Index

A

Acceptable use policy (AUP), 159-60, 282

Access circuits

bearer service (ODN) and, 88

bidirectionality as critical factor, 86-87, 89

cost considerations, 179, 187

definition, 284

network sharing and, 181

recommendation regarding, 91

research needed, 98-99

Access costs, 186-88, 201n

Access links. See Access circuits; Last-mile connections.

Accessibility issues

balancing conflicting needs, 150, 152-53, 166n

bandwidth requirements, 65-67, 151

basic services, 151

censorship, 158-60

controlling access, 156-58, 169n

cost reductions, 37

costs as key factor, 123, 132, 142

costs of infrastructure, 176-83

education (K-12), 132

equity of access, 149-53

government-generated information, 154-56, 168n

international concerns, 272-77

Internet as access model, 30-31

libraries, 137-40

navigation and filtering tools, 99-100

network access points (NAPs), 28

payment and pricing, 152-53, 167n, 183-98

privacy concerns, 156-58

research community concerns, 118

residential service, 152, 180-81, 200n

satellite dishes, 273

telephone service as pricing model, 37

telephone service example, 149-50

types of access, 40

ubiquity of access, 152, 167n

user charges, 8-10

Accounting. See Financial issues.

Acronyms identified, 282-85

Addresses for Internet sites, 75, 246-47, 250

Addressing and naming issues, 74-76, 94-95

Administration support, 206

goals articulating, 32, 33

limited technical scope of, 13

Applications level (ODN), 5, 49

access circuit bidirectionality and, 87



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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond Index A Acceptable use policy (AUP), 159-60, 282 Access circuits bearer service (ODN) and, 88 bidirectionality as critical factor, 86-87, 89 cost considerations, 179, 187 definition, 284 network sharing and, 181 recommendation regarding, 91 research needed, 98-99 Access costs, 186-88, 201n Access links. See Access circuits; Last-mile connections. Accessibility issues balancing conflicting needs, 150, 152-53, 166n bandwidth requirements, 65-67, 151 basic services, 151 censorship, 158-60 controlling access, 156-58, 169n cost reductions, 37 costs as key factor, 123, 132, 142 costs of infrastructure, 176-83 education (K-12), 132 equity of access, 149-53 government-generated information, 154-56, 168n international concerns, 272-77 Internet as access model, 30-31 libraries, 137-40 navigation and filtering tools, 99-100 network access points (NAPs), 28 payment and pricing, 152-53, 167n, 183-98 privacy concerns, 156-58 research community concerns, 118 residential service, 152, 180-81, 200n satellite dishes, 273 telephone service as pricing model, 37 telephone service example, 149-50 types of access, 40 ubiquity of access, 152, 167n user charges, 8-10 Accounting. See Financial issues. Acronyms identified, 282-85 Addresses for Internet sites, 75, 246-47, 250 Addressing and naming issues, 74-76, 94-95 Administration support, 206 goals articulating, 32, 33 limited technical scope of, 13 Applications level (ODN), 5, 49 access circuit bidirectionality and, 87

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond basic services, 59-63 diagram, 53 information access services, 61-63 interconnection via, 246 research and development needs, 103-5 Archie (file access service), 61 Architecture of networks. See Open Data Network (ODN) architecture. Archives as information providers, 143n ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), 103, 104, 109n, 111n, 216, 237-39 ARPANET development, 237-39 Arts and humanities research, 114, 118-19, 144n Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) systems, 12, 221 B-ISDN vs, 58 bearer service (ODN) and, 56-58, 108nn definition, 282 federal policy and, 221, 223, 232n standards-setting groups, 73 ATM systems, See Asynchronous transfer mode systems. Audio servers, 60 AUP (acceptable use policy), 159-60, 282 B B-ISDN (broadband integrated services digital network), 56-58, 108nn, 282 Backbone network services. See NSFNET; T3 network service; vBNS. Bandwidth accessibility requirements and, 151 allocation of, 65-67, 108 data path symmetry, 87, 110n definition, 282 education (K-12) requirements, 126 limitation as network measure, 52 modem limitations, 37 reserved bandwidth service, 66-67, 108n research requirements, 117-18 BARRnet regional network, 266 map, 24 Bearer service level (ODN), 5, 47-48 ATM and, 56-58, 108nn access circuits bidirectionality, 86-87, 89, 110nn centrality of, 51-52, 93-94 characteristics of, 52-55 diagram, 53 integration options, 88-89 quality of service, 65-67, 93, 95 research needs, 93-95 Best-effort service, 65-66, 179, 181, 189-91 BESTNET (educational consortium), 120 Bidirectional communications paths, 86-87, 89, 110nn Bilateral issues. See International issues. BITNET, 238, 269 Branscomb report (network access concerns), 119, 144n Browsing network resources, 60-63, 99-100 Business issues. See Commercialization issues. C Cable television (CATV) issues access circuits bidirectionality, 86-87, 89 cable links, 19 high-definition TV (HDTV), 41-42n, 85 interactive possibilities, 31 pricing of services, 182, 200n standards, 85-86, 110n technology upgrades, 37 video services delivery, 88-89 California as networking leader, 121, 266

