weeks. The questionnaire is simple to complete (about 10 minutes). Both concurrent and discriminant validity have been shown to be good.

Body Parts Satisfaction Scale This scale, which assesses satisfaction with the body, consists of 24 items on body parts as well as an overall appearance item (Berscheid et al., 1973). The items are rated on a 6-point Likert scale from "extremely dissatisfied" to "extremely satisfied." The reliability alpha coefficient has been reported as 0.89 (Noles et al., 1985).

Behavioral Factors in Dieting

Disordered eating behavior is sometimes associated with dieting and weight loss. Although no evidence supports an "obese eating style" (O'Neil and Jarrell, 1992), there is increasing evidence to suggest that dieting may increase the incidence of eating disorders, particularly binge eating. First identified by Stunkard (1959), binge eating is characterized by eating a large amount of food in a short period of time, followed by severe discomfort and self-condemnation. Binge eating appears to be prevalent among the obese: estimates among obese individuals seeking treatment range from 23 percent to 82 percent (Loro and Orleans, 1981). We describe seven different measures of disordered eating (Eating Disorders Inventory, Eating Inventory/Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test, Eating Disorder Examination, Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns, and the Stanford Eating Behavior Questionnaire), including one designed specifically to assess binge eating (Binge Eating Scale).

Eating Disorders Inventory The Eating Disorders Inventory (Garner, 1991) is a 64-item self-report test to measure cognitive and behavioral characteristics of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. It consists of eight subscales: Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, Body Dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, Interceptive Awareness, and Maturity Fears. The items are rated on a 6-point scale from "always" to "never," and subscale scores are the total of all item scores for that particular subscale. Reliability coefficients for the subscales range from 0.65 to 0.91, and convergent and discriminant validity are established in subjects with anorexia and bulimia. The validity of the scale in an obese population has not been established, but it may help to identify characteristics associated with binge eating in the obese (Lowe and Caputo, 1991).

Eating Inventory/Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire This self-report questionnaire yields three dimensions of eating behavior: cognitive control



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement