ranged from 0.43 to 0.64. All self-efficacy for eating factors are correlated significantly with reported "heart-healthy" health habits.
Self-Efficacy for Exercise Behaviors Scale The scale consists of 49 items and asks the subject to "please rate how confident you are that you could really motivate yourself to do things like these consistently, for at least six months" (Sallis et al., 1987). Ratings are made on a 5-point Likert scale, with responses ranging from "Sure I could not do it" to "Sure I could do it," with a response option for ''does not apply." The scale has two subscales: Resisting Relapse and Making Time for Exercise. The alpha coefficients for internal consistency on the subscales range from 0.83 to 0.85. Test-retest reliability is 0.68 for both subscales. Both exercise self-efficacy factors are correlated significantly with reported participation in vigorous activity.
Physical Self-Efficacy Scale The Physical Self-Efficacy Scale consists of a 10-item Perceived Physical Ability (PPA) subscale and a 12-item Physical Self-Presentation Confidence (PSPC) subscale (Ryckman et al., 1982). Higher scores on the PPA indicate higher perceived physical ability, and higher scores on the PSPC reflect greater confidence in presentation of physical skills. The scores on the two subscales can be summed into an overall Physical Self-Efficacy (PSE) score. Higher values on the PSE indicate a stronger sense of physical self-efficacy. Reliability alphas are 0.84 for the PPA, 0.74 for the PSPC, and 0.81 for the PSE. Test-retest reliability and convergent, concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity on the PSE and its subscales are good.
Exercise Specific Self-Efficacy Scale This scale assesses perceived capabilities to exercise three times per week in the face of barriers to participation (McAuley, 1992; McAuley and Jacobson, 1991). These barriers were determined through an attributional analysis of reasons for dropping out of exercise. Sample items include the subjects' belief in ability to exercise regularly if they failed to make progress quickly enough, exercise conflicting with other activities such as work, being bored with the exercise activity, and feeling self-conscious about their appearance. The reliability alpha coefficient for the scale is 0.88. The scale helps to identify possible psychological mechanisms influencing the adoption and maintenance of exercise behavior.
Although one early review examining mood changes during weight reduction noted a high incidence of negative emotional responses