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond CalREN educational network (proposed), 266 CATV. See Cable television issues. CCIRN (Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networks), 270 Censorship issues, 156-60 Centralization issues Internet administration, 247-49 user support services, 262-64 CERFnet regional network, 266 map, 24 CICnet regional network libraries and, 135 map, 24 CISE (Computer and Information Science and Engineering) Directorate, 283 CIX (Commercial Internet Exchange), 222, 249 Clinton-Gore administration's role, 32, 33, 205-6 Closed networks international concerns, 277-79 open networks and, 4, 44, 47 security of, 45 CoCom (Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls), 278 Code of Fair Information Practices (updates), 254, 258-61 Collaborative computing, 115 Collaborative work via networks education, 125-26 sciences, 115-16, 118 Collaboratory, 115-16 Commerce Department and networks, 210, 280 Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX), 222, 249 Commercialization issues. See also Financial issues; Payment and pricing issues; Publishing industry issues. access circuits bidirectionality, 86-87 access restrictions, 119 administration views, 33 censorship, 158-60 costs and scalability, 180-81, 200n customer support services, 263-64 funding partnerships, 174-75 government-generated information, 154-56, 168n intellectual property protection, 160-65, 170nn interconnection services, 176 Internet oversight, 221-23 last-mile considerations, 36-38, 45, 180-81 needs of markets vs communities, 150, 152-53, 166n NSFNET, 242 open system support, 90-91 payment for services and access, 152-53, 167n privacy concerns, 156-58, 169n public vs private interests, 90-91, 211-13, 232n residential connections, 36-38, 45, 180-81 royalties protection, 163, 164 service availability, 150 standards setting, 6, 218-20, 71-72 Communications infrastructure. See Information infrastructure; Networks; NII. Compliance issues, 6, 67-70 Computer networks. See Internet; Networks; NII. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) principles, 257 Confidentiality issues. See Privacy issues; Security issues. Congestion problems, 96-97, 189-90, 201n Connectivity issues access circuits, 86-89 administration's goals, 32, 33 circuits (links) in networks, 19 connectivity levels, 245 costs as key factor, 123, 132, 142 costs of infrastructure, 176-83 entertainment industry influences, 31-32

