE FOR AN INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AGENDA Chairman JAMES P. GOULD, Partner, Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, New York, New York Members EDWARD COHEN, Managing Partner, Ammann and Whitney, Consulting Engineers, New York, New York THOMAS J. EGGUM, City Engineer, Department of Public Works, City of St. Paul, Minnesota EZRA D. EHRENKRANTZ, Chair, Architecture and Building Science, School of Architecture, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark CARL MONISMITH, The Robert Horonjeff Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil Engineering ROBERT S. O'NEIL, President, De Leuw, Cather & Company; President, Parsons Transportation Group, Washington, D.C. THOMAS D. O'ROURKE, Professor of Civil Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JOSEPH C. PERKOWSKI, Manager, Advanced Civil Systems, R&D Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, California JOHN RAMAGE, Vice President, CH2M Hill, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin SARAH SLAUGHTER, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, Lehigh University, Center for Advanced Technology for Large Structural Systems, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania JOEL A. TARR, Richard S. Caliguiri Professor of Urban and Environmental History and Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Liaison Members KEN P. CHONG, Director, Structural Systems and Construction Processes Program, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia JOHN B. SCALZI, Program Director for Structures and Building Systems, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia MEHMET T. TUMAY, Director, Geomechanics Program, Directorate for Engineering, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research National Research Council Liaison Representatives NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant, Public Works Infrastructure, Woolwich, Maine ALBERT A. GRANT, Chairman, Committee on Infrastructure Consultant, Potomac, Maryland RITA B. LEAHY, Strategic Highway Research Program; Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Staff MAHADEVAN MANI, Director, Division of Infrastructure, Energy, and Environmental Engineering ANDREW C. LEMER, Director, Building Research Board (1988-1993) PETER H. SMEALLIE, Staff Officer PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate MARY McCORMACK, Project Assistant

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD (1992-1994) Chairman HAROLD J. PARMELEE, President, Turner Construction Company, New York, New York Members RICHARD T. BAUM,* (Retired) Partner, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, Consulting Engineers, New York, New York LYNN S. BEEDLE, University Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania CATHERINE BROWN, Director of Special Projects, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis GERALD L. CARLISLE,* Secretary-Treasurer, International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant, Woolwich, Maine C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT,* Chairman, EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California AUGUSTINE A. DiGIACOMO, Partner, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, Consulting Engineers, New York, New York ELISHA C. FREEDMAN,* Regional Manager, The Par Group—Paul A. Reaume, Ltd., West Hartford, Connecticut DELON HAMPTON, Delon Hampton & Associates, Washington, D.C. DONALD G. ISELIN, U.S. Navy Retired, Consultant, Santa Barbara, California FREDERICK KRIMGOLD,* Associate Dean for Research and Extension, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria GARY T. MOORE, Professor of Architecture and Director, Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee WALTER P. MOORE, President and Chairman of the Board, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc., Houston, Texas J. W. MORRIS, U.S. Army Retired, President, J. W. Morris Ltd., Arlington, Virginia BRIAN P. MURPHY, Senior Vice President, Prudential Property Company, Prudential Plaza, Newark, New Jersey LESLIE E. ROBERTSON,* Director, Design and Construction, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research JEROME J. SINCOFF, AIA, President, Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri JAMES E. WOODS,* William E. Jamerson Professor of Building Construction, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg APRIL L. YOUNG,* CRA Coordinator, First American Metro Corporation, McLean, Virginia Staff MAHADEVAN MANI, Director, Division of Infrastructure, Energy, and Environmental Engineering ANDREW C. LEMER, Director, Building Research Board (1988-1993) HENRY A. BORGER, Executive Secretary, Federal Construction Council PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate LENA B. GRAYSON, Program Assistant MARY T. McCORMACK, Project Assistant * Term completed

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research GEOTECHNICAL BOARD (1993-1994) Chairman JAMES K. MITCHELL, University of California, Berkeley Members CLARENCE R. ALLEN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena JOAN (JODIE) Z. BERNSTEIN, Waste Management, Inc., Oak Brook, Illinois DAVID E. DANIEL, University of Texas, Austin WILLIAM S. GARDNER, W.S. Gardner and Associates, Blue Bell, Pennsylvania JAMES P. GOULD, Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, New York, New York FRANÇOIS E. HEUZE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California CHARLES C. LADD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES D. MURFF, Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas SHLOMO P. NEUMAN, The University of Arizona, Tucson THOMAS D. O'ROURKE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York REUBEN SAMUELS, Parsons Brinckerhoff, New York, New York ROBERT L. SCHUSTER, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado DON W. STEEPLES, The University of Kansas, Lawrence Staff MAHADEVAN MANI, Director, Division of Infrastructure, Energy, and Environmental Engineering PETER H. SMEALLIE, Director, Geotechnical Board (1990-1993) JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant AMELIA B. MATHIS, Senior Secretary/Project Assistant

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research This page in the original is blank.