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond international concerns, 272-77 Internet access, 245-49 Internet connectivity, 30 last-mile connections, 36-38, 180-81, 284-85 links (circuits) in networks, 19 payment and pricing, 183-98 proposals, 28-30 residential service, 180-81, 200n satellite links, 273, 280-81n standards setting, 71-72 telephone link limitations, 36-37 Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), 278 Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networks (CCIRN), 270 Copyright protection, 161, 162-63 copyright management (academic), 164 open issues, 100 technological means, 104-5 CoRen (Corporation for Regional and Enterprise Networking), 267 Cost recovery issues. See Financial issues; Payment and pricing issues; User charges. CSNET, 238, 269 CSUnet, 266 Customer support services, 263-64 D DARPA. See ARPA. DARTnet (ARPA), 241 Data integrity, 80, 81-83, 161 Data path symmetry, 87, 110n Database browsing services, 60, 61-63 Database sharing in education, 121 Decentralization issues, 45 Internet experience, 247-51 network control functions, 96 routing, 94 security concerns, 101-2 user support services, 262-64 DECnet networks, 238 Defense Department (DOD) and networks, 72, 238, 109n. See also ARPA; ARPANET. Department of … See Commerce …; Defense …; Education …; Energy Department and networks. Digital communications infrastructure. See Information infrastructure; Networks; NII. Digital libraries, 132, 136-40, 145-46n research on, 104, 111n Digital object storage services, 60 Distribution issues (international concerns), 274-76 DOD. See Defense Department and networks. DOE networks. See Energy Department and networks. E Economic issues. See Federal funding issues; Financial issues. Education Department (ED) and networks Internet support, 242 leadership role in K-12 issues, 15, 209-10 Title II-D program, 242 Education issues (higher education), 119-22 copyright management, 164 California networking examples, 121, 266 database sharing, 119, 144n financial considerations, 7-10 instructional concerns, 119, 144n library projects, 141 network usage examples, 120-21 privacy requirements, 157 Education issues (K-12), 122-32 censorship, 158-60 commercial support, 173 costs and scalability, 180-81, 200n costs as key factor, 123, 142-43, 173 equity in financing, 196-97

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond equity of access, 149-53 federal leadership required, 11-12, 15 federal policy role, 131-32, 209-10 financial considerations, 7-10 HPCC assistance, 242 infrastructure deficiencies, 122-24 Internet access improvements, 242 learning resources, 126 network usage examples, 125, 127-30 personnel training deficiencies, 124 privacy requirements, 157 teachers' concerns. 124-25, 127-30 Education issues (lifelong education), 133, 258 Electronic archiving, 114, 141 Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) principles, 256 Electronic mail. See E-mail. Electronic money, 55, 58 Electronic publishing. See Publishing issues. E-mail as applications-level service, 59 educational (K-12) uses, 127-30 Internet and, 243 research uses, 114, 118 Encryption issues, 82-83, 101 Energy Department (DOE) and networks, 116, 231-32n, 238 Entertainment industry issues financing of NII by, 31 size of customer base, 31 Equity of access, 149-53 ESnet (DOE network), 283 Ethical issues, 165-66. See also Accessibility issues; Legal issues. balancing conflicting needs, 150, 152-53, 166n intellectual property protection, 160-65, 170nn policy guidelines, 166 principles of information usage, 254-61 privacy concerns, 156-58, 169n Exchange points on Internet (FIXes, CIX), 249 Export controls and international networks, 277-79 F Fair information practices, 258-61 Fairness issues, 258. See also Accessibility issues; Connectivity issues; Social issues. Fax services, 59 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 231n Federal funding issues, 172-76 basis for federal support, 9 Internet support as model, 23 limitations inherent in, 10-11, 227 recommendation for, 14-15 Federal Internet Exchanges (FIXes), 249 Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP), 215 Federal Networking Council (FNC), 230n, 251, 278 Federal policy issues, 204-33 acceptable use policy, 159-60 access circuit bidirectionality, 89-90 access circuits reengineering, 86-91 administration goals and roles, 33, 205-6 agencies involved in, 280 coordination and management role, 213-16 education (K-12) concerns, 131-32, 209-10 export controls, 277-79 government-generated information, 154-56, 168n infrastructure deployment, 14, 223-26 infrastructure development, 91-102, 207-8, 217-28 international concerns, 277-79 Internet coordination, 250-51 Internet oversight, 221-23 Internet support as model, 23 leadership roles, 10-11, 18, 205-10, 216-17

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond libraries, 135 lobbying concerns, 212, 230n ODN as technical framework, 13, 214-15, 217 OSI support, 219 procurement role, 220-21 public vs private interests, 90-91, 211-13, 233n recommendations, 13-16, 210, 216 research and development, 91-105, 207, 217-21, 223-28 roles defined, 205 standards, 70-74, 218-20 technical scope, limitations, 13, 214-15, 217 technology role, 207, 217-28 Fiber-optic links compliance issues, 69 federal support of, 12 international connectivity, 273-74 Internet and, 249 networks changed by, 19-20 synchronous optical network (SONET), 284 Fidonet and international networking, 271 File transfer protocol (FTP) upgrades, 61 Financial issues, 172-202 access links, 181 access circuits, 87, 181 connectivity, 176-83, 199n cost reduction and new technology, 37 costs as key factor, 142-43 costs of access, 152, 167n costs of infrastructure, 176-83, 199n database sharing, 121 education (K-12) concerns, 132 entertainment industry role, 31-32 export controls, 277-79 federal funding, 9-11, 14-15, 23, 172-76, 227 fixed costs, 177-78 funding partnerships, 174-75 geographical cost differences, 180-81 interconnect charges, 183 international concerns, 271-72, 276 last-mile connections, 36-38, 181 link technology and pricing, 37 payment and pricing, 183-99. See also Payment and pricing issues. public financing needed, 9 resource sharing, 178-79, 181 scalability, 180-81, 200n subsidies, 186, 193-95 transitional financing, 186 ubiquity of access, 152, 167n user charges, 8-10 Financial transaction services, 60 FIRP (Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel), 215 First Amendment protections, 156-60 Fixed costs of networks, 177-78 FIXes (Federal Internet Exchanges), 249 Flat-fee pricing, 183, 191-93, 200n FNC (Federal Networking Council), 230n, 251, 278 FTP (file transfer protocol), 283 upgrades, 61 Funding issues. See Financial issues. G Gateways applications-level connections via, 246 in networks (figure), 22 Gigabit network testbeds, 21, 27, 283 Global issues, 269-82. See also International issues. Gopher (information browsing service), 61, 64 Gore, Albert (Vice President), 33, 206 Government issues. See Federal policy issues; Federal funding issues H HDTV (high-definition TV), 41-42n, 85-86 HEPnet, 238

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (PL102-194), 135, 189 High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) initiative education (K-12) and, 122 expansion of, 206, 242, 242 humanities research, 122 IITA as component, 29, 29, 242 NREN program and, 240-41 subcommittee (HPCCIT) for, 14 technical roots of NII, 13 Higher-level network services. See Applications level (ODN) Hospitals and health care issues commercial support, 173 online services potential, 145n privacy requirements, 157 HPCC. See High Performance Computing and Communications initiative Humanities and arts research, 114, 118-19, 144n Hypertext, 30 document definition by, 164-65 information access using, 61-62 I IEPG (Internet Engineering Planning Group), 270 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 219, 270 IITA (Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications) program, 29, 122, 206, 242 IITF (Information Infrastructure Task Force), 206, 213-15, 217 Information infrastructure. See also NII; ODN costs, 177-83 description, 21 federal role, 217-28 networks compared to, 21-22 Information retrieval services, 60, 64, 65 Information retrieval tools, 99-100 Information Superhighway. See National Information Infrastructure (NII) Intellectual property protection, 16-65, 170nn academic publishing, 162-63, 164 commercial publishing, 163-64 copyrights, 161, 163-65 open issues, 100 principles ensuring, 5, 254-61 research needed, 100, 104 testbeds for, 104 Intelsat (satellite transmission provider), 273, 280-81nn Interactive video as instructional tool, 120-21 Interconnection costs, 182-83 International issues, 269-81 connectivity concerns, 272-79 cost issues, 271-72 distribution concerns, 274-76 export controls, 277-79 federal agency roles, 270 fiber-optics connections, 273 networks development, 269-70 ODN characteristics and, 45, 46 research networks, 275-76 satellite connections, 273, 274-75, 280-81nn transmission concerns, 272-74, 276 volunteer networks, 271 International Organization for Standardization. See OSI protocols Internet accessing, 245-49 addresses for, 75, 246-47, 250 administration characteristics, 250-51 censorship issues, 159 commercialization trends, 103 current status, 243 decentralization issues, 247-51 description, 21, 243-49 development of, 22-23, 237-39 diversification of (figure), 26 educational (K-12) uses, 11, 127-30