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research CONTENTS   Executive Summary 1 1. Introduction 9 Research as an Instrument for Improving Infrastructure 10 The Study and Its Origin 11 The Scope of Infrastructure 12 The Benefits of Infrastructure Research 13 Guiding Principles 15 Structure of the Report 17 2. The Context and Status of U.S. Infrastructure Research 21 U.S. Spending on Infrastructure R&D 21 Researchers and Research Institutions 25 Government Laboratories 25 Academic Institutions 26 Professional, Industry, and Trade Institutes 26 International Activities 27 Prior Studies of Research Needs 28 The NSF's Role in Infrastructure Research 30 The Niche Areas 33

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research 3. Systems Life-Cycle Management 37 Infrastructure Demand and Service-Life Management 38 Issues of Public Goods Demand, Prices, and Costs 39 Managing Derived Demand 39 Infrastructure as a Life-Cycle Production Process 40 Assessing Consequences of Materials Innovation 41 Total System Inventory, Monitoring, and Management 41 Analytical Inventories of Infrastructure Systems 42 Statistical Analyses and Benchmarking of Infrastructure 43 Deviations-Detection Systems for Public Health and Safety 43 Quicker Response Infrastructure Management 44 Infrastructure Junction Points and Common-Use Corridors 44 Private and Public Interface in Infrastructure 45 Standards, Regulations, and Other External Influences 46 Shifts in Design and Management Objectives 46 New Approaches to Siting and Technology Decisions 47 4. Analysis And Decision Tools 49 Systems Models 50 Ex Post Analysis of Planning and Design Methods 51 Demand/Capacity Analysis 51 Faster Integration of New Technology into Design Practice 52 Anticipating Consequences of Catastrophic Events 52 Construction Effects on Lifeline Systems 53 Emergency Infrastructure Operations Procedures 53 5. Information Management 55 Advanced Data Acquisition and Management Methods 56 Remote-Satellite Imagery 56 Improved Use of SCADA 57 Network Analysis Methods 57 Aggregation and Disaggregation Methods 57 Intermodal Interactions 58 Education for Infrastructure Management 58 Using Information Highways 60 Uses of Multi-Media 60 6. Condition Assessment And Monitoring Technology 63 Nondisruptive, Nondestructive, Condition-Monitoring Techniques 64 Structural Assessment 64 Site Characterization 65

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research System-Wide Condition Assessment 67 Environmental Factors and Management of Residuals 68 Chemical Grouting 68 Management of Infrastructure Waste and Residuals 68 7. Science of Materials Performance And Deterioration 73 High-Performance Materials 74 Polymers 74 Geosynthetics 75 Other High-Performance Material Applications 76 Characterization of Damage, Deterioration, and Aging 76 Limit States and Failure Criteria 78 Time-Dependent Deformation and Strength 78 Cost-Effectiveness Assessment 79 8. Construction Equipment and Procedures 81 High-Performance Construction Techniques 81 Improved Information Exchange 81 Off-Site Pre-Fabrication 82 Resource Scheduling 82 Construction Waste Disposal 83 Dredge Spoil 83 Characterization and Treatment of Contaminated Sites 84 Dry Construction Waste 84 Underground Construction 85 Automated Tunneling 85 Trenchless Technology 86 Hazards Mitigation 87 Construction Effects on Adjacent Facilities 87 Construction Safety 88 Rehabilitation and Retrofit 88 System Isolation 89 Access to Degraded Segments 90 Decommissioning 90 Temporary Facilities 91 Network Devolution 91 Procurement and Management Practices 92 Contracting Practices 92 Project Management Tools 93

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research 9. Technology Management 95 Achieving High Performance 96 Defining and Measuring Performance 96 Incorporating Externalities 97 Emergency Procedures 97 Technology Adaptation to Infrastructure 98 Technology Compatibility Assessment 99 Analysis of Technology Markets 99 Institutional Obstacles to Innovation 100 Criteria and Standards 100 Impact of Procurement Methods 102 Performance/Cost Trade-Offs Under Uncertainty 102 Research-to-Innovation Process 102 10. Research Leading To Infrastructure Improvement 105   References 111   Acronyms 114   Appendices   A. Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff 115 B. Prospectus 119 C. Workshop Participants 124 D. Methodology Employed in the Study 126 E. Specific Technologies 128 List of Tables Table 1 Infrastructure Research Niches and Suggested Topic Areas 6 Table 2 Estimated Infrastructure Research Spending in the United States, 1992 24 Table 3 International Comparison of Infrastructure Research Spending 24 Table 4 Selected Research Organizations Associated with Professional and Trade Associations 27 Table 5 CIS Program Elements Recommended by the NSF Task Group 32

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research List of Illustrations   ''Infrastructure Blues,'' xiv   Failure of Schoharie Creek Bridge, New York 8   Gateway Center, Union Station, Los Angeles 20   Battery Park City, Lower Manhattan, New York 31   Reconstruction of Croton Lake Gatehouse, New York 36   Morton Street Vent Shaft, Manhattan, New York 48   Computer Simulation of Emergency Water Supply 54   The Fire Alarm Telegraph 59   Bridge Inspection Data Processing 62   New Materials for Aging Infrastructure 72   Pipelines Crossing Transportation Arteries 77   Jacked Sewer Pipe on Staten Island, New York 80   Cable Railway Construction, New York, 1891 94   Testing to Failure 98   New Materials, New Forms 101   Infrastructure in the Lab 104

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Toward Infrastructure Improvement: An Agenda for Research "Infrastructure Blues" Replacing a 48" water main along Hudson Street in Greenwich Village, Manhattan, created havoc with the neighborhood. Begun in January 1992, to be completed in June 1994, it was halted periodically by rejection of the new pipe, teamster strikes, conflicting utilities, threat of contractor default, and holiday shutdowns and may be completed before June 1995. Developments in trenchless technology—for installation, renovation, and replacement of underground utility systems without open cut construction—has been rapid and extensive. The benefits of this technology in urban applications include reduced disruption of street traffic and adjacent businesses, longer service life of street pavement, improved safely far construction personnel, and ground movement and vibration hazards to nearby structures. (Photo courtesy of The New York Times)