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond entertainment user base compared, 31 federal policy issues, 218-22 financial considerations, 8-9 funding partnerships, 174-75 growth (figure), 248 higher education usage, 121 interconnections, 249 international aspects of, 247-48, 270 journal distribution via, 163 library access, 137-40 networks constituting, 246-47 NII compared to, 18 NSF expansion of, 23, 238-40 NSFNET as backbone, 21, 27, 239-40 oversight of, 221-23, 250-52 privacy issues, 254 protocols, 276-77. See also IP; TCP research activities via, 113-19 routers, 247 services (figure), 244 technologies comprised by, 246-47 upgrades to backbone service, 21, 27 user charges, 251 value of, 112 Internet Architecture Board (IAB), 250 Internet Assigned Number Authority, 250 Internet Engineering Planning Group (IEPG), 270 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 219, 270 Internet protocols international issues, 276-77 OSI protocols vs, 276-77 Internet Society, 250-51 international role of, 270-80 standards setting, 219 user support via, 263 IP (Internet Protocol). See also TCP; TCP/IP ATM and, 57 bearer service of ODN and, 51-54, 93-94, 107-8nn changes to, 50-51 connectivity and, 245 networks using (figure), 248 service features, 54 ISDN (integrated services digital network). See B-ISDN ISO (International Organization for Standardization). See OSI protocols J JVNCnet regional network (map), 24 L LANs. See Local area networks Last-mile connections. See also Access circuits definition, 285 economics, 36-38 residential services and, 45, 180-81, 200n technology and, 36-37 Legal issues censorship, 158-60 intellectual property protection, 160-65, 170nn liability concerns, 170n libraries, 138 personal information usage, 261 privacy concerns, 156-58, 169n Liability concerns, 170n Library issues, 133-41 accessibility concerns, 137-40 commercial support, 173 costs and scalability, 180-81, 200n costs as key factor, 142-43, 146n digital libraries, 104, 111n, 132, 136-40, 145-46n equity in financing, 196-97 equity of access, 149-53 government-generated information, 154-56 interlibrary loan system, 146n privacy requirements, 157 public library characteristics, 134-37, 146n Local area networks (LANs) description, 19 Internet access via, 245

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond as internetwork element, 22 ODN protocol stack and, 5 LosNettos regional network, 266 M M-bone (multicast backbone), 103, 110n Measuring and monitoring of networks, 77-78, 98 Metropolitan area networks (MANs), 22 MichNet, 122 Microwave links, 19 Middleware level (ODN) services, 5, 49, 55, 58 diagram, 53 research and development needs, 99-102, 103-4 MIDnet regional network, map, 24 Mobile access technology, federal support of, 12 Mobility of computing, 76-77, 97 Modem bandwidth limitations, 37 Monitoring and measuring networks, 77-78, 98 Mosaic hypertext interface, 30, 62, 120, 165 MPEG II (Motion Picture Experts Group) standard, 85 Multicast backbone (virtual network), 103, 110n Multicast capabilities, 95, 97 Multilateral issues. See International issues. Multimedia money spent on, 32 products, 32 teleconferencing, 243 N Naming and addressing issues, 74-76, 94-95 NAPs. See Network access points. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) international research networks, 270-71, 276, 278 networking support, 231-32n, 241 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). See NASA National Information Infrastructure (NII), 1-13. See also separate issues entries: Accessibility, Cable television, Connectivity, Commercialization, Education, Entertainment, Ethical, Federal, International, Library, Publishing, Research, Telephone industry. architecture. See Open Data Network (ODN) architecture. benefits, 36-8 commercial aspects of, 3 compliance issues, 6, 67-70 development, recommendations for, 12-16, 209, 210, 214, 215, 216-17, 222, 225, 227 development scenarios, 32-33 educational (K-12) policy, 209-10 educational (K-12) possibilities, 11-12 entertainment industry vision of, 31-32 federal roles in, 10-16, 204-8 integrated vision of, 34-38 international issues, 7 Internet as basis for, 2-3 Internet compared to, 18 Internet vision of, 30-31 last-mile economies and, 36-38 ODN central to, 2-16, 218-20 openness required for, 3-4 principles for using, 245-61 research requirements, 15-16, 226-28 scalability issues, 74-78 standards issues, 6, 70-74, 218-20 unified NII, need for, 90-91 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 219, 280 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See NOAA National Research and Education

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond Network program. See NREN program. National Science Foundation (NSF). See also NSFNET. CISE Directorate, 283 commercial developments from, 247 digital library research, 104, 111n educational (K-12) support, 118, 122 international network support, 270 Internet expansion by, 23, 238-40 NII, expansion of role in, 216 regional networks study, 266 supercomputer interconnections, 28 National Security Agency (NSA), networking role, 280 Navigation and filtering tools, 99-100 NEARnet regional network (map), 24 Network access points (NAPs), 222, 285 diagram showing, 29 NSFNET expansions and, 28 Network architecture, 4. See also Open Data Network (ODN) architecture. Network Communication Protocol (TCP precursor), 237 Network Information Center (NIC), 262 Network services. See also vBNS. flexibility required of, 45-46 illustration, 34 Networks, 18-19. See also Internet; NII; NSFNET. broadband, 20 costs of infrastructure, 176-83 elements of (figure), 20 federal expansion of, 23 information infrastructure compared to, 21-22 integrated (figure), 34 NII compliance, 6 principles guiding usage, 254-61 research requirements, 15 as shared resources, 178-79, 181 speeds for end users, 21 technology changes in, 26-27, 223-28 transitions under way in, 27 U.S. lead in, 12 user support services, 262-64 Newsgroups on Internet, 30 NIC (Network Information Center), 262 NII, 1-42. See also National Information Infrastructure. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology), 219 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) international research networks, 270-71 network use and support, 117, 241-42 North Carolina, networking in, 265, 268n Northwestnet regional network (map), 24 NREN (National Research and Education Network) program agencies involved in, 230n, 241-42, 241-42 development of, 29, 240-41 education (K-12) focus of, 119 federal funding, 174-75 federal policy and, 204-11, 228n gigabit technology, 27 HPCC initiative and, 240 IITA and, 242 Internet support, 23, 239-42 NII and, 2 NRENAISSANCE Committee, vii-viii members, iii recommendations, 12-16 NSF. See National Science Foundation; NSFNET. NSF Connections program, 119, 122 NSFNET backbone service ARPANET and, 21, 239-40 cooperative agreement, 283 costs of expansion, 199 developments proposed for, 28-30 federal policy and, 221 internationalization via, 270 Internet and, 21, 239-40 map, 24

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond next-generation, 28-30 regional networks and, 239 status 1993 (figure), 24 traffic (1991-1994), 25 usage patterns and charges, 231-32n vBNS and, 240 NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) standard, 35, 284 NYSERnet regional network, 239 map, 24 O ODN. See Open Data Network Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 23, 251 OMB (Office of Management and Budget), 215-251 Open Data Network (ODN), 2-4, 43-47 access circuits, 86-90, 96-97 addressing and naming, 74-76 benefits, 46-47 compliance issues, 67-70 criteria for, 44, 44 deployment issues, 7-10, 14 federal roles in, 10-16 mobility of computing, 76-77, 97 monitoring and measuring, 77-78, 98 network control functions, 96-97 objectives for, 44-46 openness defined, 3-4 organizational objectives, 44-46 quality of service, 65-67, 93, 95 recommendation for, 14 research and development, 91-104 scalability, 45, 74-78 security issues, 45, 78-84, 101-2 software development needs, 102-5 standards, 45, 70-74, 85-86 Open Data Network (ODN) architecture, 47-65 applications level, 5, 49, 59-63, 103-5 bearer service level, 5, 47-48, 51-55, 65-67, 88-89, 93-94 closed architecture vs, 4 diagram of, 53 information vs network service, 5 levels described, 47-51, 53 middleware level, 5, 48, 55, 58, 99-102 privacy protection, 5 routing issues, 94-95 security issues, 5, 78-84 summary, 4-5 transport level, 5, 48-49, 106n Open networks, 43-47. See also Internet; Open Data Network (ODN). architecture, 4, 47-65 closed networks and, 44, 47 commercial support, 90-91 description, 43 export controls and, 277-79 international concerns, 277-79 Internet example, 4, 43-44 openness defined, 3-4 security and, 45 Open Systems Environment (OSE), 277 Open Systems Interconnection protocol. See OSI protocols. OSE (Open Systems Environment), 277 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) protocols definition, 284 federal support, 219 OSE as alternative to, 277 OSTP (Office of Science and Technology Policy), 23, 251 P Packet-level connectivity, 245-46 Payment and pricing issues, 183-98, 201-2nn access costs, 186-88, 201n education concerns, 196-97 equity concerns, 196-97 flat-fee pricing, 183, 191-93, 202n government-generated information, 154-56, 168n interconnect charges, 183

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond link technology and pricing, 37 local infrastructure costs, 186-88, 201n open issues, 100 prices of network expansion, 199n resource and cost matching, 189-90 royalties protection, 163, 164 subsidies, 193-95 times of usage, 189-90 traffic congestion, 183, 189-90 transitional financing, 186 usage-based pricing, 189-91 Personal information, protection of, 258-61. See also Privacy issues. PHONENET, 238 PREPnet regional network (map), 24 Pricing issues. See Financial issues; Payment and pricing issues. Privacy issues, 5, 156-58. See also Security issues. individuals' responsibilities, 169n principles for information usage, 254-61 specific privacy needs, 157 Property rights. See Intellectual property protection. Proprietary network architecture, 4 Protocols, 19. See also OSI; IP; TCP; TCP/IP. PTTs (Postal Telephony and Telegraphy organizations), 272 Public interest networking. See Education issues; Hospital and health care issues; Library issues; Research issues. Public library issues. See Library issues. Publishing issues archiving electronically, 114 censorship, 158-60 challenges of networks, 53-54, 61-62, 153-54, 167-68n copyright management, 164 copyright protection, 100, 104, 161, 162-63 copyright protection technology, 104-5 digital libraries, 136-40 document definition control, 164-65 educational publishing concerns, 126 electronic distribution, 141, 153, 168n electronic text experiments, 141 filtering and navigating online information, 99-100 hypertext, 30, 61-62, 164-65 information overload management, 99-100 information retrieval services, 61-63 intellectual property protection, 100, 104, 160-65, 170nn libraries, 138-39, 146n multimedia formatting needs, 105 navigating and filtering online information, 99-100 needs of markets vs communities, 150, 152-53, 166n on-line projects, 141 open marketplace of ideas of WWW, 61-66 royalties protection, 100, 163, 164 technological changes, 153-54, 167-68n user interface requirements, 99-100 Q Quality of service issues, 65-67, 93, 95 R Radio links, 19 Red Sage project (on-line journals), 163 Regional networks, 266-68 map, 24 NSF Connections program and, 238 usage types, 266 Remote access services, 59-60 Research and development for NII and ODN needs, 91-104, 110n, 223-228 Research community issues, 113-19.

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond See also Science and technology research issues. access concerns, 119 arts and humanities, 118-19 collaborative computing, 115-16 costs and scalability, 180-81, 200n costs as key factor, 142-43 equity in financing, 196-97 equity of access, 149-53 financial considerations, 7 humanities and arts, 118-19 international concerns, 275-76 Internet influenced by, 238-41 networking applications, 114 networks' influence on research, 9 privacy requirements, 157 scientific research, 113-18 Research issues. See Research community issues; Science and technology research issues. Reserved bandwidth service, 65-67, 108n Residential services connections, 180-81, 200n. See also Last-mile connections. Routers, 19, 247 Routing network traffic, 94-95, 110n S Satellite links international connectivity, 273, 280-81n Scalability of ODN, 45-74-78 Scholarship issues. See Education issues (higher education); Publishing issues; Research community issues. Schools and NII. See Education issues. Science and technology research issues, 113-19 accessibility, 119 biomedical, 114-15 earth sciences, 113-14, 117, 241-42, 270-71 interdisciplinary possibilities, 115 Internet development role, 238-41 networks' influence on research, 9 physical sciences, 116, 117-18 space sciences, 241, 270-71, 276, 278 visualization applications, 117 Security issues, 78-84 closed systems, 45 data integrity, 80, 81-83 encryption, 82-83, 101 information security, 80, 81-83, 258-61 international concerns, 277-79 open systems, 45 principles guiding, 5, 254-61 research needs, 101-2 technological limits, 84 user controls, 83 user security, 254-61 wireless transmission, 109n Sesquinet regional network, 239 map, 24 Social issues. See also Accessibility issues; Education issues; Ethical issues; Legal issues. administration goals, 32, 33 balancing conflicting needs, 150, 152-53, 166n educational concerns, 119-33 federal policy and social needs, 214 lifelong education, 133 newsgroups, 30 public vs private interests, 90-91, 211-13, 232n Software development research needs, 102-5 SONET (synchronous optical network) standard, 223, 232n, 284 SPAN (NASA network), 238 Standards issues, 70-74 connectivity and, 71-72 consumer-oriented standards, 220, 231n federal policy regarding, 218-20 international concerns, 276-77 NII compliance, 6-7, 67-70 OSI protocols, 70, 109n, 219, 276-77 risks to, 71-72 TCP/IP, 109n

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond State networks, 266-68 Subscriber loop (last-mile connection, telephones), 285 Subsidies for user charges, 193-95 SURAnet regional network, 239 map, 24 Switching technology, analog vs digital, 35 Symmetry of data paths, 87, 110n Synchronous optical network (SONET) standard, 284 T T1 network service (1.5 Mbps), 21, 27, 286. T3 network service (45 Mbps) definition, 286 map, 24 upgrade costs, 199 upgrade from T1, 21, 27, 239 TCP (Transport Control Protocol) early development, 241 multicast limitations, 96 ODN transport level and, 5, 51 TCP/IP protocols, 109n. See also IP; TCP. Teachers (K-12) and networks, 124-30 Telecommunications infrastructure. See Information infrastructure; National Information Infrastructure (NII); Networks. Telecommunications Policy Roundtable principles, 255 Teleconferencing home education possibilities, 133 multimedia, 243 Telephone industry issues access circuits bidirectionality, 86-87, 89 community access support, 173, 198n equity of access, 149-50, 166n lobbying efforts, 230n PHONENET, 238 technology upgrades, 37 video possibilities, 31 Television (cable). See Cable television issues. Television issues (broadcast) high-definition TV (HDTV), 41-42n NTSC, 35, 284 transmission standard's limitations, 35 Testbeds for network technology, 21, 27 convergence of TV with data, 85-86 Toward a National Research Network (1988), vii, 27 Traffic congestion problems, 189-90, 201n Transmission issues international concerns, 272-74, 276 Internet vs TV broadcasting, 35-36 satellites, 273 TV broadcasting standards (NTSC), 35 wireless, 108n, 109n Transport level (ODN), 5, 48-49, 106nn, diagram, 53 limitations to, 96 protocol requirements, 96, 107-8nn, TWBnet (ARPA), 241 U UCNET, 266 Universal service expectation, 149-50, 166n UNIX systems, 242, 245 Usage-based pricing, 183, 189-91 User addressing issues, 74-76, 94-95 User authentication, 83 User charges, 8-10. See also Payment and pricing issues. free information providers and, 143 Internet model, 251 libraries and, 136 sources of, 251 subsidies for, 193-95 User interface requirements, 99-100 User naming issues, 74-76, 262-63

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Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond User privacy protection. See Privacy issues. User support services, 262-64 UUCP, 271 V vBNS (very high speed backbone network service) access possibilities, 28 definition, 286 federal policy and, 221 upgrades, 21, 27, 240 Video (interactive), 63, 120-21 Video services delivery, 63, 88-89 Videoconferencing, 145n Virtual network (multicast backbone), 103, 110n Volunteer networks (Fidonet), 271 VSATs (small satellite dishes), 273 W WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers), 62-63 Westnet regional network, 239 map, 24 White-pages user search services, 262 Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS), 62-63 Wide area networks (WANs) description, 19 as internetwork element, 22 ODN protocol stack and, 5 Wireless technology compliance issues, 69 federal support of, 12 limits of, 108n security problems (radio), 109n WWW (World-Wide Web), 61-63, 64 X X.25 protocol, 265, 275, 285